Garni Temple

Coordinates: 40°06′45″N 44°43′49″E / 40.112421°N 44.730277°E / 40.112421; 44.730277
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Garni Temple
The temple in 2021
Garni Temple is located in Armenia
Garni Temple
Location within Armenia
General information
StatusMuseum (part of a larger protected area),
occasional Hetanist (neopagan) shrine
TypePagan temple or tomb[1][2]
Architectural styleAncient Greek/Roman
LocationGarni, Kotayk Province, Armenia
Coordinates40°06′45″N 44°43′49″E / 40.112421°N 44.730277°E / 40.112421; 44.730277
Completed1st or 2nd century AD[1]
ManagementArmenian Ministry of Culture
Height10.7 metres (35 ft)[a]
Technical details
Floor area15.7 by 11.5 m (52 by 38 ft)[3]
Design and construction
Architect(s)Alexander Sahinian (reconstruction, 1969–75)

The Garni Temple[b] is the only standing Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia. Built in the Ionic order, it is located in the village of Garni, in central Armenia, around 30 km (19 mi) east of Yerevan. It is the best-known structure and symbol of pre-Christian Armenia. It has been described as the "easternmost building of the Graeco-Roman world"[7][c] and the only extant Greco-Roman temple in the former Soviet Union.[d]

The structure was probably built by king Tiridates I in the first century AD as a temple to the sun god Mihr. After Armenia's conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century, it was converted into a royal summer house of Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. According to some scholars it was not a temple but a tomb, and thus survived the destruction of pagan structures. It collapsed in a 1679 earthquake. Renewed interest in the 19th century led to excavations at the site in the early and mid-20th century, and its eventual reconstruction between 1969 and 1975, using the anastylosis method. It is one of the main tourist attractions in Armenia and the central shrine of Hetanism (Armenian neopaganism).


The site is in the village of Garni, in Armenia's Kotayk Province. The temple is at the edge of a triangular promontory rising above the ravine of the Azat River and the Gegham mountains.[9] It is a part of the fortress of Garni,[e] one of Armenia's oldest,[10] that was strategically significant for the defense of the major cities in the Ararat plain.[9] Besides the temple, the site contains a Bronze Age cyclopean masonry wall, a cuneiform inscription by king Argishti I of Urartu (who called it Giarniani),[11] a Roman bath with a partly preserved mosaic floor with a Greek inscription,[12] ruins of palace, other "paraphernalia of the Greco-Roman world",[13] the medieval round church of St. Sion, and other objects (e.g., medieval khachkars).[14] It is situated at 1,400 m (4,600 ft) above sea level.[15] In the first century, Tacitus mentioned castellum Gorneas as a major fortress in his Annals.[16][11]

Date and function[edit]

The precise date and the classification of the structure as a temple remain topics of continual scholarly debate.[17] Christina Maranci calls it an Ionic structure with an "unclear function." She writes that "while often identified as temple, it may have been a funerary monument, perhaps serving as a royal tomb."[18]

The generally accepted view, especially in Armenian historiography, postulates that it was built in 77 AD, during the reign of king Tiridates I of Armenia.[f] The date is calculated based on a Greek inscription, which names Tiridates the Sun (Helios Tiridates) as the founder of the temple.[g][9][26] Movses Khorenatsi incorrectly attributed the inscription to Tiridates III, but most scholars now attribute it to Tiridates I.[27] The inscription states that the temple was constructed in the eleventh year of the reign of Tiridates, leading scholars to believe it was completed in 77 AD.[27][19] This date is calculated based on Tiridates's visit to Rome in 66 AD, during which he was crowned by the Roman emperor Nero.[h] To rebuild the city of Artaxata, destroyed by the Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Nero gave Tiridates 50 million drachmas and provided him with Roman craftsmen. Upon his return to Armenia, Tiridates began a major project of reconstruction, which included rebuilding the fortress of Garni.[30] It is during this period that the temple is thought to have been built.[31]

