Temple of Bacchus
|Temple of Bacchus|
|Completed||late 2nd or early 3rd century|
|Height||31 m (102 ft)|
|Size||66 by 35 m (217 by 115 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Main contractor||Commissioned by Antoninus Pius|
The temple of Bacchus may refer to any temple to the Roman wine god Bacchus or to temples of other gods with which he was equated in antiquity, such as the Greek Dionysus. In particular, the Temple of Bacchus at Baalbek, a World Heritage site, is one of the best preserved and grandest Roman temple ruins in the world. It and its ornamentation served as an influential model for Neoclassical architecture.
The temple was commissioned by Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and designed by an unknown architect and built close to the courtyard in front of the larger temple of Jupiter-Baal. The period of construction is generally considered between 150 CE to 250 CE. When the temple complex fell into disrepair, the Temple of Bacchus was protected by the rubble of the rest of the site's ruins. The temple is slightly smaller than Temple of Jupiter and is 66m long, 35m wide, and 31m high. Its walls are adorned by forty-two unfluted Corinthian columns, nineteen of which remain upright in position standing 19 m high. The columns support a richly carved entablature. Inside, the cella is decorated with Corinthian half-columns flanking two levels of niches on each side, containing scenes from the birth and life of Bacchus. The adyton (inner shrine) stands above a flight of steps. Some historic Roman coins depict the structure of this temple along with Temple of Jupiter. The storm god Ba'al was worshipped in this temple.
The temple is known for its impressive dimensions, richly decorated stone work and monumental gate with Baccic figures. The decorative stone carving include rows of heads of lions and bulls which were also worshipped.
- Sear, Frank (1982). Roman Architecture. UK: B T Batsford Ltd, UK. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Butcher, Kevin (2003). Roman Syria and the Near East. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 9780892367153. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Temple of Bacchus in Baalbek.|
- The Temple of Bacchus at Great Buildings