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Temple of Garni

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Temple of Garni
Garni Temple 02.JPG
The temple in 2013
Temple of Garni is located in Armenia
Temple of Garni
Location within Armenia
General information
StatusMuseum (part of a larger protected area)
occasional Hetanist (neopagan) shrine
TypePagan temple or tomb[1][2]
Architectural styleAncient Greek, Ancient Roman
LocationGarni, Kotayk Province, Armenia
Coordinates40°06′45″N 44°43′49″E / 40.112421°N 44.730277°E / 40.112421; 44.730277Coordinates: 40°06′45″N 44°43′49″E / 40.112421°N 44.730277°E / 40.112421; 44.730277
Elevation1,400 m (4,593 ft)[3]
Completed1st or 2nd century AD[1]
ManagementArmenian Ministry of Culture
Height10.7 metres (35 ft)[a]
Technical details
MaterialBasalt
Size15.7 by 11.5 m (52 by 38 ft)[4]
Design and construction
ArchitectAlexander Sahinian (reconsutrction, 1969–75)

The Temple of Garni (Armenian: Գառնիի տաճար, Gaṙnii tačar)[5][b] is the only standing Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia and the former Soviet Union. Built in the Ionic order, it is located in the village of Garni, in central Armenia. It is the best-known structure and symbol of pre-Christian Armenia.

The structure was probably built by king Tiridates I in the first century AD as a temple to the sun god Mihr. After Armenia's conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century, it was converted into a royal summer house of Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. According to some scholars it was not a temple but a tomb and thus survived the destruction of pagan structures. It collapsed in a 1679 earthquake. Renewed interest in the 19th century led to excavations at the site in early and mid-20th century, and its eventual reconstruction between 1969 and 1975, using the anastylosis method. It is one of the main tourist attractions in Armenia and the central shrine of Hetanism (Armenian neopaganism).

Location[edit]

The temple is at the edge of a triangular cliff which overlooks the ravine of the Azat River and the Gegham mountains.[6] It is a part of the fortress of Garni,[c] one of the oldest fortresses in Armenia,[7] that was strategically significant for the defense of the major cities in the Ararat plain.[6] It is mentioned as castellum Gorneas in the first-century Annals of Tacitus.[8] The site is in the village of Garni, in Armenia's Kotayk Province and includes the temple, a Roman bath with a partly preserved mosaic floor with a Greek inscription,[9] a royal summer palace, other "paraphernalia of the Greco-Roman world",[10] the seventh century church of St. Sion and other objects (e.g., medieval khachkars).[11]

History[edit]

Foundation date and function[edit]

The precise construction date of the temple is unknown and is subject to debate. In Armenian historiography, the dominant view is that it was built in 77 AD, during the reign of king Tiridates I of Armenia.[12][4] This view has been accepted by some scholars.[13] The date is calculated based on a Greek inscription,[d] discovered by the painter Martiros Saryan in July 1945 at the Garni cemetery, recently brought from a nearby water mill.[14][15] It names Tiridates the Sun (Helios Tiridates) as the founder of the temple.[6][16] Early medieval historian Movses Khorenatsi incorrectly attributed the inscription to Tiridates III.[17] Most scholars now attribute the inscription to Tiridates I.

The following includes an image of the inscription as it stands near the temple today, its textual reconstruction by Ashot G. Abrahamian,[18] an English translation by James R. Russell,[19] and an alternative reading and translation by Poghos Ananian, translated into English by Vrej Nersessian.[20]

Image Greek text[18] Translation by Russell[21] Reading by Ananian[20]
Greek inscription of Tiridates I, Garni.jpg
Tiridates Greek reconstruction.png
Ἣλιος Τιριδάτης [ὁ μέγας]
μεγάλης Ἀρμενίας ἄνα[κτος]
ὡς δεσπότης. Αἴκτισε ναΐ[διον]
βασιλίσ[σ]α τὸν ἀνίκητον κασ[ιν ἐνι]
αιτούς. Αι. Τῆς βασιλεί[ας αὐτου]
με[γαλείας]. Ὑπὸ ἐξουσίᾳ στεγάν[ου]
λίτουργος τῷ μεγάλῳ σπ[ῆι εὔχεσθε]
μετὰ ματήμι καὶ εὐχαρ[ιστίαν εὐχήν]
τοῦ μαρτυρίου.
The Sun Tiridatēs
of Greater Armenia, lord
as despot, built a temple
for the queen; the invincible...
in the eleventh year of his reign.
...Under the protection of the...
may the priest to the great cave (?)
in the vain (?) of the witness and thanks.
The Sun God Tiridates,
uncontested king of Great Armenia
built the temple
and the impregnable fortress
in the eleventh year of his reign
when Mennieay was hazarapet [chiliarch]
and Amateay was sparapet [commander].