The Greek inscription of Tiridates I
Greek text[32] Translation by Russell[33] Reading by Ananian[34]
Ἣλιος Τιριδάτης [ὁ μέγας]
μεγάλης Ἀρμενίας ἄνα[κτος]
ὡς δεσπότης. Αἴκτισε ναΐ[διον]
βασιλίσ[σ]α τὸν ἀνίκητον κασ[ιν ἐνι]
αιτούς. Αι. Τῆς βασιλεί[ας αὐτου]
με[γαλείας]. Ὑπὸ ἐξουσίᾳ στεγάν[ου]
λίτουργος τῷ μεγάλῳ σπ[ῆι εὔχεσθε]
μετὰ ματήμι καὶ εὐχαρ[ιστίαν εὐχήν]
τοῦ μαρτυρίου.
The Sun Tiridatēs
of Greater Armenia, lord
as despot, built a temple
for the queen; the invincible...
in the eleventh year of his reign.
...Under the protection of the...
may the priest to the great cave (?)
in the vain (?) of the witness and thanks.
The Sun God Tiridates,
uncontested king of Great Armenia
built the temple
and the impregnable fortress
in the eleventh year of his reign
when Mennieay was hazarapet [chiliarch]
and Amateay was sparapet [commander].

In Armenia, the temple is commonly believed to have been dedicated to Mihr, the sun god in the Zoroastrian-influenced Armenian mythology and the equivalent of Mithra.[i][38] Tiridates, like other Armenian monarchs, considered Mihr his patron. Some scholars argue that, given the historical context in which the temple was constructed—specifically, after his return from Rome as king—it would be logical to assume that Tiridates dedicated the temple to his patron god.[31] Furthermore, in 2011, white marble sculptures of bull hooves were discovered some 20 metres (66 ft) from the temple, potentially the remnants of a Mihr sculpture, who was often portrayed in a fight with a bull.[39][40]

Scholars believe that Greeks or Romans were involved in its construction. Telfer believed that it was built by Greek workmen and its Grecian style reflects Tiridates's desire to "introduce a taste for higher art among his people."[41][42] Arshak Fetvadjian suggested that it was built by "Roman architects for Tiridat and probably for the pagan cult of the Græco-Roman gods."[43] Maranci found stylistic similarities with structures in Asia Minor and suggested that imperial Roman workmen may have taken part in its construction.[18] Vrej Nersessian argued that while the "design and ornament are typically Roman, the workmen were local, with experience of carving basalt."[27] Varazdat Harutyunyan believed that local workmen were also involved.[3]

Some scholars argue that it may have been built on top of a Urartian temple.[36][44]

Mausoleum or tomb[edit]

An aerial view

Not all scholars are convinced that the structure was a temple. Among early sceptics, Kamilla Trever suggested in 1950 that based on a different interpretation of the extant literature and the evidence provided by coinage, the erection of the temple started in 115 AD. The pretext for its construction would have been the declaration of Armenia as a Roman province[27] and the temple would have housed the imperial effigy of Trajan.[45]

In 1982 Richard D. Wilkinson suggested that the building is a tomb, probably constructed c. 175 AD in honor of one of the Romanized kings of Armenia of the late 2nd century. This theory is based on a comparison to Graeco-Roman buildings of western Asia Minor (e.g. Nereid Monument, Belevi Mausoleum, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus),[16] the discovery of nearby graves that date to about that time, and the discovery of a few marble pieces of the Asiatic sarcophagus style. Wilkinson furthermore states that there is no direct evidence linking the structure to Mithras or Mihr, and that the Greek inscription attributed to Tiridates I probably refers to the fortress and not to the colonnaded structure. He also notes that it is unlikely that a pagan temple would survive destruction during Armenia's 4th-century conversion to Christianity when all other such temples were destroyed.[46][21]

James R. Russell finds the view of the structure being a temple of Mihr baseless and is skeptical that the Greek inscription refers to the temple.[47] He suggested that the "splendid mausoleum" was erected by Romans living in Armenia.[48] Russell agreed with Wilkinson's interpretation that it was a 2nd century tomb, "possibly of one of the Romanized kings of Armenia," such as Sohaemus, and that it is "unique for the country and testifies to a particularly strong Roman presence."[49] Felix Ter-Martirosov also believed it was built in the latter half of the 2nd century.[50] Robert H. Hewsen argued, based on the construction of a church in the 7th century next to it rather than in its place, that the building was "more likely the tomb of one of the Roman-appointed kings of Armenia," such as Tiridates I or Sohaemus (r. 140–160).[10]

