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This template is used to include the double closed integral, usually in a mathematical formula. It overcomes a limitation of the TeX rendering which cannot display this symbol without clumsy workarounds.


  • preintegral the text or formula immediately before the integral
  • intsubscpt the subscript below the integral
  • integrand the text or formula immediately after the formula

All parameters are optional.


Two of Maxwell's equations
| preintegral = <math>\oint_C \bold{E} \cdot {\rm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \frac{\partial }{\partial t} </math>
| intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle S}</math>
| integrand = <math>\bold{B} \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S}</math>

\oint_C \bold{E} \cdot {\rm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \frac{\partial }{\partial t} \oiint{\scriptstyle S}\bold{B} \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S}

| preintegral = <math>\oint_C \bold{B} \cdot {\rm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \mu_0 </math>
| intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle S}</math>
| integrand = <math>\left ( \bold{J} + \epsilon_0\frac{\partial \bold{E}}{\partial t} \right ) \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S}</math>

\oint_C \bold{B} \cdot {\rm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \mu_0 \oiint{\scriptstyle S}\left ( \bold{J} + \epsilon_0\frac{\partial \bold{E}}{\partial t} \right ) \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S}

See also[edit]

Oriented boundary integrals over a 2-surface and 3-surface can be implemented by: