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Template:Infobox yttrium

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Yttrium, 39Y
Yttrium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Yttrium
Pronunciation/ˈɪtriəm/ (IT-ree-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Y)
  • 88.905838±0.000002
  • 88.906±0.001 (abridged)[1]
Yttrium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Sc

Y

Lu
strontiumyttriumzirconium
Atomic number (Z)39
Groupgroup 3
Periodperiod 5
Block  d-block
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1799 K ​(1526 °C, ​2779 °F)
Boiling point3203 K ​(2930 °C, ​5306 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.472 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.24 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.42 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization363 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.53 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1883 2075 (2320) (2627) (3036) (3607)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.22
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 600 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1180 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius190±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of yttrium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for yttrium
Speed of sound thin rod3300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 10.6 µm/(m⋅K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity17.2 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 596 nΩ⋅m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Molar magnetic susceptibility+2.15×10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[4]
Young's modulus63.5 GPa
Shear modulus25.6 GPa
Bulk modulus41.2 GPa
Poisson ratio0.243
Brinell hardness200–589 MPa
CAS Number7440-65-5
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden) and its mineral ytterbite (gadolinite)
DiscoveryJohan Gadolin (1794)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler (1838)
Main isotopes of yttrium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
87Y syn 3.4 d ε 87Sr
γ
88Y syn 106.6 d ε 88Sr
γ
89Y 100% stable
90Y syn 2.7 d β 90Zr
γ
91Y syn 58.5 d β 91Zr
γ
 Category: Yttrium
| references
Sr ←

i'box Sr

iso
39
Y (E)
→ Zr

i'box Zr

  Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image (caption, alt)
Pronunciation
Allotropes (demo)
Group (demo)
Period (demo)
Block (demo)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Natural occurrence
Phase at STP
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image
Electron configuration (cmt, ref)
Wikidata *
Symbol etymology (11 non-trivial)
* Not used in {{Infobox element}} (2021-12-24)
See also Category:Element data sets (55)

References

  1. ^ "Standard Atomic Weights: Yttrium". CIAAW. 2021.
  2. ^ Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce and Pm have been observed in the oxidation state 0 in bis(1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene) complexes, see Cloke, F. Geoffrey N. (1993). "Zero Oxidation State Compounds of Scandium, Yttrium, and the Lanthanides". Chem. Soc. Rev. 22: 17–24. doi:10.1039/CS9932200017. and Arnold, Polly L.; Petrukhina, Marina A.; Bochenkov, Vladimir E.; Shabatina, Tatyana I.; Zagorskii, Vyacheslav V.; Cloke (2003-12-15). "Arene complexation of Sm, Eu, Tm and Yb atoms: a variable temperature spectroscopic investigation". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 688 (1–2): 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.jorganchem.2003.08.028.
  3. ^ Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  4. ^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  5. ^ a b http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0673.html.