Christian period and collapse[edit]

A painting of Tiridates III, his consort Ashkhen, and his sister Khosrovidukht by Naghash Hovnatan, early 1700s[51]

In the early fourth century,[j] when King Tiridates III adopted Christianity as Armenia's state religion, all pagan places of worship in the country were destroyed.[54] Scholars regard it as the only pagan, Hellenistic, or Greco-Roman structure to have survived the widespread destruction.[k][l] Scholars continue to debate why it was exempted from destruction. Zhores Khachatryan argues that it underwent depaganization and was thereafter seen as a fine structure within the royal palace complex.[61] Tananyan believes that it was recognized as an artistic masterpiece, which saved it from destruction.[62]

According to Movses Khorenatsi a "cooling-off house" (tun hovanots) was built within the fortress of Garni for Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. Some scholars believe the temple was thus turned into a royal summer house.[9][58][63] The structure presumably underwent some changes. Cult statue(s) in the cella were removed, the opening in the roof for skylight was closed, and the entrance was transformed and adjusted for residence.[62] Ter-Martirosov argued that after Armenia's Christianization, it was initially a royal shrine, but after Khosrovidukht's death c. 325/326 it was transformed into a Christian mausoleum dedicated to her.[50] Hamlet Petrosyan and Zhores Khachatryan rejected the postulated Christianization of the temple.[30]

The walls of the temple bear six Arabic inscriptions in the Kufic style and one in Persian in the naskh script, which have all been paleographically dated to the 9th-10th centuries.[64][21] They commemorate the capture of the fortress and the temple's conversion into a mosque.[36] There is also a large Armenian inscription on its entryway. It was left by Princess Khoshak of Garni, the granddaughter of Ivane Zakarian (commander of Georgian-Armenian forces in the early 13th century) and Khoshak's son, Amir Zakare, in 1291. It records the release of the people of Garni from taxes in forms of wine, goats, and sheep.[65]

Simeon of Aparan, a poet and educator, made the last written record about the temple before its collapse in his 1593 poem titled "Lamentation on the Throne of Trdat" («Ողբանք ի վերայ թախթին Տրդատայ թագաւորին»).[66][67][m] The Garni fort was damaged when it was captured twice during the Ottoman–Persian Wars, in 1604 and 1638.[69]

The entire colonnade collapsed in a devastating earthquake on June 4, 1679,[70][71] with its epicenter situated in the Garni Gorge.[72][73] Most of the original building blocks remained scattered at the site. As much as 80% of the original masonry and ornamental friezes were at the site by the late 1960s.[74]

Renewed interest and reconstruction[edit]

European travelers mentioned the temple in their works as early as the 17th century.[1] Jean Chardin (1673, who visited Armenia before the earthquake) and James Morier (1810s)[75] both incorrectly described it through local informants since they never actually visited the site.[16] Robert Ker Porter, who visited in the late 1810s, described what he saw as a "confused pile of beautiful fragments; columns, architraves, capitals, friezes, all mingled together in broken disorder." He provided a drawing of the site.[16][76] Another European to visit and document the ruins of the temple was Frédéric DuBois de Montperreux, who proposed a reconstruction plan in his 1839 book.[16] John Buchan Telfer, who visited in the 1870s, wrote that the ruins "lie tumbled in marvellous disorder."[42] He removed a fragment of the architrave bearing a lion head, which was displayed at the Royal Society of Arts in 1891, during his lecture on Armenia.[41] He subsequently bequeathed it to the British Museum, where it remains to this day.[77]

In 1880 the Russian archaeologist Aleksey Uvarov, possibly inspired by the contemporaneous relocation of the Pergamon Altar from Asia Minor to Germany, proposed that the stones be moved to Tiflis (in Georgia) and be reconstructed there according to de Montpereux's plan.[83] Lori Khatchadourian suggests that the proposal "could be read as an attempt at co-opting Armenia's Roman past to the glory of Russia through the relocation of its most iconic monument to the nearest administrative center."[83] The governor of Erivan, citing technical difficulties with moving its parts, did not implement the plan and the project was aborted.[84][85]