Considering that the inscription says the temple was built in the eleventh year of reign of Tiridates I, the temple is believed to have been completed in 77 AD.[17][e] The date is primarily linked to Tiridates I's visit to Rome in 66 AD, where he was crowned by Roman emperor Nero.[f] To rebuild the city of Artaxata, destroyed by the Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Nero gave Tiridates 50 million drachmas and provided him with Roman craftsmen. Upon his return to Armenia Tiridates began a major project of reconstruction, which included rebuilding the fortified city of Garni. It is during this period that the temple is thought to have been built.[26] Some scholars argue that the temple may have been built on top of a Urartian temple.[27][28]

In Armenian historiography, the temple is commonly believed to have been dedicated to Mihr,[31] the sun god in the Zoroastrian-influenced Armenian mythology and the equivalent of Mithra. Tiridates, like other Armenian monarchs, considered Mihr their patron. Some scholars have argued that, given the historical context during which the temple was built, i.e. after returning from Rome as king, it would seem natural that Tiridates dedicated the temple to his patron god.[26] Furthermore, in 2011[32] white marble sculptures of bull hooves have been discovered some 20 metres (66 ft) from the temple which could possibly be the remains of a sculpture of the god Mihr, who was often portrayed in a fight with a bull.[33]

Vrej Nersessian argues that while the "design and ornament are typically Roman, the workmen were local, with experience of carving basalt."[17]

Mausoleum or tomb[edit]

Not all scholars are convinced that the structure was a temple. Christina Maranci calls it an Ionic structure with an "unclear function." She writes that "while often identified as temple, it may have been a funerary monument, perhaps serving as a royal tomb."[34] Arshak Fetvadjian described the temple as an "edifice of Roman style for the pantheistic idol cult fashionable in the days of the Arshakists."[35] In 1950 Kamilla Trever reported that according to a different interpretation of the extant literature and the evidence provided by coinage, the erection of the temple started in 115 AD. The pretext for its construction would have been the declaration of Armenia as a Roman province[17] and the temple would have housed the imperial effigy of Trajan.[36]

Richard D. Wilkinson (1982) suggests that the building is a tomb, probably constructed circa 175 AD. This theory is based on a comparison to Graeco-Roman buildings of western Asia Minor (e.g. Nereid Monument, Belevi Mausoleum, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus),[8] the discovery of nearby graves that date to about that time, and the discovery of a few marble pieces of the Asiatic sarcophagus style. Wilkinson furthermore states that there is no direct evidence linking the structure to Mithras or Mihr, and that the Greek inscription attributed to Tiridates I probably refers to a former fortress at the Garni site and not to the colonnaded structure now called the Temple of Garni. He also notes that it is unlikely that a pagan temple would survive destruction during Armenia's 4th-century conversion to Christianity when all other such temples were destroyed. Wilkinson suggests that the structure may be a tomb erected in honor of one of the Romanized kings of Armenia of the late 2nd century.[37][13]

James R. Russell finds the view of the structure being a temple of Mihr baseless. He is also skeptical that the Greek inscription refers to the temple.[38] He opines that the "splendid mausoleum" was erected by Romans living in Armenia.[39] He writes that "Wilkinson convincingly argues [that it] was a tomb of the second century, possibly of one of the Romanized kings of Armenia," possibly Sohaemus, and that it is "unique for the country and testifies to a particularly strong Roman presence."[40]

Maranci notes that its entablature is similar to that of the temple of Antoninus Pius at Sagalassos in western Asia Minor and to the columns of Attalia and concludes that imperial Roman workmen may have been involved in its construction.[34]

Christian period[edit]

In the early fourth century,[g] when Armenian King Tiridates III adopted Christianity as a state religion, virtually all known pagan places of worship were destroyed.[46] The Temple of Garni is the only pagan,[h] Hellenistic,[52] or Greco-Roman[53] structure to have survived the widespread destruction. It remains unknown why it was exempted from destruction, but Tananyan argues that its status as a "masterpiece of art" possibly saved it from destruction.[54] Robert H. Hewsen suggested that it was likely a tomb of a Roman-appointed king of Armenia, not a temple and in the seventh century a church was built immediately next to it and not in its place.[7]

An idealized image of Khosrovidukht from the early 20th century.

