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Template:Infobox planet

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This template has been designed for the presentation of information on non-stellar astronomical bodies: planets (including extrasolar planets), dwarf planets, moons and minor planets. Some parameters will not be applicable to individual types; these may be omitted without any problems to the template's function.

Usage notes

  • This template expects that the <references /> tag will be present in articles setting the minorplanet parameter to yes[clarify]. Pages without a <references /> tag will show Cite error: There are <ref> tags on this page for a group named "note", but the references will not show without a <ref group="note"> tag; see Help:Cite errors. at the bottom of the page.
  • When parameters relating to minor planets are used (e.g. mpc_name), several subheadings and wikilinks within the template are made specific to minor planets. For standard formulas for computable values and sources of physical data, see Template talk:Infobox Nonstellar body#Computed values and Standard asteroid physical characteristics.
  • The proper orbital element "Proper orbital period" (in Julian years and days) is calculated within the template from proper mean motion and so does not require a parameter.
  • For bodies orbiting bodies other than the Sun, include the parameter |apsis= (appropriate suffix). This will replace various parameters' default "-helion" suffix to the suffix set by the |apsis= parameter. For example, setting |apsis= astron converts the labels "perihelion", "aphelion" and "Argument of perihelion" into "periastron", "apastron" and "Argument of periastron" respectively.

Recommended parameters

Planets and exoplanets

See § All parameters for a complete listing.

name
image_alt
caption
Discovery
Discovered by discoverer
Discovery site discovery_site
Discovery date discovered
discovery_method
Designations
alt_names
Orbital characteristics
semimajor
Eccentricity eccentricity
period
avg_speed
Inclination inclination
angular_dist
long_periastron
time_periastron
Semi-amplitude semi-amplitude
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
mean_radius
surface_area
Volume volume
Mass mass
Mean density
density
surface_grav
moment_of_inertia_factor
escape_velocity
Albedo albedo
Temperature single_temperature
{{Infobox planet
| extrasolarplanet   = yes
| name               = <!-- Displays on top of infobox-->
| image              = <!-- Use bare filename: Example.jpg -->
| image_size         = <!-- Overrides image size default of 225px -->
| image_alt          = 
| caption            = 
| apsis              = astron
| discovery_ref      = <!-- <ref>...</ref>-->
| discoverer         = 
| discovery_site     = 
| discovered         = <!--(Date)-->
| discovery_method   = 
| alt_names          = <!--(Any alternative names for the body)-->
| periastron         = 
| apoastron          = 
| semimajor          = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = <!--(Orbital period)-->
| inclination        = 
| angular_dist       = 
| long_periastron    = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron    = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| semi-amplitude     = 
| mean_radius        = <!--(For planets & large, spheroidal minor planets)-->
| surface_area       = 
| volume             = 
| density            = 
| mass               = 
| surface_grav       = <!--Equatorial surface gravity-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = 
| escape_velocity    = 
| albedo             = 
| single_temperature = 
}}

Minor planets

See § All parameters for a complete listing.

name symbol
image_alt
caption
Discovery[1]
Discovered by discoverer
Discovery site discovery site
Discovery date discovered
Designations
MPC designation mpc_name
alt_names
mp_category
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch epoch
Uncertainty parameter uncertainty
Observation arc observation arc length
Aphelion aphelion
Perihelion perihelion
semimajor
Eccentricity eccentricity
period
avg_speed
mean_anomaly
mean_motion
Inclination inclination
asc_node
arg_peri
Known satellites satellites
Earth MOID earth moid
Mercury MOID (see All parameters)
Proper orbital elements[3]
p_semi_major AU
p_eccentricity
p_inclination
360 deg / yr
1 yr
(365.25 d)
Precession of perihelion
perihelion_rate arcsec / yr
Precession of the ascending node
node_rate arcsec / yr
Physical characteristics[4]
Dimensions dimensions
Mass mass
Mean density
density
Equatorial surface gravity
surface_grav
moment_of_inertia_factor
Equatorial escape velocity
escape_velocity
sidereal_day
axial_tilt
pole_ecliptic_lat
pole_ecliptic_lon
albedo
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 150 200
Celsius −73
spectral_type
abs_magnitude
{{Infobox planet
| minorplanet        = yes
| background         = #FFFFC0 <!--default color, yellow-->
| name               = 
| symbol             = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| caption            = 
| discovery_ref      = <ref>...</ref>
| discoverer         = 
| discovered         = 
| discovery_site     = ''discovery_site''
| mpc_name           = <!--(Minor Planet Center's designation)-->
| mp_category        = <!--(Minor planet category)-->
| alt_names          = <!--(Alternative names)-->
| orbit_ref          = <ref>...</ref>
| epoch              = 
| uncertainty        = [[Uncertainty Parameter U]]
| observation_arc    = [[Observation arc]] length
| aphelion           = 
| perihelion         = 
| semimajor          = 
| eccentricity       = 
| period             = 
| avg_speed          = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| inclination        = 
| asc_node           = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| mean_anomaly       = 
| mean_motion        = <!--(Instantaneous orbital mean motion)-->
| arg_peri           = <!--(Argument of perihelion)-->
| p_orbit_ref        = <ref>...</ref>
| p_semimajor        = 
| p_eccentricity     = 
| p_inclination      = 
| p_mean_motion      = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate    = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate          = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| satellites         = 
| moid               = <!--(Earth moid only)-->
| mercury_moid       = <!--(see "All parameters" section)-->
| physical_ref       = <ref>...</ref>
| dimensions         = <!--(Uni/bi/tri-axial dimensions)-->
| mass               = 
| density            = 
| surface_grav       = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = <!--(Moment of inertia factor)-->
| escape_velocity    = 
| sidereal_day       = 
| axial_tilt         = 
| pole_ecliptic_lat  = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon  = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo             = 
| spectral_type      = 
| abs_magnitude      = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
| single_temperature = 
}}