In the subsequent decades scholars such as Nikoghayos Buniatian, Babken Arakelyan, and Nikolay Tokarsky studied the temple.[62] In 1909–11, during an excavation led by Nicholas Marr, the temple ruins were uncovered. Buniatian sought to reconstruct the temple in the 1930s.[84]

In 1949 the Armenian Academy of Sciences began major excavations of the Garni fortress site led by Babken Arakelyan. Architectural historian Alexander Sahinian focused on the temple itself. It was not until almost twenty years later, on December 10, 1968, that the Soviet Armenian government approved the reconstruction plan of the temple. A group led by Sahinian began reconstruction works in January 1969. It was completed by 1975,[86] almost 300 years after it was destroyed in an earthquake.[35][87] The temple was almost entirely rebuilt using its original stones, except the missing pieces which were filled with blank (undecorated) stones.[84]

A fountain dedicated to the reconstruction by Sahinian (1978)

The restoration has been well-received. Michael Greenhalgh wrote that the "almost perfect reconstruction" showed how little were removed, although he called it "decidedly an exception."[88] A U.S. historic preservation team noted:[89]

About a third of the reconstruction was of original materials and two-thirds of new materials. The new stone, of the same variety and color as the old, was obtained from a local quarry. Cutting of this stone was done onsite. The profiles of the original were reproduced without the embellishments of the original and without any attempt at fakery or antiquing. If a reconstruction must be done, this is an admirable approach.

The Soviet Armenian leader Karen Demirchyan pointed to its restoration as a "case in point" in the protection and restoration of historic monuments in the Soviet period.[6] For drawing up and supervising the project, Sahinian was awarded the State Prize of the Armenian SSR in 1975.[90] In 1978 a fountain-monument dedicated to Sahinian's reconstruction was erected near the temple.[87]



A typical view of the temple

It follows the general style of classical Ancient Greek architecture and has been described as Greek, Roman, Greco-Roman, or Hellenistic.[91] Natalie Kampen noted that it "shares a Graeco-Roman vocabulary with the use of basalt rather than marble."[17] Toros Toramanian stressed the singularity of the temple as a Roman-style building in the Armenian Highlands and noted that it "essentially had no influence on contemporary or subsequent Armenian architecture."[92] Sirarpie Der Nersessian argued that the temple, of a Roman type, "lies outside the line of development of Armenian architecture."[93] Fetvadjian described it as "of pure Roman style."[43]

Sahinian, the architect who oversaw its reconstruction, emphasized the local Armenian influence on its architecture, calling it an "Armenian-Hellenic" monument.[94] He further insisted that it resembles the ninth century BC Urartian Musasir temple.[95] Based on a comparative analysis, Sahinian also proposed that the design of the columns have their origins in Asia Minor.[96]

Maranci notes that its entablature is similar to that of the temple of Antoninus Pius at Sagalassos in western Asia Minor and to the columns of Attalia.[18]

In its small proportions,[43] the temple has been compared to the Roman temples of Maison carrée in Nîmes, and Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, France.[97][98] William H. McNeill described it as a "small and undistinguished Roman-style temple."[99]


The temple is constructed of locally quarried grey basalt,[4][16] assembled without the use of mortar.[5][18] Instead, the blocks are bound together by iron and bronze clamps.[18] It is a peripteros, composed of a collonaded portico (pronaos) and a cella (naos), erected on an elevated podium (base).[4][84] The podium, measuring 15.7 by 11.5 m (52 by 38 ft) and standing 2.8–3 m (9 ft 2 in – 9 ft 10 in) above ground,[3][36] is supported by a total of twenty-four Ionic order columns, each 6.54 m (21.5 ft) high: six in the front and back, and eight on the sides (with the corner columns counted twice).[4][91]

