Template:LGBT rights table Europe

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Tables:

European Union[edit]

Main article: LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union European Union Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[1] Yes/No Legal in 19/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 12/28 member states.
Yes/No Joint adoption legal in 13/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 16/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 27/28 member states.
Yes/No Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment only. Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[2]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[4] No (Pending)[5] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption court ordered by January 2016.[6][7]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change is legal.[8]
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[9] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[10] Yes/No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[11][12][12] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health. [13]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[14] No No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Step-child adoption pending). Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery (With mandatory sterilization) [8].
Germany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[3][15]
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001[16] No (Pending)[17] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2005; (Joint adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change is legal.[18]
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[19] No (Pending)[20] Constitutionally banned since 2012 No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[21] No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Has no military No (Proposed)[citation needed] No Gender change is not legal.[8]
Poland Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No[22] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[23] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden. Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending) No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery.
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014. No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[24][25] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[26] Yes Legal since 2015 (Pending constitutional assessment) Yes Step-child adoption since 2011.
Joint adoption since 2015.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Gender change is legal.[27]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Valais and Vaud (as part of France) since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2007[28] No (Pending)[29] (Constitutional ban pending) No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Biological step-child adoption pending).[30] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending) Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilization technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[31]

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[32] No No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[3] No No No Yes[33] No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[3] No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[34] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[35] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[36] Yes
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[37] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[3] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994. No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [12] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[38][3]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996 No LGBT individuals may adopt. No/Yes Policies depend on the regional commissioners. No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8]

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Åland Islands Åland

(Autonomous region of Finland)

Yes Legal since 1971 Yes Legal since 2002 No Yes Yes Yes, under the responsibility of Finland. Yes Bane some anti-gay discrimination No
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2012 Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[39]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Cohabitation agreement from 2016[40] No Yes/No Step-child adoption from 2016 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No[41]
Finland Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 2002[42] Yes From March 2017[43] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption from March 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilization.[44]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(As part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[45];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.)
Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Legal since 2006 Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No
Constitutionally banned since 2006
No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[46]
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[47] No
Constitutionally banned since 1992
No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[48]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[3][49][50]
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[51] Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending) No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No Gender change is not legal.[8]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Stable union since 2005[52]; Civil union since 2014.[53] No Yes Legal since 2014[54][53][55] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] No Gender change is not legal.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska since 2000 and Brcko District since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[12] No
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991. No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change). Forbids discrimination based on gender identity. [56] [57]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[58] No No (Step-child adoption pending)[59] No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced) Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Gibraltar Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[60] No Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending) X mark.svg (Pending)[61]
Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[62] No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change).
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
Legal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol since 1919
(Illegal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, illegal in parts of Veneto, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol from 1943-1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[63] No (Pending)[64][65][66] No (Step-child adoption pending)[67] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[68]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[69] No Yes No No
Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil union since 2014[70] No/Yes Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2014[70][71] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 2015.[72]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[8] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2001 Yes Legal since 2010[73] No LGBT individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (Only for one entitlement) No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[74] No Gender change is not legal.[8]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire to 1860[75] and again since 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Since 2007. Gender change is legal.
Spain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. Since 1997, different cities and regions have legislated their own version of civil union.[76] Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[12] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[77]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[3] No No No No (Proposed)[78] No (Proposed)[78] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
(As part of France)

Legal in Eupen-Malmedy since 1919
(Illegal from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]

Yes Statutory cohabitation since 2000[79] Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality[80] grants the right to a legal name and gender change. (Requires hormone treatment for name change and sterilization for gender change).
France France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Saône, Moselle, and Vosges since 1793
Legal in parts of Haut-Rhin since 1798
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie since 1890
(As part of Italy)
(Illegal in Corsica under the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1794-1796, illegal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, along with Savoy from 1814-1860 under annexation of Kingdom of Sardinia, illegal in Alsace-Lorraine from 1871–1918 and 1940-1944/1945 under annexation of Imperial and Nazi Germany, and illegal in Nord and Pas-de-Calais from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[81] Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change).
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[82][83][3]
No (Proposed)[84] No (Proposed)[84] No (Pending)[85] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[86] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[86][87]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[88] Yes Legal from 2015. Approved via referundum[89] Yes Legal since 2015[90] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[91][92][93] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2015 [94]
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[95] No (Proposed)[96][97] Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Transsexual persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[98][99]
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2012[100] No (Pending)[101] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination (From September 1, 2015)[102] Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[103]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
(As part of France)
(Illegal from 1942-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[104] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[105] Yes (Requires sterilization for change). [8]
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 (As part of France)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
No (Pending)[106] No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[107] Emblem-question.svg
Netherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
(As part of France)
(Illegal from 1940-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Niederlande)
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998 Yes Legal since 2001. Yes Legal since 2001 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[3]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005[108] Yes Legal in England, Wales and Scotland since 2014.
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[109][3] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Partially recognized or unrecognized states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Luhansk People's Republic Luhansk People's Republic No Since 2014. Maximum penalty: 5 years imprisonment, 4 years "corrective labour" No No No X mark.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal from 1858, when part of the Ottoman Empire, again in 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)[3] No No[110] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[111][112] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[113] Yes
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[114][115][3] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[114][115] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[114][115]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (As part of Italy)[3] No No No Has no military No X mark.svg
Donetsk People's Republic Donetsk People's Republic No Constitutionally banned No Constitutionally banned No Constitutionally banned No No No Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.
South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[116] No No No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed)[117] Emblem-question.svg

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
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  2. ^ What is the current legal situation in the EU?, ILGA Europe
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, authored by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy, May 2014
  4. ^ (German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  5. ^ (German) Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung
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  19. ^ (Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
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  23. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm RP. Retrieved 5 May 2015. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland. 
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  50. ^ Criminal Code (consolidated)
  51. ^ Employment (Equality) Ordinance 2013 (PDF)
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  97. ^ "Bishop in talks with Chief Minister on gay marriage". energyfm.net. 
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  99. ^ "Gender recognition bill to provide protection to Isle of Man trans residents". PinkNews. 
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  101. ^ Equal Marriage and Partnership Options Paper Report
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  103. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION (JERSEY) LAW 2010
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  105. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006
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  109. ^ Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)
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