Conversion of scales of temperature

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This is a collection of temperature conversion formulas and comparisons among eight different temperature scales, several of which have long been obsolete.

Temperatures on scales that either do not share a numeric zero or are nonlinearly related cannot correctly be mathematically equated (related using the symbol =), and thus temperatures on different scales are more correctly described as corresponding (related using the symbol ≘).

Celsius scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Celsius to Celsius
Kelvin x °C ≘ (x + 273.15) K x K ≘ (x − 273.15) °C
Fahrenheit x °C ≘ (x × 9/5 + 32) °F x °F ≘ (x − 32) × 5/9 °C
Rankine x °C ≘ (x + 273.15) × 9/5 °R x °R ≘ (x − 491.67) × 5/9 °C

Kelvin scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Kelvin to Kelvin
Celsius x K ≘ (x − 273.15) °C x °C ≘ (x + 273.15) K
Fahrenheit x K ≘ (x × 9/5 − 459.67) °F x °F ≘ (x + 459.67) × 5/9 K
Rankine x K ≘ x × 9/5 °R x °R ≘ x × 5/9 K

Fahrenheit scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Fahrenheit to Fahrenheit
Celsius x °F ≘ (x − 32) × 5/9 °C x °C ≘ (x × 9/5 + 32) °F
Kelvin x °F ≘ (x + 459.67) × 5/9 K x K ≘ (x × 9/5 − 459.67) °F
Rankine x °F ≘ (x + 459.67) °R x °R ≘ (x − 459.67) °F

Rankine scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Rankine to Rankine
Celsius x °R ≘ (x − 491.67) × 5/9 °C x °C ≘ (x + 273.15) × 9/5 °R
Kelvin x °R ≘ x × 5/9 K x K ≘ x × 9/5 °R
Fahrenheit x °R ≘ (x − 459.67) °F x °F ≘ (x + 459.67) °R

Delisle scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Delisle to Delisle
Celsius x °De ≘ (100 − x × 2/3) °C x °C ≘ (100 − x) × 3/2 °De
Kelvin x °De ≘ (373.15 − x × 2/3) K x K ≘ (373.15 − x) × 3/2 °De
Fahrenheit x °De ≘ (212 − x × 6/5) °F x °F ≘ (212 − x) × 5/6 °De
Rankine x °De ≘ (671.67 − x × 6/5) °R x °R ≘ (671.67 − x) × 5/6 °De

Sir Isaac Newton's degree of temperature[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Newton to Newton
Celsius x °N ≘ x × 100/33 °C x °C ≘ x × 33/100 °N
Kelvin x °N ≘ (x × 100/33 + 273.15) K x K ≘ (x − 273.15) × 33/100 °N
Fahrenheit x °N ≘ (x × 60/11 + 32) °F x °F ≘ (x − 32) × 11/60 °N
Rankine x °N ≘ (60/11 x + 491.67) °R x °R ≘ (x − 491.67) × 11/60 °N

Réaumur scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Réaumur to Réaumur
Celsius x °Ré ≘ x × 5/4 °C x °C ≘ x × 4/5 °Ré
Kelvin x °Ré ≘ (x × 5/4 + 273.15) K x K ≘ (x − 273.15) × 4/5 °Ré
Fahrenheit x °Ré ≘ (x × 9/4 + 32) °F x °F ≘ (x − 32) × 4/9 °Ré
Rankine x °Ré ≘ (x × 9/4 + 491.67) °R x °R ≘ (x − 491.67) × 4/9 °Ré

Rømer scale[edit]

Temperature conversions
from Rømer to Rømer
Celsius x °Rø ≘ (x − 7.5) × 40/21 °C x °C ≘ (x × 21/40 + 7.5) °Rø
Kelvin x °Rø ≘ ((x − 7.5) × 40/21 + 273.15) K x K ≘ ((x − 273.15) × 21/40 + 7.5) °Rø
Fahrenheit x °Rø ≘ ((x − 7.5) × 24/7 + 32) °F x °F ≘ ((x − 32) × 7/24 + 7.5) °Rø
Rankine x °Rø ≘ ((x − 7.5) × 24/7 + 491.67) °R x °R ≘ ((x − 491.67) × 7/24 + 7.5) °Rø

Comparison values chart[edit]

Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Rankine Delisle Newton Réaumur Rømer
500.00 932.00 773.15 1391.67 −600.00 165.00 400.00 270.00
490.00 914.00 763.15 1373.67 −585.00 161.70 392.00 264.75
480.00 896.00 753.15 1355.67 −570.00 158.40 384.00 259.50
470.00 878.00 743.15 1337.67 −555.00 155.10 376.00 254.25
460.00 860.00 733.15 1319.67 −540.00 151.80 368.00 249.00
450.00 842.00 723.15 1301.67 −525.00 148.50 360.00 243.75
440.00 824.00 713.15 1283.67 −510.00 145.20 352.00 238.50
430.00 806.00 703.15 1265.67 −495.00 141.90 344.00 233.25
420.00 788.00 693.15 1247.67 −480.00 138.60 336.00 228.00
410.00 770.00 683.15 1229.67 −465.00 135.30 328.00 222.75
400.00 752.00 673.15 1211.67 −450.00 132.00 320.00 217.50
390.00 734.00 663.15 1193.67 −435.00 128.70 312.00 212.25
380.00 716.00 653.15 1175.67 −420.00 125.40 304.00 207.00
370.00 698.00 643.15 1157.67 −405.00 122.10 296.00 201.75
360.00 680.00 633.15 1139.67 −390.00 118.80 288.00 196.50
350.00 662.00 623.15 1121.67 −375.00 115.50 280.00 191.25
340.00 644.00 613.15 1103.67 −360.00 112.20 272.00 186.00
330.00 626.00 603.15 1085.67 −345.00 108.90 264.00 180.75
320.00 608.00 593.15 1067.67 −330.00 105.60 256.00 175.50
310.00 590.00 583.15 1049.67 −315.00 102.30 248.00 170.25
300.00 572.00 573.15 1031.67 −300.00 99.00 240.00 165.00
290.00 554.00 563.15 1013.67 −285.00 95.70 232.00 159.75
280.00 536.00 553.15 995.67 −270.00 92.40 224.00 154.50
270.00 518.00 543.15 977.67 −255.00 89.10 216.00 149.25
260.00 500.00 533.15 959.67 −240.00 85.80 208.00 144.00
250.00 482.00 523.15 941.67 −225.00 82.50 200.00 138.75
240.00 464.00 513.15 923.67 −210.00 79.20 192.00 133.50
230.00 446.00 503.15 905.67 −195.00 75.90 184.00 128.25
220.00 428.00 493.15 887.67 −180.00 72.60 176.00 123.00
210.00 410.00 483.15 869.67 −165.00 69.30 168.00 117.75
200.00 392.00 473.15 851.67 −150.00 66.00 160.00 112.50
190.00 374.00 463.15 833.67 −135.00 62.70 152.00 107.25
180.00 356.00 453.15 815.67 −120.00 59.40 144.00 102.00
170.00 338.00 443.15 797.67 −105.00 56.10 136.00 96.75
160.00 320.00 433.15 779.67 −90.00 52.80 128.00 91.50
150.00 302.00 423.15 761.67 −75.00 49.50 120.00 86.25
140.00 284.00 413.15 743.67 −60.00 46.20 112.00 81.00
130.00 266.00 403.15 725.67 −45.00 42.90 104.00 75.75
120.00 248.00 393.15 707.67 −30.00 39.60 96.00 70.50
110.00 230.00 383.15 689.67 −15.00 36.30 88.00 65.25
100.00 212.00 373.15 671.67 0.00 33.00 80.00 60.00
90.00 194.00 363.15 653.67 15.00 29.70 72.00 54.75
80.00 176.00 353.15 635.67 30.00 26.40 64.00 49.50
70.00 158.00 343.15 617.67 45.00 23.10 56.00 44.25
60.00 140.00 333.15 599.67 60.00 19.80 48.00 39.00
50.00 122.00 323.15 581.67 75.00 16.50 40.00 33.75
40.00 104.00 313.15 563.67 90.00 13.20 32.00 28.50
30.00 86.00 303.15 545.67 105.00 9.90 24.00 23.25
20.00 68.00 293.15 527.67 120.00 6.60 16.00 18.00
10.00 50.00 283.15 509.67 135.00 3.30 8.00 12.75
0.00 32.00 273.15 491.67 150.00 0.00 0.00 7.50
−10.00 14.00 263.15 473.67 165.00 −3.30 −8.00 2.25
-14.26 6.29 258.86 465.96 171.43 -4.71 -11.43 0.00
-17.78 0.00 255.37 459.67 176.67 -5.87 -14.22 -1.83
−20.00 −4.00 253.15 455.67 180.00 −6.60 −16.00 −3.00
−30.00 −22.00 243.15 437.67 195.00 −9.90 −24.00 −8.25
−40.00 −40.00 233.15 419.67 210.00 −13.20 −32.00 −13.50
−50.00 −58.00 223.15 401.67 225.00 −16.50 −40.00 −18.75
−60.00 −76.00 213.15 383.67 240.00 −19.80 −48.00 −24.00
−70.00 −94.00 203.15 365.67 255.00 −23.10 −56.00 −29.25
−80.00 −112.00 193.15 347.67 270.00 −26.40 −64.00 −34.50
−90.00 −130.00 183.15 329.67 285.00 −29.70 −72.00 −39.75
−100.00 −148.00 173.15 311.67 300.00 −33.00 −80.00 −45.00
−110.00 −166.00 163.15 293.67 315.00 −36.30 −88.00 −50.25
−120.00 −184.00 153.15 275.67 330.00 −39.60 −96.00 −55.50
−130.00 −202.00 143.15 257.67 345.00 −42.90 −104.00 −60.75
−140.00 −220.00 133.15 239.67 360.00 −46.20 −112.00 −66.00
−150.00 −238.00 123.15 221.67 375.00 −49.50 −120.00 −71.25
−160.00 −256.00 113.15 203.67 390.00 −52.80 −128.00 −76.50
−170.00 −274.00 103.15 185.67 405.00 −56.10 −136.00 −81.75
−180.00 −292.00 93.15 167.67 420.00 −59.40 −144.00 −87.00
−190.00 −310.00 83.15 149.67 435.00 −62.70 −152.00 −92.25
−200.00 −328.00 73.15 131.67 450.00 −66.00 −160.00 −97.50
−210.00 −346.00 63.15 113.67 465.00 −69.30 −168.00 −102.75
−220.00 −364.00 53.15 95.67 480.00 −72.60 −176.00 −108.00
−230.00 −382.00 43.15 77.67 495.00 −75.90 −184.00 −113.25
−240.00 −400.00 33.15 59.67 510.00 −79.20 −192.00 −118.50
−250.00 −418.00 23.15 41.67 525.00 −82.50 −200.00 −123.75
−260.00 −436.00 13.15 23.67 540.00 −85.80 −208.00 −129.00
−270.00 −454.00 3.15 5.67 555.00 −89.10 −216.00 −134.25
−273.15 −459.67 0.00 0.00 559.725 −90.1395 −218.52 −135.90375
Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Rankine Delisle Newton Réaumur Rømer