There is a 8–8.5 m (26–28 ft) wide stairway on the northern side leading to the chamber.[3][36] It consists of nine steep steps,[100] each measuring 30 cm (12 in) in height—approximately twice the average step height.[101] Tananyan proposes that ascending these steps compels individuals to feel humbled and exert physical effort to reach the altar.[102] On both sides of the stairway, there are roughly square pedestals. Sculpted on both of these pedestals is Atlas, the Greek mythological Titan who bore the weight of the earth, seemingly attempting to support the entire temple on its shoulders. Originally, it is assumed that these pedestals served the purpose of holding up altars, sacrificial tables.[102]

The exterior of the temple is richly decorated. The triangular pediment contains sculptures of plants and geometrical figures.[102] The frieze depicts a continuous line of acanthus. Furthermore, there are ornaments on the capital, architrave, and soffit. The stones in the front cornice have projecting sculptures of lion heads.[39] Sirarpie Der Nersessian argued that its "rich acanthus scrolls, with interposed lion masks and occasional palmettes, the fine Ionic and acanthus capitals, the other floral and geometric ornaments, are typical of the contemporary monuments of Asia Minor."[103]

The cella


The cella of the temple is 7.13 m (23.4 ft) high, 7.98 m (26.2 ft) long, and 5.05 m (16.6 ft) wide.[102] It covers an area of 40.3 m2 (434 sq ft). Due to the relatively small size of the cella, it has been proposed that a statue once stood inside and the ceremonies were held in the outside.[39] The cella is lit from two sources: the disproportionately large entrance of 2.29 by 4.68 metres (7 ft 6 in by 15 ft 4 in) and the opening in the roof of 1.74 by 1.26 metres (5.7 by 4.1 ft).[104]

Current state and use[edit]

It is the sole standing Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia (and the entire former Soviet Union),[d] and is, consequently, the most important monument of ancient and pre-Christian Armenia.[3][60][108] Dickran Kouymjian described the "Greco-Roman temple" as the "most visible example [of classical tradition in Armenian art]."[109] In independent Armenia, it has been featured on a 1993 stamp, an uncirculated 1994 silver commemorative coin,[110] and the obverse of 5,000-dram banknote (in circulation from 1995 to 2005).[111]

Tourist attraction[edit]

Vardavar, a popular summer festival of pre-Christian origin, being celebrated near the temple in 2014

It became a tourist destination even before its reconstruction in the 1970s.[112] Today, it is, along with the nearby medieval monastery of Geghard, one of Armenia's most visited sites.[113][114] Many visitors opt to explore the two sites, collectively known as Garni–Geghard, during a day trip from Yerevan.[115][116] In 2013 some 200,000 people visited the temple.[117] The number of visitors almost doubled by 2019, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, when Garni received almost 390,000 visitors, including 250,000 Armenians and 137,400 foreigners.[118]

Notable visitors include several presidents,[n] opera singer Montserrat Caballé,[123] American TV personalities Khloé and Kim Kardashian,[124] and Conan O'Brien,[125] Russian pop star Philipp Kirkorov.[126] In October 2023, during her visit to Armenia, France's Culture Minister Rima Abdul Malak announced the twinning of Garni with the Maison carrée in Nîmes.[127]


The temple and the fortress are part of the Garni Historical and Cultural Museum Reserve, which occupies 3.5 hectares (8.6 acres) and is supervised by the Service for the Protection of Historical Environment and Cultural Museum Reservations, an agency of the Armenian Ministry of Culture.[117] The government-approved list of historical and cultural monuments includes 11 objects within the site.[14]

In a 2006 survey the state of conservation of Garni was rated by over three-quarters of the visitors as "good" or "very good".[116] In 2011 UNESCO awarded the Museum-Reservation of Garni the Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes for "measures taken to preserve its cultural vestiges, and the emphasis placed on efforts to interpret and open the site for national and international visitors."[128]


On September 25, 2014 a Russian tourist in his early 20s, defaced the temple by spray painting "В мире идол ничто" (literally translating to "In the world, idol is nothing").[129][130] The painting was cleaned days later.[131] The Armenian state service for protection of historical and cultural reserves filed a civil lawsuit against him in February 2015, in which the agency requested 839,390 AMD (~$1,760) to recover the damage resulting from vandalism.[132] In an April 2015 decision the Kotayk Province court ruled to fine him the requested amount.[133]