According to Movses Khorenatsi a "cooling-off house" was built within the fortress of Garni for Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. Some scholars believe the temple was thus turned into a royal summer house.[6][50] As its purpose changed the temple underwent some changes. The sacrificial altars in the outside of the temple and the cult statue in the cella were removed. The opening in the roof for skylight was closed. The stone structures for removal of water from the roof were also removed, while the entrance of the temple was transformed and adjusted for residence.[54]

There is a series of Arabic inscriptions on the walls of the temple, dated 9th-10th centuries,[13] possibly indication an effort to convert it into a mosque.[27] There is also an Armenian inscription on the entrance wall of the temple. Dated 1291, it was left by princess Khoshak of Garni, the granddaughter of Ivane Zakarian (commander of Georgian-Armenian forces earlier in the 13th century) and Khoshak's son, Amir Zakare. It tells about the release of the population of Garni from taxes in forms of wine, goats, and sheep.[55] Simeon of Aparan, a poet and educator, made the last written record about the temple before its collapse in his 1593 poem titled "Lamentation on the throne of Trdat" («Ողբանք ի վերայ թախթին Տրդատայ թագաւորին»).[56][57] The Garni fort was damaged when it was captured twice during the Ottoman–Persian Wars, in 1604 and 1638.[58]

Collapse and decline[edit]

The entire colonnade of the temple collapsed in a devastating earthquake on June 4, 1679,[59][60] the epicenter of which was located in the gorge of Garni.[61][62] Most of the original building blocks remained scattered at the site, allowing the building to be reconstructed. As much as 80% of the original masonry and ornamental friezes were at the site by the late 1960s.[63]

European travelers mentioned the temple in their works as early as the 17th century.[1] Jean Chardin (1673, who visited Armenia before the earthquake) and James Morier (1810s)[64] both incorrectly described it through local informants since they never actually visited the site.[8] Upon Robert Ker Porter's visit the fortress was called "Tackt-i-Tiridate" ("throne of Tiridates" in Persian) by the locals. Ker Porter described what he saw as follows: "a confused pile of beautiful fragments; columns, architraves, capitals, friezes, all mingled together in broken disorder."[8][65] Another European to visit and document the ruins of the temple was DuBois de Montpereux, who referred to the fortress as "Takh Terdat".[8] In his 1839 book he proposed a reconstruction plan.[8]

J. Buchan Telfer, Captain in the Royal Navy and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, visited the site in the 1870s and removed a fragment of the architrave bearing a lion head was removed and bequeathed it to the British Museum in 1907.[66] Telfer described the site as follows:

...a large heap of hewn and sculpted grey porphyry piled in utter confusion [...] it is a temple rather than a palace that is indicated by these superb remains; and their Grecian style of architecture may have been due to a desire on the part of the monarch to introduce a taste for higher art among his people [...] portions of the entablature, of the pediment, of cornices, the bases, etc, lie tumbled in marvellous disorder.[67]

Reconstruction[edit]

A fountain dedicated to the reconstruction by Sahinian (1978)

The archaeologist Aleksey Uvarov proposed putting de Montpereux's reconstruction plan into action at the fifth All-Russian Archaeological Congress in 1880. He proposed that the temple's stones be moved to Tiflis (in Georgia) and be reconstructed there according to de Montpereux's plan.[73] Lori Khatchadourian suggests that the proposal "could be read as an attempt at co-opting Armenia's Roman past to the glory of Russia through the relocation of its most iconic monument to the nearest administrative center."[73] The governor of Erivan, citing technical difficulties, did not implement the plan.[74]

In the subsequent decades scholars such as Nikoghayos Buniatian, Babken Arakelyan, and Nikolay Tokarsky studied the temple.[54] In 1909–11, during an excavation led by Nicholas Marr, the temple ruins were uncovered. Buniatian sought to reconstruct the temple in the 1930s.[74] In 1949 the Armenian Academy of Sciences began major excavations of the Garni fortress site led by Babken Arakelyan. Architectural historian Alexander Sahinian focused on the temple itself. It was not until almost twenty years later, on December 10, 1968, that the Soviet Armenian government approved the reconstruction plan of the temple. A group led by Sahinian began reconstruction works in January 1969. It was completed by 1975,[75] almost 300 years after it was destroyed in an earthquake.[29][76] The temple was almost entirely rebuilt using its original stones, except the missing pieces which were filled with blank (undecorated) stones.[74] In 1978 a fountain-monument dedicated to Sahinian's reconstruction was erected near the temple.[76]

Architecture[edit]

Overview[edit]

The temple follows the general style of classical Ancient Greek architecture which originated in the seventh century BC.[77] Scholars have variously described the structure as Greek, Roman or Greco-Roman and have usually linked it to Hellenistic art, often pointing out its distinct features and local Armenian influence.[78] Some scholars have emphasized the Armenian influence on its architecture, calling it "Armenian-Hellenic" (Sahinian), while others have completely dismissed this view, calling it a "foreign structure on Armenian soil".[79] Toros Toramanian, for instance, stressed the singularity of the temple as a Roman-style building on the Armenian Highlands and "remarked that the Garni construction essentially had no influence on contemporary or subsequent Armenian architecture."[80] Sahinian, on the other hand, called it a "product of the architectural-constructional art of the Hellenistic period" that entirely resembles the 9th century BC Urartian Musasir temple.[81]

