Talk:List of Latin-script digraphs

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I am sorry to see but this article is useless to the majority of Wikipedia users. It is way to technical and the average reader. It is filled with linguistic jargon and thus the article can only be understood by linguists... and they probably already know (talk) 11:58, 9 August 2015 (UTC) 9-8-2015


I'm not sure ough has it’s place here, doesn't reprensent a single phoneme. Am I wrong ? --moyogo 18:27, 1 April 2007 (UTC)

I think we should place all discrete (Latin) letter combinations here. The template's grown beyond its name. BioTube 21:15, 24 May 2007 (UTC)

To do list[edit]

Added some more. Putting the languages here to keep track: Iraqw, Naro, Hmong, Sandawe, romanized Yi, Chipewyan, Tlingit, Yup'ik, Xhosa, German, Dutch, Irish, Bari, Tuu. kwami (talk) 21:17, 28 July 2008 (UTC)

We still need nasal vowels. kwami (talk) 15:36, 29 July 2008 (UTC)

  • Tibetan Pinyin: an en in on un än ön ün ain oin. Fongbe: also ɔn, ɛn.

Arbëresh hj,

  • Chamorro & Filipino ñg,

Italian gl, gli, sci,

  • Swedish kj, rs, sk, si, ti, stj,
  • Walloon jh, xh, oen, ån (/ɑ~/ ~ /ɔ~/)
  • Malay sy
  • French old oŷ, aû; /j/ il /s/ sç (acquiesça) /Z/ ge (geôle) /ε/ aî eî /wa/ oê (poêle), oî /u/ oû /ø/ eû /ɛ̃/ în, ym (thym), yn (syncope)

/t/ pt

  • Yanyuwa, palatal/front velar yk /ɡ̟/, nyk /ⁿɡ̟/, nyng /ŋ̟/. + nth) ⁿd (nd) ⁿɖ (rnd) ⁿḏ (nj) ⁿɡ̟ (nyk) ⁿɡ̱ (ngk).
  • Shona bh, dh, dy, ty, mbw, sw, vh, ps, bz, tsv, dzv, svw, zvw, nzv, zvc, svc, sw, zw, mh
  • Eng. kn, cn (cnidarian, acne), mn, gm (gmina, paradigm), gn (gnat, feign), lk? lm? tth? (Matthew)
  • Breton ilh /ʎ/

Yet to add:

  • French /k/ cch (saccharine) cqu (jacquot, grecque) /s/ sth (isthme, asthme) /ε/ es? (chevesne)

More to add:

  • English: aye
  • Kinyarwanda rw /ɾɡw/, pw /pk/, bw /bɡ/, mw /mŋ/, my /mɲ/, tw /tkw/, dw /dɡw/, cw /tʃkw/, by /bdʒ/
    • How are these digraphs rather than highly variable realizations of <w> (and <y>)? --Trɔpʏliʊmblah 15:15, 21 April 2009 (UTC)
      • The probably aren't, which is why they're still sitting here. kwami (talk) 15:45, 21 April 2009 (UTC)
  • Ju/'hoan dsh, ds, tc, tš, dšh, dch, djh, tšh, tch, tjh, dš', dc, zj, sj, mq, dch, nch, dcg, dqh, nqh, dqg, nxh, dxg, (dxh), gç, dçh, çh, nç, nçh, dçg, çg, aqn, oqn

kwami (talk) 09:09, 9 August 2008 (UTC)


tš dx tx
was used in the 1975 orthography of Juǀʼhoansi for [].
tj kg dg tg zj sj gc c’ nc cg gq qh q’ nq cq gç çh ç’ nç çg gx xh x’ nx cx
was used in the 1987 orthography of Juǀʼhoansi for [].
ds tz tc dc tj kx dx tx tk mq mh aq oq in an on un
  • Malagasy ntr, ndr

Anyone have a retroflex sr?

mh-, nh-, lh-, rh- (tone 1)
aa, oo, ee, ii, uu, yy (tone 3)
iu, yu, eu
ia, ya, yea
ua, wa, oa
au, ao, aw
ai, ae, ay
ou, oou, ow
uo, wo, uoo [exception of u, w, o]
-nn, -nq (tone 4)

Red links before the recent anonymous mass addition of Amerindian digraphs: äu, ds, mv, qx, auw, ngw, nkp. kwami (talk) 08:46, 29 September 2008 (UTC)

Yet more coming. Adding more to the list. --Master of the Aztecs (talk) 22:00, 9 January 2009 (UTC)

  • Heiltsuk: 'ǎ, gv, ǧv, kv, qv, xv, x̌v
  • Muskogee: vo
  • Arrernte: pm, kng, thn, tn, tny
  • Halq'eméylem: shxw?
  • Lakhota: aŋ, iŋ, uŋ, kȟ, tȟ, pȟ --Master of the Aztecs (talk) 22:05, 9 January 2009 (UTC)
Hey, AM. Many of these are sequences, not digraphs. For example Lakota: I know the dictionaries state that kȟ, tȟ, pȟ are digraphs, but AFAICT they are simply sequences of k, t, p plus ȟ. (aŋ, iŋ, uŋ, however, are actual digraphs.) kwami (talk) 20:47, 12 January 2009 (UTC)
  • English: thl (Opothleyahola)
    • No, that's not part of English orthography. kwami (talk)

Also add:

Oto-Manguean: jl, jm, jn, jñ. -- (talk) 06:52, 28 March 2009 (UTC)

Yup'ik p', t', k' aren't really digraphs, but should add them to be complete. Also ug w tiebar. kwami (talk) 13:27, 20 April 2009 (UTC)

Yele dp, tp, (ngm), nm, ńm, lv, yw, md /n̠͡mt̠͡p/, mt, mg /ŋ͡mk͡p/, kn /kŋ/, dm /t̠͡pn̠͡m/, tm, km /k͡pŋ͡m/, tn, dn, plus many more if you allow for -y and -w (dny /t̠n̠ʲ/), which though are mostly predictable. — kwami (talk) 06:32, 14 August 2010 (UTC)

Mass red links[edit]

Moving here. After six weeks, anon. has yet to develop them.