On September 4, 2021 a sanctioned private wedding ceremony took place at the site causing much controversy.[134] The site was closed for visitors that day.[135] The local authorities of Garni said they had opposed it in a written statement to the Culture Ministry.[136] The Culture Ministry said the agency responsible for the preservation of the site had acted independently in allowing the event to take place.[137]

Neopagan shrine[edit]

Since 1990,[138] the temple has been the central shrine[139][140] of the small number of followers of Armenian neopaganism (close to Zoroastrianism) who hold annual ceremonies at the temple,[141] especially on March 21—the pagan New Year.[138][142] On that day, which coincides with Nowruz, the Iranian New Year, Armenian neopagans celebrate the birthday of the god of fire, Vahagn.[143] Celebrations by neopagans are also held during the summer festival of Vardavar, which has pre-Christian (pagan) origins.[144][145]

Notable events[edit]

The torch of the first Pan-Armenian Games was lit near the temple on August 28, 1999.[146]

The square in front of the temple has been occasionally used as a venue for concerts:


In film and television[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ base: 2.8 metres (9.2 ft); cella: 7.9 metres (26 ft)[3]
  2. ^ Armenian: Գառնիի տաճար, Gaṙnii tač̣ar;[3][5] often called Գառնիի or Գառնու հեթանոսական տաճար, Gaṙnii or Gaṙnu het’anosakan tač̣ar, lit. "pagan temple of Garni", sometimes translated as "heathen" instead of "pagan".[6]
  3. ^ Malcolm A. R. Colledge noted the use of the Ionic order, in a "comparatively pure and functional form", in places as distant as "Roman Garni in Armenia", Failaka Island in Kuwait and the Jandial temple in Taxila, Pakistan.[8]
  4. ^ a b after the reconstruction:
    • Adam T. Smith: "the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building anywhere in the Soviet Union"[2]
    • Dickran Kouymjian: "...has the distinction of being the only Greco-Roman temple standing above ground in the entire Soviet Union."[105]
    before the reconstruction
    • Hakob Manandian: "Certainly, this is the only architectural monument of the Hellenistic era throughout the entire Soviet Union."[106]
    • Kamilla Trever: "...its temple, the like of which we do not yet know on the territory of our Union."[107]
    • Aleksandr Mongait: "the best-preserved ancient temple in the territory of the Soviet Union".[23]
  5. ^ Armenian: Գառնիի or Գառնու ամրոց, Gařnii or Gařnu amrots
  6. ^ It is nearly universally accepted in mainstream Armenian historiography.[19][20][3] Brady Kiesling stated that this view has been accepted by some scholars,[21] while according to Zhores Khachatryan, who accepted the dating, wrote that most scholars agree with it.[22] Aleksandr Mongait wrote in 1955: "The majority of scholars tend to consider the Garni temple as a construction of King Trdat I, dating back to the 1st century AD."[23] Khatchadourian wrote that it is "most commonly regarded as a temple to the god Mihr or Mithras, built in the late first century C.E."[16]
  7. ^ The inscription is "on a block of basalt 165 cm long, 50 cm high, and 79–80 cm thick; the letters are about 5 x 5.5 cm in size."[9] It was discovered by Martiros Saryan in July 1945 at the Garni cemetery, recently brought from a nearby water mill.[24][25] It is now located within the fortress.
  8. ^ After the Roman–Parthian War over Armenia (58–63) a peace treaty was signed according to which Tiridates would be crowned by Nero and thus became an ally of Rome.[28] In exchange, Rome recognized Armenia's independence.[29]
  9. ^ "most commonly regarded as a temple to the god Mihr or Mithras"[16]
  10. ^ The traditional date is 301 AD,[52] but the "scholarly consensus is to prefer c. 314."[53]
  11. ^ pagan
    • "The monuments of Garni are the only vestiges of the pagan architecture of Armenia known to us. [...] The most important ruins are those of the temple"[55]
