Template:Full biological kingdom classification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Linnaeus
1735[1]
Haeckel
1866[2]
Chatton
1925[3][4]
Copeland
1938[5][6]
Whittaker
1969[7]
Woese et al.
1977[8][9]
Woese et al.
1990[10]
Cavalier-Smith
1993[11][12][13]
Cavalier-Smith
1998[14][15][16]
Ruggiero et al.
2015[17]
2 kingdoms 3 kingdoms 2 empires 4 kingdoms 5 kingdoms 6 kingdoms 3 domains 8 kingdoms 6 kingdoms 7 kingdoms
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Bacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protista Protista Protista Eucarya Archezoa Protozoa Protozoa
Protozoa
Chromista Chromista Chromista
Vegetabilia Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae
Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia



  1. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1735). Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species. 
  2. ^ Haeckel, E. (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Reimer, Berlin. 
  3. ^ Chatton, É. (1925). "Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires". Annales des Sciences Naturelles - Zoologie et Biologie Animale. 10-VII: 1–84. 
  4. ^ Chatton, É. (1937). Titres et Travaux Scientifiques (1906–1937). Sette, Sottano, Italy. 
  5. ^ Copeland, H. (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quarterly Review of Biology. 13: 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568. 
  6. ^ Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. p. 6. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.4474. 
  7. ^ Whittaker, R. H. (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science. 163 (3863): 150–60. Bibcode:1969Sci...163..150W. PMID 5762760. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. 
  8. ^ Woese, C. R.; Balch, W. E.; Magrum, L. J.; Fox, G. E.; Wolfe, R. S. (August 1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 9 (4): 305–311. PMID 408502. doi:10.1007/BF01796092. 
  9. ^ Woese, C. R.; Fox, G. E. (November 1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 74 (11): 5088–90. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74.5088W. PMC 432104Freely accessible. PMID 270744. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.11.5088. 
  10. ^ Woese, C.; Kandler, O.; Wheelis, M. (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (12): 4576–9. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4576W. PMC 54159Freely accessible. PMID 2112744. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. 
  11. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). "Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?". Bio Systems. 14 (3–4): 461–481. PMID 7337818. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2. 
  12. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1992). "Origins of secondary metabolism". Ciba Foundation symposium. 171: 64–80; discussion 80–7. PMID 1302186. 
  13. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1993). "Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla". Microbiological reviews. 57 (4): 953–994. PMC 372943Freely accessible. PMID 8302218. 
  14. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998), "A revised six-kingdom system of life", Biological Reviews, 73 (03): 203–66, PMID 9809012, doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x 
  15. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2004), "Only six kingdoms of life" (PDF), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271: 1251–62, PMC 1691724Freely accessible, PMID 15306349, doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2705, retrieved 2010-04-29 
  16. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5. PMC 2880060Freely accessible. PMID 20031978. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. 
  17. ^ Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M.; Thuesen, Erik V. (2015). "A higher level classification of all living organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0119248. PMC 4418965Freely accessible. PMID 25923521. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248.