Template:LGBT rights table Europe

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Tables:

European Union[edit]

Main article: LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union European Union Yes Legal in all 27 member states[1] Yes/No Recognized in 21/27 member states
Yes/No Legal in 13/27 member states
Yes/No Stepchild adoption legal in 17/27 member states;
joint adoption legal in 14/27 member states
Yes Legal in all member states Yes Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment.
4/27 states ban some anti-gay discrimination.
23/27 states ban all anti-gay discrimination
Yes/No Legal in 24/27 member states[2][dead link]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971[3]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnerships since 2010[4] Yes Legal since 2019[5] Yes Stepchild adoption since 2013;
joint adoption since 2016[6][7][8]
Yes Includes transgender people[9] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Transgender people allowed to change gender without undergoing surgery[11]
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Life partnerships since 2014[12] No Constitutional ban since 2013[13] Yes Partner-guardianship (similar to stepchild adoption) since 2014;[14] joint adoption since 2021[citation needed] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10][15] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health.[16]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships since 2006[17] No No LGBT individuals in a registered partnership may adopt[18] Yes Includes transgender people[19] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal recognition after sex reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation)[20]
Germany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[3][21]
Yes Registered life partnerships from 2001 to 2017 (existing partnerships and new foreign partnerships still recognised)[22][23] Yes Legal since 2017[24] Yes Stepchild adoption since 2005; successive adoption since 2013; joint adoption legal since 2017[24] Yes Includes transgender people[25] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[26] Yes Gender change is legal; surgery not required[27]
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships since 2009[28] No Constitutional ban since 2012[29][30][31][32] No Constitutional ban since 2020[33][30] Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity

No Transgender people are not allowed to change gender since 2020.[34] Gender identity is protected from discrimination.

Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships since 2011[35] No Pending[36] No/Yes Stepchild adoption since 2021[37] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] No Gender change is not legal[20]
Poland Poland Yes Legal since 1932
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2012;
registered partnership proposed 2019
No Constitutional ban since 1997[38] (Article 18 of the Constitution is generally interpreted as limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples[39][40][41][42][43][44])[a] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[46] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Transgender people allowed to change gender but require undergoing medical treatment such as HRT or surgery. No provisions for nonbinary people.
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes some limited rights for unregistered cohabiting same-sex couples since 2018;
Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018
No No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[47] Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[48][49] Yes Requires sterilisation for change[20]
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships since 2006[50];
Registered cohabitation since 2017[51]
No No/Yes Stepchild adoption since 2011[52] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Gender change is legal[53]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva (as part of France), Ticino, Valais, and Vaud since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[3][54]
Yes Registered partnerships in Geneva (2001),[55] Zürich (2003),[56] Neuchâtel (2004)[57] and Fribourg (2005)[57]
Nationwide since 2007[58]
No/Yeswill be legal from July 2022[59] Yes Stepchild adoption since 2018[60]
No/Yes Joint adoption will be legal from July 2022[59]
Yes Includes transgender people[61] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination [62] Yes Gender change is legal on simple declaration (self-determination +16 yo); surgery/sterilisation not required. [63]

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutional ban since 2015[64][65] No No[66] No No
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No Constitutional ban since 2006[67] No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[3] No No No No No No
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[3] No No Constitutional ban since 1994[68] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able[69] No Yes
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutional ban since 2018 No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[70] Yes Requires sterilisation and surgery for change[20]
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutional ban since 1994[71] No Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes No longer requires sterilisation or surgery for change since 2017[20]
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018;[72]
Civil unions proposed[73]
No No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[74] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal recognition after sex reassignment surgery (sterilisation mandatory)[20]
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[75][3]
No Illegal in practice in Chechnya, where homosexuals are abducted and sent to concentration camps based on their perceived sexual orientation.
No No Constitutional ban since 2020 No No No Yes Requires sex reassignment surgery to legally change gender.
South Ossetia South Ossetia
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal since 2002[76] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutional ban since 1996[77] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[78] Yes[79][failed verification] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[80] Yes No longer requires sterilisation or surgery for change since 2016

