Template:LGBT rights table Europe

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Tables:

European Union[edit]

Main article: LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union European Union Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[1] Yes/No Legal in 23/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 12/28 member states.
Yes/No Joint adoption legal in 14/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 18/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 27/28 member states.
Yes/No Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment only. Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[2]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971[3]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[4] No (Pending)[5] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption since 2016.[6][7]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[8]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Gender change is legal.[10]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[11] No No (Step-child adoption pending)[12] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Legal recognition is granted and birth certificate is amended after reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation).[10]
Germany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[3][13]
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001[14] No (Pending)[15] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2005; (Joint adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[16][17] Yes Gender change is legal.[18]
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[19] No (Pending)[20][21]
Constitutionally banned since 2012.[22][23]
No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending)[21] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.[10]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[24] No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[25] Has no military No (Proposed)[citation needed] No Gender change is not legal.[10]
Poland Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No[26] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[27] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden.[28] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[29] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[30] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery.[10]
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014[31] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[32] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[33][34] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[35] No Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2011[36] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Gender change is legal.[37]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Valais and Vaud (as part of France) since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership in Geneva (2001),[38] Zurich (2003),[39] Neuchâtel (2004)[40] and Fribourg (2004)[40]
Nationwide since 2007[41]
No (Pending)[42] No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Step-child adoption adopted by Parliament on 17 June 2016 - pending (eventual referendum)).[43] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[44] Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilisation is technically required but has not been enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[45]

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2015[46][47] No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[48] No No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[3] No No No Yes[49] No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[3] No No Constitutionally banned since 1994 [50] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[51] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[52] Yes
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[53][54] No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[55] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[3] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[56] No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [9] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[57][3]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[58] No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996[59] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[60] No/Yes Policies depend on the regional commissioners.[61] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[62] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[63] Yes Legal since 2012[64][65] Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.[66]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[67]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[68]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Cohabitation agreement since 2016[69] No Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2016. Couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[10]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending) [70] No (Awaiting Danish parliament approval) No From December 2016 Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[71][72] No[73]
Finland Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2002[74] Yes From March 2017[75] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption from March 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation.[76]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(As part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[77];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[78]
Yes Legal since 2010[79][80] Yes Legal since 2006[81]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[82]
Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[83][10]
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[84] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[85] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[86]
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[87] No Constituionally banned since 1992[88] No Only married couples can adopt.[89] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[90]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[91] Yes Legal since 2009[92][93] Yes Legal since 2009[94]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[95]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[10]
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[96] Yes Legal since 2009[97] Yes Legal since 2003[98]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[99]
Yes [100] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes[101]

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3][102][103]
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[104] Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[105]

No Gender change is not legal.[10]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Stable union since 2005[106]; Civil union since 2014.[107] No Yes Legal since 2014[108][107][109] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] No Gender change is not legal.[10]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska since 2000 and Brcko District since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Protected in hate crime legislation, but requires surgery for change.[110]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991[111] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[112] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[113][114]
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[115] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[116] Yes/No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9][117] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health.[118]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil cohabitation since 2015 [119] No No No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced)[120] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[121]

No Gender change is not legal.

Gibraltar Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[122] No (Proposed)[123][124] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[125] X mark.svg (Pending)[126]
Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 + UN decl. sign.[3] Yes Cohabitation agreement since 2015[127] No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
Yes Civil union since 2016[128][129] No (Pending)[130][131][132] Yes/No Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation [133][134] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[135] The Court of Cassation decided in 2015 that sterilisation is not required.[136]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[137] No Yes No No
Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil union since 2014[138] No/Yes Marriage performed abroad recognised since 2014[138][139] (Pending) Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Since 2015.[140]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007[141][142] No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[10]
Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes De facto union since 2001[143][144] Yes Legal since 2010[145] Yes Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[146][147][148] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[9] Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[149]
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes/No Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (Only for one entitlement); civil unions proposed[150][151] No No Stepchild adoption proposed[152] Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No Gender change is not legal.[10]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire to 1860[153] and again since 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[154] No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Gender change is legal since 2007.[155][156]
Spain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes De facto union in Catalonia (1998),[157] Aragon (1999),[157] Navarre (2000),[157] Castile-La Mancha (2000),[157] Valencia (2001),[158] the Balearic Islands (2001),[159] Madrid (2001),[157] Asturias (2002),[160] Castile and León (2002),[161] Andalusia (2002),[157] the Canary Islands (2003),[157] Extremadura (2003),[157] Basque Country (2003),[157] Cantabria (2005),[162] Galicia (2008)[163] and La Rioja (2010)[164] Yes Legal since 2005[165] Yes Legal since 2005[166]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[167]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[168]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[3] No No No No (Proposed)[169] No (Proposed)[169] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[170])
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (As part of Italy)[3] No No No Has no military No X mark.svg

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Legal cohabitation since 2000[171] Yes Legal since 2003[172][173][174] Yes Legal since 2006[175]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[176]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality[177] grants the right to a legal name and gender change, but it requires hormone treatment for name change and sterilisation for gender change.
France France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[178] Yes Legal since 2013[179] Yes Legal since 2013[180] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[9] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[181])
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[182][183][3]
No/Yes Civil Partnership performed in UK abroad recognised for succession purposes in inheritance and other matters respecting interests in property since 2012. Civil unions performed abroad recognised from 2017[184][185][186] No/Yes Marriages performed abroad recognised from 2017[187][188] (Proposed)[186] No (Pending)[189] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[190] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[190][191]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011 to 2015 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[192] Yes Legal since 2015 after a constitutional referendum.[193] Yes Joint adoption since 2016. Stepchild adoption is not legal for any couples, but a birth parent and their partner may be eligible to be joint adopters of the child.[194][195][196][197]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[198]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[199][200][201] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2015 [202]
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[203] Yes Legal since 2016[204] Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[205] Yes Transsexual persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[206][207]
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2012[208] No (Proposed)[209] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[210] Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[211]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[212] Yes Legal since 2015[213][214] Yes Legal since 2015[215] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[216] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[10])
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[217] No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[3] Emblem-question.svg
Netherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998[218] Yes Legal since 2001[219] Yes Legal since 2001[220]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[221]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[222] Yes[223]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005[224] Yes Legal in England, Wales and Scotland since 2014.[225][226]
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013[227][228]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[229]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[230][3] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Partially recognised or unrecognised states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991[citation needed] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Luhansk People's Republic Luhansk People's Republic Yes[231] No No No X mark.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal from 1858, when part of the Ottoman Empire, again in 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)[3] No No[232] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[233][234] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[235] Yes[10]
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000[citation needed] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[236][237][3] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[236][237] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[236][237]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Donetsk People's Republic Donetsk People's Republic Yes[238] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991[citation needed] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[239] No No No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed)[240] Emblem-question.svg

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
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  71. ^ Island Chain Votes To Ban Discrimination Against Gays
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  103. ^ Criminal Code (consolidated)
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