    • "...all pagan cultic structures (except the temple of Garni) were mercilessly destroyed..."[56]
    • "Armenia's only remaining pagan temple, at Garni"[57]
    • "...հեթանոս հայության ճարտարապետական ժառանգությունից պահպանված միակ հիշատակարանը" ["...the only surviving monument of the pagan Armenian architectural heritage"][58]
    • "The obliteration of pagan vestiges was so complete that almost no architectural remains or temple records have survived ... The only exception is the Temple of Garni"[54]
  12. ^ Hellenistic/Greco-Roman
    • "The pagan temple of Garni, dedicated to the god Mihr, is the only surviving Hellenistic building"[59]
    • "the only remaining intact model of Hellenistic architecture in Armenia"[36]
    • "The only surviving Hellenistic temple"[35]
    • "the sole-surviving example of Graeco-Roman architecture in Armenia"[60]
  13. ^ 19th century European visitors Robert Ker Porter and DuBois de Montpereux attested that the site was called the "throne of Tiridates" locally ("Takh Terdat" or "Tackt-i-Tiridate" in Persian).[68][16]
  14. ^ including Boris Yeltsin of Russia,[119] Karolos Papoulias of Greece,[120] Demetris Christofias of Cyprus,[121] and Heinz Fischer of Austria.[122]
  1. ^ a b c Khatchadourian 2008, p. 251.
  2. ^ a b Smith, Adam T. (2012). "'Yerevan, My Ancient Erebuni': Archaeological Repertoires, Public Assemblages, and the Manufacture of a (Post-)Soviet Nation". In Charles W. Hartley; G. Bike Yazicioğlu; Adam T. Smith (eds.). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9781107016521. the unique temple-tomb at Garni, just east of Yerevan – the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building anywhere in the Soviet Union.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Harutyunyan 1992, p. 57.
  4. ^ a b c d Arakelyan, Babken (1968). "Excavations at Garni, 1949–1950". In Alekseyev, Valery (ed.). Contributions to the archaeology of Armenia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. p. 22. The temple is peripteral, built on a high podium, with 24 Ionic columns, 6 in front and back and 8 at each side; the corner columns are listed twice. It is constructed of gray basalt quarried at Garni.
  5. ^ a b Hakobian, T. Kh.; Melik-Bakhshian, St. T. [in Armenian]; Barseghian, H. Kh. [in Armenian] (1986). "Գառնիի տաճար [Temple of Garni]". Հայաստանի և հարակից շրջանների տեղանունների բառարան [Dictionary of Toponyms of Armenia and Surrounding Regions] Volume I (in Armenian). Yerevan University Press. p. 704.
  6. ^ a b Demirchian, K. S. (1984). Soviet Armenia. Moscow: Progress Publishers. pp. 71-72.
  7. ^ Eastmond, Antony (2017). "Tamta and the Khwarazmians: The Battle of Garni". Tamta's World: The Life and Encounters of a Medieval Noblewoman from the Middle East to Mongolia. Cambridge University Press. p. 322. ISBN 9781107167568.
  8. ^ Colledge, Malcolm A. R. (1977). Parthian Art. London: Elek. p. 69. ISBN 0236400851.
  9. ^ a b c d e Russell 1987, p. 269.
  10. ^ a b Hewsen 2001, p. 62.
  11. ^ a b Canepa 2018, p. 116.
  12. ^ Kiesling 2000, p. 52.
  13. ^ Roller, Duane W. (1998). The Building Program of Herod the Great. University of California Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780520209343.
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  51. ^ ""Տրդատ թագավորը, Աշխեն թագուհին և Խոսրովադուխտը աղոթելիս ", Էջմիածնի Մայր տաճար (բնօրինակ)". (in Armenian). National Gallery of Armenia. Archived from the original on 2 December 2023.
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  77. ^ "Fragment of a carved black basalt frieze". British Museum. Archived from the original on 5 September 2021. Described [...] as "From the palace of Tiridates", but actually from the temple (now restored)...
  78. ^ Porter 1821, p. 624.
  79. ^ Strzygowski 1918, p. 13.
  80. ^ Color pictures from before reconstruction can be found here.
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Journal articles

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]