Template talk:Addiction

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Nicotine addiction[edit]

Why is nicotine addiction missing? eu.stefan (talk) 12:40, 1 February 2010 (UTC)

Travel (as Hypermobility (travel))[edit]

Re the revert of my edit by User:Seppi333: Most of the items are "Behavioral addictions". I think Hypermobility (travel) falls in the mid-range of this spectrum of Addiction and easily justifies an entry there. Indeed, in Behavioral addiction, travel is named & linked. DadaNeem (talk) 22:26, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

You've probably noticed that I re-added it with a few entries following a reorganization of the template. Seppi333 (Insert ) 23:11, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

Dependence tag[edit]

Addiction and dependence glossary[1][2][3][4]
  • addiction – a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences
  • addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing
  • addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing
  • dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake)
  • drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
  • drug withdrawal – symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use
  • physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens)
  • psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)
  • reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them
  • rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive and desirable or as something to approach
  • sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it
  • substance use disorder – a condition in which the use of substances leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment or distress
  • tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose

Thanks for getting back to me User: Seppi333. I may be a bit tired (due to Wikipedia addiction!) but wonder what's the difference between Dependence and Behavioral addiction? They both seem to be there or thereabouts. DadaNeem (talk) 23:16, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

See the glossary to the right. Seppi333 (Insert ) 23:18, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Edit: I should probably add that a behavioral dependence is essentially the same thing as a drug dependence; the withdrawal syndrome occurs as a consequence of no longer engaging in a behavior (consistent exercise, for example, induces psychological dependence in most people). Seppi333 (Insert ) 23:21, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

Transcluded references[edit]

refs

References

  1. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.
  2. ^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681. PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement ... Another ΔFosB target is cFos: as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated state.41. ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict.
  3. ^ "Glossary of Terms". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  4. ^ Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (4): 363–371. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. PMID 26816013. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
    Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.

Reward disorder or reinforcement disorder[edit]

I think that this template should refer to "reward disorder" not "reinforcement disorder". Reward is a bit more fundamental. Reinforcement is tied into operant conditioning and it depends if you are talking about positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Reward system has a section on addiction reward system#Addiction while reinforcement does not.--Penbat (talk) 10:16, 9 April 2017 (UTC)

@Penbat: Addiction → positive reinforcement; dependence → negative reinforcement. Seppi333 (Insert ) 10:26, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
In any event, it's not really my term; I used that title as the heading because it's the title of a textbook chapter (see the first ref listed in the collapse tab above this section). Seppi333 (Insert ) 10:29, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
If this was robust enough it should be possible to add a subsection on addiction to reinforcement#Applications. Currently there are only two mentions of "addiction" in the reinforcement body text, both mentions uncited. The inclusion of the {{addiction glossary}} and {{Reinforcement disorders}} templates in reinforcement seem difficult to justify. I see there are refs associated with {{addiction glossary}} which relate to reinforcement but they need to be integrated into the reinforcement body text. --Penbat (talk) 11:02, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
I agree, the reinforcement article needs to be expanded on this topic. Seppi333 (Insert ) 11:19, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
Do u have the necessary knowledge because I dont.--Penbat (talk) 11:22, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
Yes, I'm very familiar with the topic, but I won't have time to work on this until next weekend. Seppi333 (Insert ) 12:41, 9 April 2017 (UTC)
Cool. It doesnt have to be brilliant but a couple of paragraphs ought to be in an addiction subsection in reinforcement#Applications and potentially more detail in the addiction article itself.--Penbat (talk) 15:59, 9 April 2017 (UTC)

───────────────────────── Update: I meant to add this content last week, but it slipped my mind. I'll leave a reminder for myself to do it after I finish moving sometime later next week. I'm going to be busy packing and driving across the United States between now and then. If I haven't started working on it by May 1st, please leave me a reminder. There's a fair amount of content in other articles about the role of reinforcement in addiction that I could just copy and paste, with a little revision, into the reinforcement article. Consequently, it shouldn't be too much work for me to add an adequate summary of how positive reinforcement and conditioned reinforcement mediate addiction. However, adding content on how negative reinforcement mediates dependence will require me to go back into sources I've already read and/or search for new medical reviews on the topic in order to adequately cover it. To my knowledge, there isn't an adequate and well-cited summary of how negative reinforcement is involved in dependence anywhere on Wikipedia at the moment. Seppi333 (Insert ) 12:04, 20 April 2017 (UTC)

Cool. I have had a trawl myself of Wiki articles that mention reinforcement including addction. There are quite a few but most dont seem to be cited. If they were I would have copied and pasted stuff myself into reinforcement, although I did copy and paste some cited stuff eg Praise#As_behavioral_reinforcement.--Penbat (talk) 12:39, 20 April 2017 (UTC)
  • In my view "reinforcement disorder" is a better term, partly because the addictive potential of opiates and tranquilizers comes largely from negative reinforcement, i.e. suppression of pain and suffering. Looie496 (talk) 14:41, 9 April 2017 (UTC)