See here for means of semi-automating this template's transclusion as regards minor planets.

  • For satellites of minor planets, include the parameter |apsis= astron (see above).

Notes on usage

From Wikipedia:WikiProject Astronomical objects/Infoboxes

Most of these entries should be measured in SI units. Some of them, however, should have more "human-accessible" units, in addition to SI units: several such cases are indicated with a second unit name in brackets. In the case of times (orbital periods, rotation), it is best to give all periods in days for comparison purposes, and provide a translation (in parentheses) into years, days, hours, etc.; whatever is most appropriate for the duration being described.

This template is very flexible. Moons with no atmosphere whatsoever could skip the atmospheric composition section entirely, for example (though atmospheric density would still be listed). Moons also wouldn't have their orbital radii listed in AU, since AUs are such large units. For planets, use "perihelion" and "aphelion" instead of "periapsis" and "apoapsis."

In the case of "number of moons" and "is a moon of", only one of these rows will be used by any given object. There aren't any moons with moons (yet), though perhaps "co-orbital with" might be a useful row to add in a few cases.

On orbital characteristics: The orbital circumference should be computed from the semi-major axis using Ramanujan's approximation for ellipses. The ratio of that circumference to the period then gives the average orbital speed. The minimum and maximum speeds follow from Kepler's laws: and . Note that, by convention, all orbital parameters are given in the primocentric reference system (heliocentric for the planets).

On proper orbital elements: The formulae used by the template to convert from proper mean motion to proper orbital motion are:
Oyears = 360 / M   and
Odays = 365.25 x Oyears

On physical characteristics: The surface area and volume of non-spherical objects (e.g. moonlets, asteroids) must use the proper ellipsoid formulae, because even slight departures from sphericity will make a large difference, particularly for the area.

On the subject of obliquity: Obliquity is the angle between the object's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit. Do not confuse this with the tilt listed in the JPL pages, which is a measure of the angle between the local Laplace plane and the primary's equatorial plane. In fact, most inner moons have synchronous rotations, so their obliquities will be, by definition, zero. Outer moons simply have not been seen from close up enough to determine their true obliquities (although Phoebe, recently seen by Cassini, is an exception; see Talk:Phoebe (moon) for the derivation of its obliquity).

