From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Comparative table of Homo species
Species Temporal range kya Habitat Adult height Adult mass Cranial capacity (cm³) Fossil record Discovery / publication of name
H. habilis
membership in Homo uncertain
2,100 – 1,500[1] East Africa 110-140 cm (4 ft 11 in) 33–55 kg (73–121 lb) 510–660 Many 1960/1964
H. rudolfensis
membership in Homo uncertain
1,900 Kenya 700 2 sites 1972/1986
H. gautengensis
also classified as H. habilis
1,900 – 600 South Africa 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) 3 individuals[2] 2010/2010
H. erectus 1,900 – 140


Africa, Eurasia 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) 60 kg (130 lb) 850 (early) – 1,100 (late) Many[6] 1891/1892
H. ergaster
African H. erectus
1,800 – 1,300[7] East and Southern Africa 700–850 Many 1949/1975
H. antecessor
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
1,200 – 800 Western Europe 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) 90 kg (200 lb) 1,000 2 sites 1994/1997
H. heidelbergensis 600 – 300[8] Europe, Africa 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) 90 kg (200 lb) 1,100–1,400 Many 1907/1908
H. cepranensis
a single fossil, possibly H. erectus
c. 450[9] Italy 1,000 1 skull cap 1994/2003
H. rhodesiensis
also classified as H. heidelbergensis or a subspecies of H. sapiens
c. 300 Zambia 1,300 single or very few 1921/1921
H. naledi
c. 300[10] South Africa 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) 45 kg (99 lb) 450 15 individuals 2013/2015
H. sapiens
(anatomically modern humans)
300[11] – present Worldwide 150 - 190 cm (4 ft 7 in - 6 ft 3 in) 50–100 kg (110–220 lb) 950–1,800 (extant) —/1758
H. neanderthalensis
possibly a subspecies of H. sapiens
240 – 40[12] Europe, Western Asia 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) 55–70 kg (121–154 lb) (heavily built) 1,200–1,900 Many 1829/1864
H. floresiensis
classification uncertain
190 – 50 Indonesia 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) 25 kg (55 lb) 400 7 individuals 2003/2004
H. tsaichangensis
possibly H. erectus
c. 100[13] Taiwan 1 individual 2008(?)/2015
Denisova hominin
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
40 Siberia 1 site 2000/2010[14]
Red Deer Cave people
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
15–12[15] Southwest China Very few 2012/—
  1. ^ Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus. Schrenk, Friedemann; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy (2007). "The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils". In Henke, Winfried; Tattersall, Ian. Handbook of Paleoanthropology. 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.  DiMaggio, Erin N.; Campisano, Christopher J.; Rowan, John; et al. (March 20, 2015). "Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 347 (6228): 1355–1359. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1355D. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739409.  Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
  2. ^ Curnoe, Darren (June 2010). "A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier. 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. ISSN 0018-442X. PMID 20466364.  A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
  3. ^ Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E. L.; McBride, Bunny (2007). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7. H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
  4. ^ Ferring, R.; Oms, O.; Agusti, J.; Berna, F.; Nioradze, M.; Shelia, T.; Tappen, M.; Vekua, A.; Zhvania, D.; Lordkipanidze, D. (2011). "Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (26): 10432. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10810432F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108. PMC 3127884Freely accessible. PMID 21646521.  Homo erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus.
  5. ^ Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago. Indriati E, Swisher CC III, Lepre C, Quinn RL, Suriyanto RA, et al. 2011 The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of Homo erectus in Asia.PLoS ONE 6(6): e21562. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021562.
  6. ^ Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus). H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
  7. ^ Hazarika, Manjil (2007). "Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology" (PDF). EAA Summer School eBook. 1. European Anthropological Association. pp. 35–41. Retrieved 2015-05-04.  "Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic"
  8. ^ The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is conventional, and makes use of the fact that there is no known fossil in this period. Examples of H. heidelbergensis are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
  9. ^ Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Kent, Dennis V.; Swisher, Carl C.; Manzi, Giorgio (2009). "Pleistocene magnetochronology of early hominin sites at Ceprano and Fontana Ranuccio, Italy". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. ScienceDirect. 286: 255–268. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.286..255M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.06.032. Retrieved December 10, 2015. 
  10. ^ Dirks, P.; et al. (9 May 2017). "The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa". eLife. 6: e24231. doi:10.7554/eLife.24231Freely accessible. 
  11. ^ The age of H. sapiens has long been assumed to be close to 200,000 years, but since 2017 there have been a number of suggestions extending this time to has high as 300,000 years. In 2017, fossils found in Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) suggest that Homo sapiens may have speciated by as early as 315,000 years ago. Callaway, Ewan (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly 270,000 years. Posth, Cosimo; et al. (4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature Communications. Bibcode:2017NatCo...816046P. doi:10.1038/ncomms16046. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, Donald D.; Aramburu, Arantza; et al. (March 2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates". Journal of Archaeological Science. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier. 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834. ISSN 0305-4403.  The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis). There is a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 kya, and by convention, fossils younger than 243 kya are called "Neanderthal". D. Dean; J.-J. Hublin; R. Holloway; R. Ziegler (1998). "On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, Germany". Journal of Human Evolution. 34 (5). pp. 485–508. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0214. 
  13. ^ younger than 450 kya, either between 190-130 or between 70-10 kya. Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong (2015). "The first archaic Homo from Taiwan". Nature Communications. 6: 6037. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E6037C. doi:10.1038/ncomms7037. PMC 4316746Freely accessible. PMID 25625212. 
  14. ^ provisional names Homo sp. Altai or Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova.
  15. ^ Bølling-Allerød warming period; Curnoe, D.; et al. (2012). Caramelli, David, ed. "Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China Suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e31918. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...731918C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031918. PMC 3303470Freely accessible. PMID 22431968.