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships from 1989 to 2012 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[81] Yes Legal since 2012[82][83] Yes Stepchild adoption since 1999;
joint adoption since 2010[84][85]
Yes Includes transgender people[86] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy[87]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Cohabitation agreement since 2016[88] No Marriage performed abroad was recognized between 2016 and 2019[89] Yes/No Stepchild adoption since 2016; couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016 Yes[citation needed] Includes transgender people[90] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Gender reassignment legal; surgery not required[20]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(Autonomous Territory within the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Yes Legal since 2017[91][92] Yes Legal since 2017 Yes The Kingdom of Denmark responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[93][94] No[95]
Finland Finland
Åland Islands (includes Åland Islands)
Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships from 2002 to 2017 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[96] Yes Legal since 2017[97] Yes Stepchild adoption since 2009;
joint adoption since 2017
Yes Includes transgender people[98] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation[99]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(As part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006;[100]
Registered partnerships from 1996 to 2010 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[101]
Yes Legal since 2010[102][103] Yes Legal since 2006[104][105] No standing army Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender, sterilisation not required[106][20]
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018 No Constitutional ban since 2006[107] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples, incl. stepchild adoption[108] Yes[109] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[110] YesLegal change allowed[111] but requires "full" transition and doctor's or court's approval.[112] Sterilization required.[113]
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018; Cohabitation agreement pending [114] No Constitutional ban since 1992[115] No Only married couples can adopt[116] Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Gender change legal; surgery required[117]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships from 1993 to 2009 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[118] Yes Legal since 2009[119][120] Yes Stepchild adoption since 2002;
joint adoption since 2009[121][122]
Yes Includes transgender people[123] Yes Discrimination based on sexual orientation illegal[124] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender[11]
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships from 1995 to 2009 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[125] Yes Legal since 2009[126] Yes Legal since 2003[127][128] Yes[129] Includes transgender people[130] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes[131]

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3][132][133]
Yes Since 2005, for members of the British Armed Forces[134] Yes Since 2014, for members of the British Armed Forces[135] Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[136] Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] No No legal recognition[20]
Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Stable unions since 2005[137]; Civil unions since 2014[138] No(Pending) Yes Legal since 2014[139][138][140] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] No No legal recognition[20]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1996 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Republika Srpska since 1998, and in Brčko District since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Requires surgery for change[141]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No/Yes Limited residency rights for married same-sex couples since 2018 No Constitutional ban since 1991[142] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[143] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[144][145]

No Transgender people are not allowed to change gender since 2017.[146][147]

Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil cohabitation since 2015[148] No No Yes[149] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Forbids some discrimination based on gender identity.[150]

No Gender change is not legal.

Gibraltar Gibraltar
(Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnerships since 2014[151] Yes Legal since 2016[152] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[153] Yes Forbids discrimination on the grounds of gender reassignment[153]

No Gender change is not legal

Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 + UN decl. sign.[3] Yes Cohabitation agreements since 2015[154] No No Same-sex couples in a civil partnership may become foster parents;[155] LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Under the Legal Gender Recognition Act 2017[156][157]
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil unions since 2016[158] No In 2018 the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex marriages performed abroad must be registered as civil unions[159] No/Yes Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation since 2016[160][161] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender, sterilisation not required[162][163]
Kosovo Kosovo
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal since 1994
(as part of Yugoslavia)[3]
No No[164] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples[165][166] Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[167] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No No legal recognition[20]

Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil unions since 2014[168] Yes Legal since 2017 Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10]
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 2016
Yes Transgender people allowed to change gender; surgery not required since 2015[169]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Life partnership from July 2021[170] No Constitutional ban since 2007[171][172] No Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Requires sterilisation and surgery for change[11][20]
North Macedonia North Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes[citation needed] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

Gender change is legally recognized since 2021

Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus
(Disputed territory)
Yes Legal since 2014[173][174][3] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[173][174] Yes Legal, requires surgery for change[175]
Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes De facto unions since 2001[176][177] Yes Legal since 2010[178] Yes Legal since 2016[179][180][181] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender since 2011[182]
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil unions since 2019 No Yes/No Stepchild adoption legal since 2019 Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination No No legal recognition[11]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire to 1860,[183] and again since 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutional ban since 2006[184] No LGBT individuals may adopt, but not same-sex couples Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Legal after 1 year of hormone therapy, surgery no longer required since 2019[185]
Spain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes De facto unions in Catalonia (1998),[186] Aragon (1999),[186] Navarre (2000),[186] Castile-La Mancha (2000),[186] Valencia (2001),[187] the Balearic Islands (2001),[188] Madrid (2001),[186] Asturias (2002),[189] Castile and León (2002),[190] Andalusia (2002),[186] the Canary Islands (2003),[186] Extremadura (2003),[186] Basque Country (2003),[186] Cantabria (2005),[191] Galicia (2008)[192] La Rioja (2010),[193] and Murcia (2018),[194][195] and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998)[196] and Melilla (2008).[197] Yes Legal since 2005[198] Yes Legal since 2005[199][200] Yes Includes transgender people[201] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10]
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Andalusia, Aragon, Madrid, Murcia and Valencia
Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[202]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[3] No No No No No Yes Legal since 1988, requires sterilisation and surgery for change[203]
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (As part of Italy)[3] No No N/A Has no military No X mark.svg