The temple is a peripteros built on an elevated podium.[82][74] It is constructed of grey basalt quarried locally[82][8] and without the use of mortar.[5][34] The blocks are instead bound together by iron and bronze clamps.[34] The temple is composed of a portico (pronaos) and a cella (naos). The temple is supported by a total of twenty-four 6.54-metre (21.5 ft) high columns of the Ionic order: six in the front and back and eight on the sides (the corner columns are listed twice).[82][77] Based on a comparative analysis, Sahinian proposed that the design of the columns have their origins in Asia Minor.[83]

Exterior[edit]

The triangular pediment depicts sculptures of plants and geometrical figures.[84] The staircase has nine[74] unusually high steps—30 centimetres (12 in) high, about twice as high as the average height of stairs.[84] Tananyan suggests that the unusually high stairs compel a person ascending the staircase to feel humbled and make physical effort to reach the altar.[84] On both sides of the staircase there are roughly square pedestals. Atlas, the Greek mythological Titan who held up the earth, is sculpted on both pedestals in a way seemingly trying to hold the entire temple on its shoulders. It is assumed that, originally, pedestals held up altars (sacrificial tables).[84]

The exterior of the temple is richly decorated. The frieze depicts a continuous line of acanthus. Furthermore, there are ornaments on the capital, architrave, and soffit. The stones in the front cornice have projecting sculptures of lion heads.[33]

The cella

Cella[edit]

The cella of the temple is 7.132 metres (23.40 ft) high, 7.98 metres (26.2 ft) long, and 5.05 metres (16.6 ft) wide.[84] No more than 20 people can fit inside the cella.[85] Due to the relatively small size of the cella, it has been proposed that a statue once stood inside and the ceremonies were held in the outside.[33] The cella is lit from two sources: the disproportionately large entrance of 2.29 by 4.68 metres (7 ft 6 in by 15 ft 4 in) and the opening in the roof of 1.74 by 1.26 metres (5.7 by 4.1 ft).[86]

Current state and use[edit]

Tourist attraction[edit]

Vardavar, a popular summer festival of pre-Christian (pagan) origins, being celebrated near the temple in 2014

The temple is widely considered the most important monument of ancient and pre-Christian Armenia.[i][53][87] It is the sole standing[j] Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia and the former Soviet Union.[k] Art historian Antony Eastmond describes it as the "easternmost building of the Graeco-Roman world."[92]

It became a tourist destination even before its reconstruction in the 1970s.[93] Today, it is, along with the nearby medieval monastery of Geghard, one of the main tourist attraction sites in Armenia.[94][95] Most people visit the two sites together.[96] They are collectively known as Garni–Geghard (Գառնի-Գեղարդ).[97] In 2013 some 200,000 people visited the temple.[98] The number of visitors almost doubled by 2019, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Garni received almost 390,000 visitors, including 250,000 Armenians and 137,400 foreigners.[99]

Notable individuals who have visited the temple include presidents of Greece (Karolos Papoulias),[100] Cyprus (Demetris Christofias),[101] and Austria (Heinz Fischer),[102] the Spanish opera singer Montserrat Caballé,[103] American TV personalities Khloé and Kim Kardashian,[104] and Conan O'Brien,[105] Michaëlle Jean, Secretary-General of the Francophonie,[106] Japan's Foreign Minister Taro Kono,[107] Russian pop star Philipp Kirkorov.[108]

Preservation[edit]

The temple and the fortress are part of the Garni Historical and Cultural Museum Reserve («Գառնի» պատմա-մշակութային արգելոց-թանգարան), which occupies 3.5 hectares (8.6 acres) and is supervised by the Service for the Protection of Historical Environment and Cultural Museum Reservations, an agency attached to the Ministry of Culture of Armenia.[98] The government-approved list of historical and cultural monuments includes 11 objects within the site.[11]

A neopagan ritual in front of the temple

In a 2006 survey the state of conservation of Garni was rated by over three-quarters of the visitors as "good" or "very good".[96] In 2011 UNESCO awarded the Museum-Reservation of Garni the Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes for "measures taken to preserve its cultural vestiges, and the emphasis placed on efforts to interpret and open the site for national and international visitors."[109]

Incidents[edit]

On September 25, 2014 a Russian tourist in his early 20s, defaced the temple by spray painting "В мире идол ничто" (literally translating to "In the world, idol is nothing").[110][111] The painting was cleaned days later.[112] The Armenian state service for protection of historical and cultural reserves filed a civil lawsuit against Nikitenko in February 2015, in which the agency requested 839,390 AMD (~$1,760) to recover the damage resulting from vandalism.[113] In an April 2015 decision the Kotayk Province court ruled to fine him the requested amount.[114]

On September 4, 2021 a sanctioned private wedding ceremony took place at the site causing much controversy.[115] The site was closed for visitors that day.[116] The local authorities of Garni said they had opposed it in a written statement to the Culture Ministry.[117] The Culture Ministry said the agency responsible for the preservation of the site had acted independently in allowing the event to take place.[118]

Neopagan shrine[edit]

Since 1990,[119] the temple has been the central shrine[120][121] of the small number of followers of Armenian neopaganism (close to Zoroastrianism) who hold annual ceremonies at the temple,[122] especially on March 21—the pagan New Year.[119][123] On that day, which coincides with Nowruz, the Iranian New Year, Armenian neopagans celebrate the birthday of the god of fire, Vahagn.[124] Celebrations by neopagans are also held during the summer festival of Vardavar, which has pre-Christian (pagan) origins.[125][126]

Notable events[edit]

The temple was depicted on the obverse side of 5,000-dram banknote, which was in use from 1995 to 2005.[127]

The torch of the first Pan-Armenian Games was lit near the temple on August 28, 1999.[128]

The square in front of the temple has been occasionally used as a venue for concerts:

In popular culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ «2.8 մ բարձրության ... հիմնապատվանդանի (պոդիումի) կենտրոնում տեղավորված աղոթատեղին (ցելլան կամ նաոսը), որն ունի ... 7.9 մ բարձրություն (ներառյալ թաղածածկը)»[4]
  2. ^ Also called Գառնու/Գառնիի հեթանոսական տաճար, Gaṙnu/Gaṙnii het’anosakan tačar, lit. "pagan temple of Garni".
  3. ^ Armenian: Գառնիի ամրոց, Gařnii amrots or Գառնու ամրոց, Gařnu amrots
  4. ^ "on a block of basalt 165 cm long, 50 cm high, and 79–80 cm thick; the letters are about 5 x 5.5 cm in size."[6]
  5. ^ This date was proposed by Alexander Sahinian[22] and has since gained general acceptance in Armenian historiography.[23]
  6. ^ After the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia (58–63) a peace treaty was signed according to which Tiridates would be crowned by Nero and thus became an ally of Rome.[24] In exchange, Rome recognized Armenia's independence.[25]
  7. ^ The traditional date is 301 AD,[41] first calculated by historian Mikayel Chamchian.[42] A growing number of authors argue that the correct date is 314 by citing the Edict of Milan.[43][44] Elizabeth Redgate writes that "the scholarly consensus is to prefer c. 314."[45]
  8. ^ "The monuments of Garni are the only vestiges of the pagan architecture of Armenia known to us. [...] The most important ruins are those of the temple"[47]
    "on the threshold of adopting Christianity as state religion, all pagan cultic structures (except the temple of Garni) were mercilessly destroyed"[48]
    "Armenia's only remaining pagan temple, at Garni"[49]
    "Գառնիի ճարտարապետական համալիրի անգին զարդն է տաճարը՝ հեթանոս հայության ճարտարապետական ժառանգությունից պահպանված միակ հիշատակարանը"[50]
    "The obliteration of pagan vestiges was so complete that almost no architectural remains or temple records have survived ... The only exception is the Temple of Garni"[46]
  9. ^ «Գառնիի տաճարը ... որ ամրոցի և անտիկ Հայաստանի ճարտարապետական կարևորագույն հուշարձանն է»[4]
  10. ^ At the Olbia site, on Ukraine's Black Sea coast, there is an ruined Ionic temple of Apollo (dated 4th-2nd centuries BC).[88][89]
  11. ^ Variously described as:
    • Adam T. Smith: "the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building anywhere in the Soviet Union"[2]
    • Kamilla Trever: "...the fortress of Garni with its walls and towers, and most importantly, with its temple, the like of which we do not yet know on the territory of our Union."[90]
    • "It was restored in the 1970s and has the distinction of being the only Greco-Roman temple standing above ground in the entire Soviet Union."[91]
References
  1. ^ a b c Khatchadourian 2008, p. 251.
  2. ^ a b Smith, Adam T. (2012). "'Yerevan, My Ancient Erebuni': Archaeological Repertoires, Public Assemblages, and the Manufacture of a (Post-)Soviet Nation". In Charles W. Hartley; G. Bike Yazicioğlu; Adam T. Smith (eds.). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9781107016521. the unique temple-tomb at Garni, just east of Yerevan – the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building anywhere in the Soviet Union.
  3. ^ Հայաստանի Հանրապետության բնակավայրերի բառարան [Dictionary of Settlements of the Republic of Armenia] (PDF) (in Armenian). Yerevan: Centre of Geodesy and Cartography, Cadastre Committee of the Republic of Armenia. 2008. p. 51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-11. ԳԱՌՆԻ- գյուղ Կոտայքի մարզում ... Բնակավայրը գտնվում է ծովի մակերևույթից 1400 մ բարձրության վրա...
  4. ^ a b c d Harutyunyan 1992, p. 57.
  5. ^ a b Hakobian, T. Kh.; Melik-Bakhshian, St. T.; Barseghian, H. Kh. (1986). "Գառնիի տաճար [Temple of Garni]". Հայաստանի և հարակից շրջանների տեղանունների բառարան [Dictionary of Toponyms of Armenia and Surrounding Regions] Volume I (in Armenian). Yerevan University Press. p. 704.
  6. ^ a b c d e Russell 1987, p. 269.
  7. ^ a b Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-226-33228-4.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Khatchadourian 2008, p. 252.
  9. ^ Kiesling 2000, p. 52.
  10. ^ Roller, Duane W. (1998). The Building Program of Herod the Great. University of California Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780520209343.
  11. ^ a b "Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կոտայքի մարզի պատմության և մշակույթի անշարժ հուշարձանների պետական ցուցակ". arlis.am (in Armenian). Armenian Legal Information System. 24 December 2003. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015.
  12. ^ Eremian, S. T., ed. (1971). Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն, Հ. 1 [History of the Armenian People Vol. 1] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences. p. 925. 77թ.—Գառնի ամրոցի և տաճարի շինարարության ավարտը։
  13. ^ a b c Kiesling 2000, p. 51.
  14. ^ Abrahamian 1947, p. 61.
  15. ^ Manandian, Hakob (1946). Գառնիի հունարեն արձանագրությունը և Գառնիի հեթանոսական տաճարի կառուցման ժամանակը [The Greek inscription of Garni and the construction date of the pagan temple of Garni] (in Armenian). Yerevan: State University Press. (PDF)
  16. ^ Tananyan 2014, pp. 31–32.
  17. ^ a b c d Nersessian 2001, p. 101.
  18. ^ a b Abrahamian 1947, p. 66.
  19. ^ Russell 1987, pp. 269–270.
  20. ^ a b Ananian, Poghos (1994). "Գառնիի Յունարէն արձանագրութիւնը [The Greek inscription of Garni]". Bazmavep (in Armenian). San Lazzaro degli Armeni: Mekhitarist Order. 152: 111. cited and translated in Nersessian 2001, p. 103
  21. ^ Russell 1987, pp. 269-270.
  22. ^ Sahinian 1983.
  23. ^ Tananyan 2014, pp. 33–34.
  24. ^ Dando-Collins, Stephen (2010). The Great Fire of Rome: The Fall of the Emperor Nero and His City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0306818905.
  25. ^ Tananyan 2014, p. 34.
  26. ^ a b Tananyan 2014, p. 35.
  27. ^ a b c d "Garni 6: The Temple to Mythra". armenianheritage.org. Armenian Monuments Awareness Project (via ICOMOS Armenia). Archived from the original on 29 January 2022.
  28. ^ Trever 1953, p. 38.
  29. ^ a b c Petrosyan, Hamlet (2001). "Symbols of Armenian Identity: The Temple". In Abrahamian, Levon; Sweezy, Nancy (eds.). Armenian Folk Arts, Culture, and Identity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780253337047. The only surviving Hellenistic temple, the wonderful ionic-columned temple of Garni was built in the 1st century AD and dedicated to the sun god, Mithra (Mihr in Armenian).
  30. ^ Bauer-Manndorff 1981, p. 72.
  31. ^ [8][29][27][30]
  32. ^ "Գառնիում կցուցադրվի Միհր Աստծո արձանախմբի մաս հանդիսացող մարմարե «Ցլի գլուխը»" (in Armenian). Armenpress. 11 March 2021. Archived from the original on 16 March 2021.
  33. ^ a b c Tananyan 2014, p. 39.
  34. ^ a b c d Maranci, Christina (2018). The Art of Armenia: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0190269005.
  35. ^ Fetvadjian, Arshag (1964) [1958]. "Architecture in Armenia". In Kurkjian, Vahan (ed.). A History of Armenia. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p. 426.
  36. ^ Report by Kamilla Trever cited in Field, Henry; Price, Kathleen (1950). "Archaeological News, Russia". American Journal of Archaeology. 54 (4): 427. doi:10.2307/501010. JSTOR 501010. S2CID 191409715.
  37. ^ Wilkinson 1982, pp. 221–244.
  38. ^ Russell 1987, p. 270.
  39. ^ "Carmina Vahagni", originally published in Acta Antiqua 32.3-4, Budapest, 1989, p. 319; reproduced in Russell, James R. (2004). Armenian and Iranian Studies. Cambrdige, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 359.
  40. ^ "On the Armeno-Iranian Roots of Mithraism", originally published in Studies in Mithraism, J. Hinnells, ed., Rome: Bretschneider, 1994, p. 188; reproduced in Russell, James R. (2004). Armenian and Iranian Studies. Cambrdige, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 558.
  41. ^ Balakian, Peter (2009). The Burning Tigris. New York: HarperCollins. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-06-186017-1.
  42. ^ Panossian 2006, p. 106.
  43. ^ Panossian 2006, p. 42.
  44. ^ Hastings, Adrian; Mason, Alistair; Pyper, Hugh, eds. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-860024-4.
  45. ^ Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 9780631220374.
  46. ^ a b Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Ouzounian, Nourhan (2000). The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Oral Tradition to the Golden Age. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780814328156. The obliteration of pagan vestiges was so complete that almost no architectural remains or temple records have survived ... The only exception is the Temple of Garni...
  47. ^ Der Nersessian, Sirarpie (1969). The Armenians. New York: Praeger. p. 99. The monuments of Garni are the only vestiges of the pagan architecture of Armenia known to us. [...] The most important ruins are those of the temple built during the reign of Trdat I, shortly after ad 66, and which had survived until it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1679.
  48. ^ Grigoryan, Vahagn (2014). "Հայաստանի ճարտարապետության պատմության հիմնովին վերանայման խնդիրը [The Problem of Fundamental Revising the History of Armenian Architecture]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian). № 1 (1): 20.
  49. ^ Berman, Michael (2008). The Shamanic Themes in Armenian Folktales. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 9781847186218.
  50. ^ a b Tananyan 2014, p. 31.
  51. ^ Nersessian 2001, p. 100: "The pagan temple of Garni, dedicated to the god Mihr, is the only surviving Hellenistic building built by King Trdat I about 77 BC."
  52. ^ [29][51][27]
  53. ^ a b Holding, Deirdre (2014) [2003]. Armenia: with Nagorno Karabagh (4th ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 40. ISBN 9781841625553. By far the best known pre-Christian building is the sole-surviving example of Graeco-Roman architecture in Armenia, built at Garni...
  54. ^ a b c Tananyan 2014, p. 32.
  55. ^ Arakelian, B.N.; Karakhanian, G.H. (1962). Գառնի. 1949-1956 պեղումների արդյունքները [Garni. Volume III: Results of excavations of 1949-1956] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing. p. 45.
  56. ^ Tananyan 2014, p. 44.
  57. ^ Ghazinyan, A. A. (1974). "Դիմառնությունը միջնադարյան հայ բանաստեղծության մեջ [Impersonation in medieval Armenian literature]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian). № 5 (5): 40.
  58. ^ Harutyunyan 1992, p. 56.
  59. ^ Hakobyan, Tadevos (1979). Երևանի պատմությունը (1500–1800 ԹԹ.) [History of Yerevan (1500-1800)] (in Armenian). Yerevan State University Press. p. 327. ...երկրաշարժը տեղի է ունեցել 1679 թվականի հունիսի 4-ին։
