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Comparative table of Homo species
Species Temporal range Mya Habitat Adult height Adult mass Cranial capacity (cm³) Fossil record Discovery / publication of name
H. habilis 2.1 – 1.5[1] Africa 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) 33–55 kg (73–121 lb) 510–660 Many 1960/1964
H. erectus 1.9 – 0.07


Africa, Eurasia (Java, China, India, Caucasus) 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) 60 kg (130 lb) 850 (early) – 1,100 (late) Many[3] 1891/1892
H. rudolfensis
membership in Homo uncertain
1.9 Kenya 700 2 sites 1972/1986
H. gautengensis
also classified as H. habilis
1.9 – 0.6 South Africa 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) 3 individuals[4] 2010/2010
H. ergaster
also classified as H. erectus
1.8 – 1.3[5] Eastern and Southern Africa 700–850 Many 1975
H. antecessor
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
1.2 – 0.8 Spain 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) 90 kg (200 lb) 1,000 2 sites 1997
H. cepranensis
a single fossil, possibly H. erectus
0.9 – 0.35 Italy 1,000 1 skull cap 1994/2003
H. heidelbergensis 0.6 – 0.35[6] Europe, Africa, China 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) 90 kg (200 lb) 1,100–1,400 Many 1908
H. neanderthalensis
possibly a subspecies of H. sapiens
0.35 – 0.04[7] Europe, Western Asia 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) 55–70 kg (121–154 lb) (heavily built) 1,200–1,900 Many (1829)/1864
H. naledi
2.5 South Africa 150 centimetres (4 ft 11 in) tall 45 kilograms (99 lb) 450 15 individuals 2013/2015
H. tsaichangensis
possibly H. erectus
0.19 – 0.01[8] Taiwan 1 individual pre-2008/2015
H. rhodesiensis
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
0.3 – 0.12 Zambia 1,300 Very few 1921
H. sapiens
(modern humans)

 – present

Worldwide 150 - 190 cm (4 ft 7 in - 6 ft 3 in) 50–100 kg (110–220 lb) 950–1,800 (extant) —/1758
H. floresiensis
classification uncertain
0.10 – 0.012 Indonesia 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) 25 kg (55 lb) 400 7 individuals 2003/2004
Denisova hominin
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
0.04 Russia 1 site 2010
Red Deer Cave people
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
0.0145–0.0115 China Very few 2012
  1. ^ Schrenk, Friedemann; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy (2007). "The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils". In Henke, Winfried; Tattersall, Ian. Handbook of Paleoanthropology 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.  Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus. Wilford, John Noble (August 9, 2007). "Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
    • DiMaggio, Erin N.; Campisano, Christopher J.; Rowan, John; et al. (March 20, 2015). "Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 347 (6228): 1355–1359. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739409.  Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
  2. ^ Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E. L.; McBride, Bunny (2007). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7. H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
  3. ^ Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus). H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
  4. ^ Curnoe, Darren (June 2010). "A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier) 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. ISSN 0018-442X. PMID 20466364.  A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
  5. ^ Hazarika, Manjil (2007). "Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology" (PDF). EAA Summer School eBook 1. European Anthropological Association. pp. 35–41. Retrieved 2015-05-04.  "Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic"
  6. ^ The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis at about 0.35 to 0.25 million years ago is largely conventional. Relevant examples are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
  7. ^ Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, Donald D.; Aramburu, Arantza; et al. (March 2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates". Journal of Archaeological Science (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier) 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834. ISSN 0305-4403.  The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis), with the first "true Neanderthals" appearing between 0.25 and 0.2 million years ago.
  8. ^ Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.; Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong (2015). "The first archaic Homo from Taiwan". Nature Communications 6: 6037. doi:10.1038/ncomms7037. 
  9. ^ "Fossil Reanalysis Pushes Back Origin of Homo sapiens". Scientific American (Stuttgart: Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group). February 17, 2005. ISSN 0036-8733. Retrieved 2015-05-04.  The oldest fossil remains of anatomically modern humans are the Omo remains, which date to 195,000 (±5,000) years ago and include two partial skulls as well as arm, leg, foot and pelvis bones.