Template:Catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis

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Template documentation

To transclude this template, use:

{{Catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis}}

The image's alternative text (i.e., the | alt = parameter) is set as "Graphic of catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis".

Other optional parameters
  • The parameter | align = may be set as left, right or (default) center.
  • The parameter | header = may be used to change or remove the default heading.
  • The parameter | caption = may be used to change or remove the default caption.
Full syntax
{{Catecholamine and trace amine biosynthesis | align = | header = | caption = }}
Reflist for default header


  1. ^ Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther. 125 (3): 363–375. PMID 19948186. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.005. 
  2. ^ Lindemann L, Hoener MC (May 2005). "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26 (5): 274–281. PMID 15860375. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007. 
  3. ^ Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211–218. PMID 24374199. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.025. The highest level of brain CYP2D activity was found in the substantia nigra ... The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the contribution of the alternative CYP2D-mediated dopamine synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic route to dopamine from tyrosine is active. ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual behavior and emotion (Yu et al., 2003c). ... Rat CYP2D isoforms (2D2/2D4/2D18) are less efficient than human CYP2D6 for the generation of dopamine from p-tyramine. The Km values of the CYP2D isoforms are as follows: CYP2D6 (87–121 μm) ≈ CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D18 > CYP2D4 (256 μm) for m-tyramine and CYP2D4 (433 μm) > CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D6 > CYP2D18 (688 μm) for p-tyramine