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Legal cohabitation since 2000[204] Yes Legal since 2003[205][206][207] Yes Legal since 2006[208][209] Yes Includes transgender people[210] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Since 2018, sex changes do not require sterilisation and surgery[211]
France France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[212] Yes Legal since 2013[213] Yes Legal since 2013[214] Yes Includes transgender people[215] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[10] Yes Since 2017, sex changes no longer requires sterilisation and surgery[216]
Bailiwick of Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown Dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[217][218][3]
Yes Civil partnerships performed in the UK abroad recognised for succession purposes in inheritance and other matters respecting interests in property since 2012[219][220][221] Legal cohabitation since 2017[222] Yes Legal since 2017 in Guernsey, since 2018 in Alderney, and since 2020 in Sark[223]
[224]
Yes Legal since 2017[225] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[226] Yes Legal gender changes since 2007[227][228]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnerships from 2011 to 2015 (existing partnerships are still recognised)[229] Yes Legal since 2015 after a constitutional referendum[230] Yes Legal since 2017[231][232][233][234][235][236] Yes Includes transgender people[237] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[238][239][240] Yes Under the Gender Recognition Act 2015[241]
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown Dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnerships since 2011[242] Yes Legal since 2016[243] Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[244] Yes Transgender people are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11)[245][246]
Jersey Jersey
(Crown Dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnerships since 2012[247] Yes Legal since 2018[248][249] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[250] Yes Under the Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[251]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnerships since 2004[252] Yes Legal since 2015[253][254] Yes Legal since 2015[255] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[256] Yes No divorce, sterilization and/or surgery legally required since September 2018 for change of gender[257][20]
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Cohabitation agreements since 2020 No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[3] Emblem-question.svg
Netherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998[258] Yes Legal since 2001[259] Yes Legal since 2001[260][261] Yes Includes transgender people[262] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[263] Yes Since 2014, sex changes do not require sterilisation and surgery[264][265]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Female always legal. Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982

+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnerships since 2005[266] Yes Legal in England and Wales, and Scotland since 2014, and Northern Ireland since 2020[267][267] Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013[268][269][270] Yes Since 2000; Includes transgender people[271] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[272][3] [273] Yes Under the Gender Recognition Act 2004

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In January 2019, a lower administrative court in Warsaw ruled that the language in Article 18 of the Constitution does not explicitly ban same-sex marriage.[45]

References

  1. ^ Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights?, Café Babel, 17 May 2010
  2. ^ What is the current legal situation in the EU?, ILGA Europe
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  4. ^ "RIS – Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz – Bundesrecht konsolidiert, Fassung vom 17.08.2019". www.ris.bka.gv.at.
  5. ^ "Unterscheidung zwischen Ehe und eingetragener Partnerschaft verletzt Diskriminierungsverbot". Constitutional Court of Austria (in German). 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  6. ^ "Bundesgesetz, mit dem das Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft geändert wird" (PDF). parlament.gv.at (in German).
  7. ^ "Entschließungsantrag betreffend der Aufhebung des Adoptionsverbots für Homosexuelle" (PDF). parlament.gv.at.
  8. ^ "§ 144(2) ABGB (General Civil Code)". www.ris.bka.gv.at (in German).
  9. ^ Sweijs, Tim. "LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion". hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "ILGA-Europe" (PDF). ilga-europe.org.
  11. ^ a b c d "Map shows how Europe forces trans people to be sterilized". Gay Star News.
  12. ^ "Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola – Zakon.hr". www.zakon.hr.
  13. ^ (in Croatian) "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Rainbow Europe - Croatia". rainbow-europe.org.
  15. ^ (in Croatian) "Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  16. ^ (in Croatian)"Pravilnik o načinu prikupljanja medicinske dokumentacije te utvrđivanja uvjeta i pretpostavki za promjenu spola i drugom rodnom identitetu". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  17. ^ "Portál veřejné správy". portal.gov.cz.
  18. ^ I registrovaní homosexuálové mohou adoptovat děti, rozhodl Ústavní soud. (in Czech) idnes.cz. Mladá fronta DNES. Published on 16 June 2016.
  19. ^ Sweijs, Tim. "LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion". hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Trans Rights Europe Map, 2018.
  21. ^ "glbtq >> social sciences >> Berlin" (PDF). glbtq.com.
  22. ^ "LPartG – nichtamtliches Inhaltsverzeichnis". www.gesetze-im-internet.de.
  23. ^ "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts – 2. Ergänzung der Anwendungshinweise zur Umsetzung des vorgenannten Gesetzes".
  24. ^ a b Connolly, Kate (30 June 2017) German Parliament votes to legalise same-sex marriage in The Guardian.Retrieved 30 June 2017
  25. ^ Sweijs, Tim. "LGBT Military Personnel: a Strategic Vision for Inclusion". hcss.nl. The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  26. ^ "Antidiskriminierungsstelle – Publikationen – AGG in englischer Sprache". antidiskriminierungsstelle.de.
  27. ^ "TSG – nichtamtliches Inhaltsverzeichnis". www.gesetze-im-internet.de.
  28. ^ Kft, Wolters Kluwer Hungary. "2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról – Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye". net.jogtar.hu.
  29. ^ "Folyamatban levő törvényjavaslatok – Országgyűlés". www.parlament.hu.
  30. ^ a b "Melegházasságról szóló törvényjavaslat landolt a magyar parlamentben" (in Hungarian). Index.hu. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  31. ^ "Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). TASZ. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  32. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (18 April 2011). "Hungary passes new conservative constitution". Reading Eagle. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Wareham, Jamie (19 May 2020). "Transgender People In Hungary Lose Right To Gender Recognition". Forbes. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  35. ^ "Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)" (PDF). gesetze.li (in German).
  36. ^ Albrich, Sebastian. ""Ehe fur alle": Breite Zustimmung, jedoch nicht ohne offentliche Diskussion". Volksblatt (in German). Retrieved 29 September 2021.
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    • Marek Safjan; Leszek Bosek, eds. (2016). Konstytucja RP. Tom I. Komentarz do art. 1-86. Warszawa: C.H. Beck Wydawnictwo Polska. ISBN 9788325573652. Z przeprowadzonej powyżej analizy prac nad Konstytucją RP wynika jednoznacznie, że zamieszczenie w art. 18 Konstytucji RP zwrotu definicyjnego "związek kobiety i mężczyzny" stanowiło reakcję na fakt pojawienia się w państwach obcych regulacji poddającej związki osób tej samej płci regulacji zbliżonej lub zbieżnej z instytucją małżeństwa. Uzupełniony tym zwrotem przepis konstytucyjny "miał pełnić rolę instrumentu zapobiegającego wprowadzeniu takiej regulacji do prawa polskiego" (A. Mączyński, Konstytucyjne podstawy prawa rodzinnego, s. 772). Innego motywu jego wprowadzenia do Konstytucji RP nie da się wskazać (szeroko w tym zakresie B. Banaszkiewicz, "Małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny", s. 640 i n.; zob. też Z. Strus, Znaczenie artykułu 18 Konstytucji, s. 236 i n.). Jak zauważa A. Mączyński istotą tej regulacji było normatywne przesądzenie nie tylko o niemożliwości unormowania w prawie polskim "małżeństw pomiędzy osobami tej samej płci", lecz również innych związków, które mimo tego, że nie zostałyby określone jako małżeństwo miałyby spełniać funkcje do niego podobną (A. Mączyński, Konstytucyjne podstawy prawa rodzinnego, s. 772; tenże, Konstytucyjne i międzynarodowe uwarunkowania, s. 91; podobnie L. Garlicki, Artykuł 18, w: Garlicki, Konstytucja, t. 3, uw. 4, s. 2, który zauważa, że w tym zakresie art. 18 nabiera "charakteru normy prawnej").
    • Scherpe JM, ed. (2016). European Family Law Volume III: Family Law in a European Perspective Family. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-78536-304-7. Constitutional bans on same-sex marriage are now applicable in ten European countries: Article 32, Belarus Constitution; Article 46 Bulgarian Constitution; Article L Hungarian Constitution, Article 110, Latvian Constitution; Article 38.3 Lithuanian Constitution; Article 48 Moldovan Constitution; Article 71 Montenegrin Constitution; Article 18 Polish Constitution; Article 62 Serbian Constitution; and Article 51 Ukrainian Constitution.
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