All parameters

{{Infobox planet
| minorplanet            = yes <!-- enables features for minor planets -->
| extrasolarplanet       = yes <!-- enables features for extrasolar planets -->
| width                  = <!-- Defunct. Do not use it. Remove it from existing templates. -->
| label_width            = <!-- Sets the parameter name column's max width. Defaults to 11em. -->
| name                   = <!-- displayed in caption of infobox -->
| symbol                 = <!--[[File:...|14px]]-->
| image                  = <!--[[File:...|260px]]-->
| image_alt              = 
| caption                = <!-- image caption -->
| background             = <!-- #FFFFC0 -->
| discovery_ref          = <ref>...</ref>
| discoverer             = <!-- person(s), survey -->
| discovery_site         = 
| discovered             = <!-- date -->
| discovery_method       = 
| designations           = <!-- Defunct. Do not use it. Remove it from existing templates. -->
| mpc_name               = 
| pronounced             = {{IPAc-en|<!-- IPA string -->}}
| named_after            = 
| alt_names              = 
| mp_category            = 
| adjectives             = 
| orbit_ref              = <ref>...</ref>
| orbit_diagram          = <!-- [[File:...|260px]]-->
| epoch                  = 
| uncertainty            = 
| observation_arc        = 
| earliest_precovery_date = <!-- Encouraged, especially for distant new objects -->
| apsis                  = 
| aphelion               = 
| perihelion             = 
| periastron             = 
| apoastron              = 
| periapsis              = 
| apoapsis               = 
| semimajor              = 
| mean_orbit_radius      = 
| eccentricity           = 
| period                 = 
| synodic_period         = 
| avg_speed              = <!--(Average orbital speed)-->
| mean_anomaly           = 
| mean_motion            = <!--(Instantaneous orbital mean motion)-->
| inclination            = 
| angular_dist           = <!--(Angular distance)-->
| asc_node               = <!--(Longitude of ascending node)-->
| long_periastron        = <!--(Longitude of periastron)-->
| time_periastron        = <!--(Time of periastron)-->
| arg_peri               = <!--(Argument of peri[helion/astron/...])-->
| semi-amplitude         = 
| satellite_of           = 
| satellites             = 
| moid                   = <!--(Earth MOID only)-->
| mercury_moid           = 
| venus_moid             = 
| mars_moid              = 
| jupiter_moid           = 
| saturn_moid            = 
| uranus_moid            = 
| neptune_moid           = 
| tisserand              = <!--(Jupiter Tisserand parameter)-->
| p_orbit_ref            = <ref>...</ref>
| p_semimajor            = 
| p_eccentricity         = 
| p_inclination          = 
| p_mean_motion          = <!--(Proper orbital mean motion)-->
| perihelion_rate        = <!--(Proper perihelic precession rate)-->
| node_rate              = <!--(Proper nodal precession rate)-->
| physical_ref           = <ref>...</ref>
| dimensions             = <!--(Uni/bi/tri-axial dimensions)-->
| mean_diameter          = <!--(For large, spheroidal minor planets)-->
| mean_radius            = <!--(For planets & large, spheroidal minor planets)-->
| equatorial_radius      = 
| polar_radius           = 
| flattening             = 
| circumference          = 
| surface_area           = 
| volume                 = 
| mass                   = 
| density                = 
| surface_grav           = <!--(Equatorial surface gravity)-->
| moment_of_inertia_factor = <!--(Moment of inertia factor)-->
| escape_velocity        = 
| sidereal_day           = 
| rot_velocity           = <!--(Rotational velocity)-->
| rotation               = <!--(Rotation period)-->
| axial_tilt             = 
| right_asc_north_pole   = <!--(North pole right ascension)-->
| declination            = <!--(North pole declination)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lat      = <!--(Pole ecliptic latitude)-->
| pole_ecliptic_lon      = <!--(Pole ecliptic longitude)-->
| albedo                 = 
| single_temperature     = 
| temp_name1             = 
| min_temp_1             = 
| mean_temp_1            = 
| max_temp_1             = 
| temp_name2             = 
| min_temp_2             = 
| mean_temp_2            = 
| max_temp_2             = 
| temp_name3             = 
| min_temp_3             = 
| mean_temp_3            = 
| max_temp_3             = 
| temp_name4             = 
| min_temp_4             = 
| mean_temp_4            = 
| max_temp_4             = 
| spectral_type          = 
| family                 = 
| magnitude              = <!--(Apparent magnitude)-->
| abs_magnitude          = <!--(Absolute magnitude)-->
| angular_size           = 
| atmosphere_ref         = <ref>...</ref>
| surface_pressure       = 
| scale_height           = 
| atmosphere_composition = 
| note                   = 
}}

Computed values

This section documents how some minor planet parameters may be computed when they're not directly measured. More detail can be found in Standard asteroid physical characteristics.

Average orbital speed

This is very simply the orbital circumference divided by the orbital period.

The exact circumference of an ellipse is , where a is the semi-major axis, e the eccentricity, and the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. This gives

E is close to when e is small.

An approximation using a taylor series expansion is

AstOrb Browser computes a velocity using Ramanujan's approximation for an ellipse's circumference:

Where b is the orbit's semi-minor axis:

Surface gravity

For a spherical body of mass m, and radius r, the gravitational acceleration at the surface, is given by

Where G = 6.6742×10−11 m3s−2kg−1 is the Gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body, and r its radius. This value is very approximate, as most minor planets are far from spherical.

For irregularly shaped bodies, the surface gravity will differ appreciably with location. However, at the outermost point/s, where the distance to the centre of mass is the greatest, the surface gravity is still given by a simple formula, a slightly modified version of the above that uses the largest radius

because all the body's mass is contained within this radius.

