Temperate forest

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A temperate forest is a forest found between the oceans and arctic regions in the area of space with the widest seasonal changes, the temperate zone. They fall into one of several main types: deciduous, coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forest and rainforest.


Deciduous forests are composed mainly of broadleaf trees, such as maple and oak, that shed all their leaves during one season. They are typically found in three middle-latitude regions with temperate climates characterized by a winter season and year-round precipitation: eastern North America, western Eurasia and northeastern Asia.[1]


Coniferous forests are composed of needle-leaved evergreen trees, such as pine or fir. Evergreen forests are typically found in regions with moderate climates. Boreal forests, however, are an exception as they are found in subarctic regions.[2]

Broadleaf and mixed[edit]

As the name implies, conifers and broadleaf trees grow in the same area. The main trees found in these forests are the great redwood, oak, ash, maple, birch, beech, poplar, elm, and pine. Hardwood evergreen trees which are widely spaced and are found in the Mediterranean region are olive, cork, oak, and stone pine.

Tannins of tropical woods tend to be of a catechin nature rather than of the gallic type present in temperate woods.[3]

Effect of human activity[edit]

In some areas, the deciduous trees are replaced by coniferous forest. According to "Earth Matters" by David Mayer de Rothschild: "Deciduous forests have been more affected by human activity than any other biome, since they grow in the areas of fertile soil and relatively gentle climate that are most popular for humans to live in. Huge areas, especially in China and Europe, were cut down long ago to make way for cultivation. Most existing deciduous forest is regrown ("secondary forest"), and only tiny fragments of original forest remain."

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "deciduous forest", "Encyclopaedia Britannica", Retrieved on 20 February 2019.
  2. ^ "Temperate forest | ecology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  3. ^ Les tannins dans les bois tropicaux (Tannin in tropical woods), by Jacqueline Doat, Revue bois et forêts des tropiques, 1978, n° 182 (French)