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|Habitat||Adult height||Adult mass||Cranial capacity
membership in Homo uncertain
|2,100–1,500[a][b]||Tanzania||110–140 cm (3 ft 7 in – 4 ft 7 in)||33–55 kg (73–121 lb)||510–660||Many||1960||1964|
membership in Homo uncertain
also classified as H. habilis
|1,900–600||South Africa||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||3 individuals[c]||2010||2010|
|H. erectus||1,900–140[d][e]||Africa, Eurasia||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||60 kg (130 lb)||850 (early) – 1,100 (late)||Many[f][g]||1891||1892|
African H. erectus
|1,800–1,300||East and Southern Africa||700–850||Many||1949||1975|
|H. antecessor||1,200–800||Western Europe||175 cm (5 ft 9 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,000||2 sites||1994||1997|
early H. neanderthalensis
|600–300[h]||Europe, Africa||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,100–1,400||Many||1907||1908|
a single fossil, possibly H. heidelbergensis
|c. 450||Italy||1,000||1 skull cap||1994||2003|
|H. longi||309–138||Northeast China||1,420||1 individual||1933||2021|
early H. sapiens
|c. 300||Zambia||1,300||Single or very few||1921||1921|
|H. naledi||c. 300||South Africa||150 cm (4 ft 11 in)||45 kg (99 lb)||450||15 individuals||2013||2015|
(anatomically modern humans)
|c. 300–present[i]||Worldwide||150–190 cm (4 ft 11 in – 6 ft 3 in)||50–100 kg (110–220 lb)||950–1,800||(extant)||——||1758|
||240–40[j]||Europe, Western Asia||170 cm (5 ft 7 in)||55–70 kg (121–154 lb)
|190–50||Indonesia||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||25 kg (55 lb)||400||7 individuals||2003||2004|
|Nesher Ramla Homo
possibly H. erectus or Denisova
|c. 100[k]||Taiwan||1 individual||2008(?)||2015|
||c. 67||Philippines||3 individuals||2007||2019|
|Denisova hominin||40||Siberia||2 sites||2000
|Red Deer Cave people
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
|15–12[m]||Southwest China||Very few|
- Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus.
- Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
- A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
- H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
- Homo erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus. Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago. 
- Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus).
- H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
- The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is conventional, and makes use of the fact that there is no known fossil in this period. Examples of H. heidelbergensis are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
- The age of H. sapiens has long been assumed to be close to 200,000 years, but since 2017 there have been a number of suggestions extending this time to as high as 300,000 years. In 2017, fossils found in Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) suggest that Homo sapiens may have speciated by as early as 315,000 years ago. Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly 270,000 years.
- The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis). There is a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 kya, and by convention, fossils younger than 243 kya are called "Neanderthal".
- younger than 450 kya, either between 190–130 or between 70–10 kya
- provisional names Homo sp. Altai or Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova.
- Bølling–Allerød warming period
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Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic
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