On a rotating body, the apparent weight experienced by an object on the surface is reduced by the centrifugal force, when one is away from the poles. The centrifugal acceleration experienced at the equator is

where T is the rotation period in seconds, and is the equatorial radius (usually also the maximum radius used above). The negative sign indicates that it acts in the opposite direction to the gravitational acceleration g.

The effective surface gravity at the equator is then

Escape velocity

For surface gravity g and radius r, the escape velocity is:

This value is much less sensitive to the factors affecting the surface gravity, mentioned above.

Temperature

For asteroid albedo α, semimajor axis a, solar luminosity , and asteroid infrared emissivity ε (usually taken to be ~0.9), the approximate mean temperature T is given by:

Where σ is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. See also Torrence V. Johnson; Paul R. Weissman; Lucy-Ann A. McFadden (2007). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3..

Other parameters

earliest_precovery_date

Encouraged, especially for distant new objects, so as to ascertain the accuracy of an object's calculated orbit.

Not to be confused with the JPL Small-Body Database's first obs. used parameter; they need not be synonymous.

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly error report for this template.

TemplateData for Infobox planet

Template parameters

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
Minorplanetminorplanet

when given a value (e.g. yes) it changes labels, section headings and links to a specifically customized version for minor planets. This is a functional parameter only and has no label or value that is displayed

Stringoptional
Extrasolarplanetextrasolarplanet

when given a value (e.g. yes) it changes labels, section headings and links to a specifically customized version for extrasolar planets. This is a functional parameter only and has no label or value that is displayed

Stringoptional
Name name

name of planet

Stringoptional
Symbol symbol

symbol of planet

Stringoptional
Backgroundbackground

background color for section headings

Stringoptional
Backgroundbgcolour

deprecated parameter to set background color for section headings. Use parameter 'background' instead

Stringdeprecated
Widthwidth

defunct parameter to set width of infobox. Do not use it. Remove it from existing templates. Width of infobox can no longer be adjusted. However, if the template contains an image, the width of the infobox will adjust accordingly and change from its default width of about 260px

Stringdeprecated
Label_width label_width

Max width of the parameter name column

Default
11em
Stringoptional
Image image

image of planet

Stringoptional
Caption caption

caption

Stringoptional
Apsisapsis

Stringoptional
Discovery discovery

deprecated parameter to enable the 'Discovery' heading, which now displays automatically when a discovery parameter is set

Stringdeprecated
Discovery_ref discovery_ref

<ref>...</ref>, reference displayed in section heading

Stringoptional
Discovererdiscoverer

discoverer of planet

Stringoptional
Discovery_sitediscovery_site

Stringoptional
Discovered discovered

discovered

Stringoptional
Discovery_method discovery_method

Stringoptional
mpc_name mpc_name

Stringoptional
Pronouncedpronounced

Stringoptional
Named_afternamed_after

Stringoptional
mp_category mp_category

Stringoptional
Alt_names alt_names

Stringoptional
Orbital_characteristicsorbital_characteristics

deprecated parameter to enable the 'Orbital characteristics' heading, which now displays automatically when an orbital characteristic parameter is set

Stringdeprecated
Orbit_ref orbit_ref

<ref>...</ref>, reference displayed in section heading

Stringoptional
Orbit_diagram orbit_diagram

image link, just like in prose. ex.: [[File:1992 TC orbital diagram.jpg|260px]]

Stringoptional
Epoch epoch

Stringoptional
Uncertainty_parameteruncertainty

Stringoptional
Observation_arcobservation_arc

Stringoptional
Earliest_precovery_dateearliest_precovery_date

Stringoptional
Aphelionaphelion

Stringoptional
Perihelion perihelion

Stringoptional
Periastronperiastron

Stringoptional
Apoastronapoastron

Stringoptional
Periapsisperiapsis

Stringoptional
Apoapsis apoapsis

Stringoptional
Semimajor semimajor

Stringoptional
Mean_orbit_radius mean_orbit_radius

Stringoptional
Eccentricity eccentricity

Stringoptional
Periodperiod

Stringoptional
Synodic_periodsynodic_period

Stringoptional
Avg_speed avg_speed

(Average orbital speed)

Stringoptional
Mean_anomalymean_anomaly

Stringoptional
Mean_motionmean_motion

Stringoptional
Inclination inclination

Stringoptional
Angular_dist angular_dist

(Angular distance)

Stringoptional
Asc_node asc_node

(Longitude of ascending node)

Stringoptional
Long_periastron long_periastron

(Longitude of periastron)

Stringoptional
Time_periastron time_periastron

(Time of periastron)