Comparison of temperature scales[edit]

Comparison of temperature scales
Comment Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit Rankine Delisle Newton Réaumur Rømer
Absolute zero 0.00 −273.15 −459.67 0.00 559.73 −90.14 −218.52 −135.90
Lowest recorded surface temperature on Earth[1] 184 −89.2[1] −128.6[1] 331 284 −29 −71 −39
Fahrenheit's ice/salt mixture 255.37 −17.78 0.00 459.67 176.67 −5.87 −14.22 −1.83
Ice melts (at standard pressure) 273.15 0.00 32.00 491.67 150.00 0.00 0.00 7.50
Triple point of water 273.16 0.01 32.018 491.688 149.985 0.0033 0.008 7.50525
Average surface temperature on Earth 288 15 59 519 128 5 12 15
Average human body temperature* 310 37 98 558 95 12 29 27
Highest recorded surface temperature on Earth[2] 331 58[2] 136.4[2] 596 63 19 46 38
Water boils (at standard pressure) 373.1339 99.9839 211.97102[3] 671.64102[3] 0.00 33.00 80.00 60.00
Titanium melts 1941 1668 3034 3494 −2352 550 1334 883
The surface of the Sun 5800 5500 9900 10400 −8100 1800 4400 2900

* Normal human body temperature is 36.8 °C ±0.7 °C, or 98.2 °F ±1.3 °F. The commonly given value 98.6 °F is simply the exact conversion of the nineteenth-century German standard of 37 °C. Since it does not list an acceptable range, it could therefore be said to have excess (invalid) precision.[4]

Some numbers in this table have been rounded.

Graphical representation[edit]

0 K / 0 °R (−273.15 °C)0 °F (−17.78 °C)150 °D32 °F7.5 °Rø0 °C / 0 °Ré / 0 °N212 °F100 °C80 °Ré60 °Rø33 °N0 °DFile:Comparison of temperature scales blank.svgComparison of temperature scales blank.svg
Rankine (°R)
Kelvin (K)
Fahrenheit (°F)
Celsius (°C)
Réaumur (°Ré)
Rømer (°Rø)
Newton (°N)
Delisle (°D)
Absolute zero Lowest recorded surface temperature on Earth[1] Fahrenheit's ice/water/salt mixture Melting point of ice (at standard pressure) Average surface temperature on Earth (15 °C) Average human body temperature (37 °C) Highest recorded surface temperature on Earth[2] Boiling point of water (at standard pressure)  

Conversion table between the different temperature units[edit]

Kelvin


Celsius


Fahrenheit


Rankine scale


Rømer scale


Newton scale


Delisle scale


Réaumur scale

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The Coldest Inhabited Places on Earth; researchers of the Vostok Station recorded the coldest known temperature on Earth on July 21st 1983: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).
  2. ^ a b c d "World: Highest Temperature". Arizona State University, School of Geographical Sciences. November 12, 2007. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. an Italian weather station in al 'Aziziyah (Libya) measured a temperature of 58 °C (136.4 °F) on September 13th 1922. "Although this record has gained general acceptance as the world's highest temperature recorded under standard conditions, the validity of the extreme has been questioned."
  3. ^ a b "Comparison of temperature scales". Tampile.
  4. ^ Wong, Lena (1997). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Temperature of a healthy human (body temperature)". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2018-06-07.