äw ąw ą̈w ąy bv ds ḓz ë' gv ǧv hk hp ht iy ji kv pm qv qx ṱh tn uy vo xv x̌v zj .w

a'a aay auw awu ayi bvh e'e ë'ë i'i iya iyi kng n.g o'o thl thn tny u'u uwa uyi woo wuu

nhth shxw

kwami (talk) 00:06, 6 November 2008 (UTC)

Why all entries duplicated?[edit]

What is the added value of duplicating each entry? It would be easier to follow the flow of the table if entries like "Ab ab" would be replaced by "ab". −Woodstone (talk) 07:23, 6 August 2008 (UTC)

I think it's because capitalization rules vary. So, the capital form of <ch> is <Ch>, but the capital of <ij> is <IJ>. "Ij" is incorrect. However, when a digraph occurs in more than one language, the capitalization rules may differ. I don't think we'd lose anything by removing the capital forms and leaving that info for the articles. kwami (talk) 08:05, 6 August 2008 (UTC)


Only one or two ejectives are in the table, when the base form wasn't otherwise attested. But there are some interesting combos of these too, such as Tlingit x'w. Are these something we want to include? What about the click digraphs in Nama etc.? —Preceding unsigned comment added by Kwamikagami (talkcontribs)


I moved this discussion from Template talk:Digraphs, since the point of this article is to replace that link farm. kwami (talk) 12:48, 20 April 2009 (UTC)

Australian English[edit]

From the article: "‹oa› is used in English, where it commonly represents the /oʊ/ sound as in road, coal, boast, coaxing, etc". Emphasis mine. I don't know about your English dialect, but in mine, Australian, coal rhymes with role or pole, whereas the other examples rhyme with toast. Not the same thing. Peter Greenwell (talk) 00:06, 19 February 2010 (UTC)

Japanese romaji[edit]

Is hy a digraph in Japanese romaji? -- (talk) 19:14, 14 April 2010 (UTC)

No, it's just h + y. — kwami (talk) 06:25, 14 August 2010 (UTC)


äu› is used in German orthography to represent the diphthong /ɔʏ/ in declension of native words with au; otherwise, eu is used.

The word 'native' was added with the explanation "There are words like Lothar Matthäus [maˈtɛːʊs]." I don't see how 'native' helps account for that! Say rather something like: declension of words with au, and to represent Latin ‹aeu›...

Tamfang (talk) 22:28, 17 January 2011 (UTC)

But <aeu> ([æu]) is not a diphthong, it's rather [æ]+[u]. Thus, arguably, ‹äu› representing it is not a digraph, just an ‹ä›+‹u›. I like it with "native" more. No such user (talk) 08:40, 18 January 2011 (UTC)
Okay: In some Latin words, ‹äu› is not a digraph but represents two separate vowels.
Inserting 'native' implies that au in non-native words becomes eu; is that the case? —Tamfang (talk) 09:10, 18 January 2011 (UTC)
OK, I tried to clarify the entry. Feel free to tweak it further. No such user (talk) 10:23, 18 January 2011 (UTC)
Good job. —Tamfang (talk) 04:10, 19 January 2011 (UTC)


Fj is called a digraph in the article about fjords, but there is no mention in digraph or here in this list. If I knew anything about it, I'd add it. But alas, I came here to learn something... -- SamuelWantman 02:27, 27 January 2013 (UTC)

I fail to see how it's a digraph. It's simply the sequence f-j. — kwami (talk) 02:33, 27 January 2013 (UTC)
Maybe someone meant fj exists as a typographic ligature. —Tamfang (talk) 19:08, 7 July 2013 (UTC)

Digraphs in Guarani[edit]

According to Guarani alphabet, the Guarani language uses ch, mb, nd, ng, nt, and rr; but it's not mentioned here. -- Beland (talk) 18:13, 2 October 2013 (UTC)

⟨wr⟩ is used in English for words which formerly began /wr/, now reduced to /r/ in virtually all dialects.[edit]

Are there any dialects that preserve this pronunciation? I understood that it originally indicated an r with lip-rounding, now a common pronunciation of r in many positions and dialects. Kostaki mou (talk) 17:59, 11 February 2016 (UTC)

There are apparently a few Scots dialects that preserve the distinction - you can click the link where it says "reduced to /r/" for a bit more information. W. P. Uzer (talk) 09:33, 15 February 2016 (UTC)


Missing (at least) two for Norwegian. "Dj" is rarely but sometimes used instead of "dsj" to represent /dʒ/ (ex: Djengis Khan). Other one is the diphton ui for /ʉ̫ʏ/ (ex: hui). — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:49, 21 April 2016 (UTC)

"Dj", as well as "Gj", "Hj" and "Lj", are also used in Swedish, but are all pronounced /j/ (i.e. the first letter is silent). For example djur, gjuta, hjärna, ljus. The /dʒ/ sound is not used at all in the Swedish language, not even in loan words or names (/j/ is used instead) --Crashie (talk) 15:33, 22 April 2017 (UTC)