Stringoptional
Arg_peri arg_peri

Stringoptional
Semi-amplitude semi-amplitude

Stringoptional
p_orbit_refp_orbit_ref

<ref>...</ref>, reference displayed in section heading

Stringoptional
p_semimajor p_semimajor

Stringoptional
p_eccentricity p_eccentricity

Stringoptional
p_inclination p_inclination

Stringoptional
p_mean_motion p_mean_motion

(Proper orbital mean motion)

Stringoptional
Perihelion_rateperihelion_rate

(Proper perihelic precession rate)

Stringoptional
Node_rate node_rate

(Proper nodal precession rate)

Stringoptional
Satellite_of satellite_of

Stringoptional
Satellites satellites

Stringoptional
Moid moid

Stringoptional
Mercury_moid mercury_moid

Stringoptional
Venus_moid venus_moid

Stringoptional
Mars_moid mars_moid

Stringoptional
Jupiter_moidjupiter_moid

Stringoptional
Saturn_moid saturn_moid

Stringoptional
Uranus_moid uranus_moid

Stringoptional
Neptune_moidneptune_moid

Stringoptional
Tisserandtisserand

Stringoptional
Physical_characteristicsphysical_characteristics

deprecated parameter to enable the 'Physical characteristics' heading, which now displays automatically when a physical characteristic parameter is set

Stringdeprecated
Dimensionsdimensions

Stringoptional
Flattening flattening

Stringoptional
Equatorial_radiusequatorial_radius

Stringoptional
Polar_radiuspolar_radius

Stringoptional
Mean_diametermean_diameter

Stringoptional
Mean_radiusmean_radius

Stringoptional
Circumferencecircumference

Stringoptional
Surface_area surface_area

Stringoptional
Volume volume

Stringoptional
Mass mass

Stringoptional
Densitydensity

Stringoptional
Surface_grav surface_grav

(Equatorial surface gravity)

Stringoptional
Moment_of_inertia_factormoment_of_inertia_factor

(Moment of inertia factor)

Stringoptional
Escape_velocityescape_velocity

Stringoptional
Sidereal_day sidereal_day

Stringoptional
Rot_velocityrot_velocity

(Rotational velocity)

Stringoptional
Axial_tilt axial_tilt

Stringoptional
Right_asc_north_poleright_asc_north_pole

(North pole right ascension)

Stringoptional
Declination declination

(North pole declination)

Stringoptional
Pole_ecliptic_lat pole_ecliptic_lat

(Pole ecliptic latitude)

Stringoptional
Pole_ecliptic_lon pole_ecliptic_lon

(Pole ecliptic longitude)

Stringoptional
Albedo albedo

Stringoptional
Single_temperature single_temperature

Stringoptional
Temp_name1temp_name1

Stringoptional
Min_temp_1min_temp_1

Stringoptional
Mean_temp_1 mean_temp_1

Stringoptional
Max_temp_1max_temp_1

Stringoptional
Temp_name2 temp_name2

Stringoptional
Min_temp_2 min_temp_2

Stringoptional
Mean_temp_2 mean_temp_2

Stringoptional
Max_temp_2 max_temp_2

Stringoptional
Spectral_type spectral_type

Stringoptional
Magnitude magnitude

(Apparent magnitude)

Stringoptional
Abs_magnitudeabs_magnitude

(Absolute magnitude)

Stringoptional
Angular_size angular_size

Stringoptional
Pronounced pronounced

{{IPA-en|<!-- IPA string -->|}}

Stringoptional
Adjectives adjectives

Stringoptional
Atmosphere_ref atmosphere_ref

<ref>...</ref>, reference displayed in section heading

Stringoptional
Surface_pressure surface_pressure

Stringoptional
Scale_heightscale_height

Stringoptional
Atmosphere_compositionatmosphere_composition

Stringoptional

Microformat

The HTML mark up produced by this template includes an hCard microformat, which makes the place-name and location parsable by computers, either acting automatically to catalogue article across Wikipedia, or via a browser tool operated by a person, to (for example) add the subject to an address book. For more information about the use of microformats on Wikipedia, please see the microformat project.

If the place or venue has an "established", "founded", "opened" or similar date that is specific to the day, use {{start date}} unless the date is before 1583 CE. If it has a URL, use {{URL}}.

hCard uses HTML classes including:

  • adr
  • category
  • country-name
  • extended-address
  • fn
  • label
  • locality
  • nickname
  • note
  • org
  • street-address
  • url
  • vcard

Please do not rename or remove these classes nor collapse nested elements which use them.

References

  1. ^ discovery_ref
  2. ^ orbit_ref
  3. ^ p_orbit_ref
  4. ^ physical_ref