  60. ^ Piruzyan, S. A. (2011). "Effects of multifocus earthquakes on seismic motion". Seismic Instruments. 47 (2): 118. doi:10.3103/S0747923911020071. S2CID 129102658. 1679 Yerevan (Garni) earthquake (M = 7.0, I = 9). The focus was located near Garni village, which is 20 km east of Yerevan. Historian eyewitnesses wrote a very detailed description of the event’s consequences, which were catastrophic in Yerevan and the settlements closest to the epicenter. The pagan Trdata Temple in Garni village was destroyed. This temple had been built in the 1st century and had a traditional ancient construction, namely, a massive floor supported by 12 stone columns placed along the perimeter of an elevated podium. The columns could not withstand the repeated quakes, and the entire colonnade of the temple collapsed.
  61. ^ Guidoboni, E.; Haroutiunian, R.; Karakhanian, A. (2003). "The Garni (Armenia) large earthquake on 14 June 1679: a new analysis". Journal of Seismology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 7 (3): 302. doi:10.1023/A:1024561622879. S2CID 126868275.
  62. ^ Hasrat'yan, Mourad (1995). "The medieval earthquakes of the Armenian Plateau and the historic towns of Ayrarat and Shirak (Dvin, Ani, Erevan)". Annali di Geofisica. Italian National Institute of Geophysics. 38 (5–6): 721.
  63. ^ Lang 1970, p. 146.
  64. ^ Morier, James (1818). A second journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, between the year 1810 and 1816. London: Longman. p. 339–340.
  65. ^ Porter 1821, p. 626.
  66. ^ "Fragment of a carved black basalt frieze". British Museum. Archived from the original on 5 September 2021. Described on the plinth and in WAA Transfer book for 11.12.52 as "From the palace of Tiridates", but actually from the temple (now restored)...
  67. ^ Telfer, J. Buchan (1876). The Crimea and Transcaucasia, being the narrative of a journey in the Kouban, in Gouria, Georgia, Armenia, Ossety, Imeritia, Swannety, and Mingrelia, and in the Tauric Range. Volume I. London: Henry S. King & Co. p. 222.
  68. ^ Porter 1821, p. 624.
  69. ^ Strzygowski 1918, p. 13.
  70. ^ Color pictures from before reconstruction can be found here.
  71. ^ Strzygowski 1918, p. 344.
  72. ^ "Լուսանկար՝ Գառնիի հեթանոսական տաճար, տեսքը՝ հյուսիսային ճակատից,". treasury.am (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 12 February 2022. Ստեղծման/Արտադրման ժամանակը՝ 1947թ.
  73. ^ a b Khatchadourian 2008, p. 256.
  74. ^ a b c d e Tananyan 2014, p. 33.
  75. ^ Donabédian, Patrick (2012). "Les architectes de l'Arm´enie m´edi´evale usaient-ils de dispositifs parasismiques ?". Revue des Études Arméniennes (in French): 172. On pourrait en dire autant du temple antique de Garni, dont une partie des maçonneries a été jetée dans le ravin lors du séisme de 1679 (puis remontée avant sa reconstruction en 1969-75 par Alek‘sandr Sahinyan).
  76. ^ a b ""Գառնի" պատմա- մշակութային արգելոց-թանգարան ["Garni" Historical-Cultural Museum-Reservation]". hushardzan.am (in Armenian). Service for the Protection of Historical Environment and Cultural Museum-Reservations, Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Armenia.
  77. ^ a b Tananyan 2014, p. 37.
  78. ^ Bauer-Manndorff 1981, p. 65: "Although at first glance the temple of Garni would seem alien to Armenian architecture, it is not purely Hellenistic for it also follows ancient local traditions."
  79. ^ Tananyan 2014, pp. 41–42.
  80. ^ Khatchadourian 2008, p. 272.
  81. ^ Sahinyan, Alekʻsandr (1983). Gaṛnii antik kaṛuytsʻneri chartarapetutʻyuně [Architcture of the ancient structures of Garni]. Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences Publishing. p. 235. Thus, peripteral composition of the Garny temple as a product of the architectural-constructional art of the Hellenistic period, by its entire structure resembles the Urartian temple of Musasir (IX с. В. C).
  82. ^ a b c Arakelyan, Babken (1968). "Excavations at Garni, 1949–1950". In Alekseyev, Valery (ed.). Contributions to the archaeology of Armenia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. p. 22. The temple is peripteral, built on a high podium, with 24 Ionic columns, 6 in front and back and 8 at each side; the corner columns are listed twice. It is constructed of gray basalt quarried at Garni.
  83. ^ Tananyan 2014, p. 41.
  84. ^ a b c d e Tananyan 2014, p. 38.
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  87. ^ Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2009). "Armenians". Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 9781438126760. Despite the dearth of surviving pre-Christian architecture, several sites have allowed archaeologists to learn something about the general pattern of pre-Christian building in Armenia. The most important of these is the site at Garni...
  88. ^ Bernhard, M. L.; Sztetyłło, Z. (1976). "OLBIA Ukraine". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. ...a temple of Apollo Delphinios (30-35 x 16 m) of the 4th-2d c. completely surrounded by porticos of Ionian columns...
  89. ^ Wilson, Nigel (2013). "Olbia". Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge. p. 510. ISBN 9781136788000. ...the Ionic temple of Apollo Delphinios...
  90. ^ Trever 1953, p. 23.
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  92. ^ Eastmond, Antony (2017). "Tamta and the Khwarazmians: The Battle of Garni". Tamta's World: The Life and Encounters of a Medieval Noblewoman from the Middle East to Mongolia. Cambridge University Press. p. 322. ISBN 9781107167568. Garni possesses the easternmost building of the Graeco-Roman world.
  93. ^ Lang 1970, p. 144.
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