Tempoyak

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Tempoyak
YosriBelacanTempoyakDekat.jpg
Belacan tempoyak
Alternative namesasam durian, pekasam
TypeCondiment
CourseSide dish
Place of originIndonesia and Malaysia
Region or stateSumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
Created byEthnic Malays
Serving temperatureRoom temperature or cold
Main ingredientsDurian

Tempoyak (Jawi: تمڤويق), asam durian or pekasam is a Malay condiment made from fermented durian. It is usually consumed by the ethnic Malays in Indonesia and Malaysia. Tempoyak is made by taking the flesh of durian and mixing it with some salt and kept in room temperature for three or five days for fermentation.[1] Tempoyaks are usually made during the durian season, when the abundance of durian and excess production are made into fermented tempoyak.[2]

Tempoyak is not normally consumed solely, it is usually eaten as condiment or as an ingredient for cooking; such as cooked with coconut milk curry as gulai tempoyak ikan patin (pangasius fish tempoyak curry),[3] or mixed with spicy chili pepper as sambal tempoyak.[1][4]

Fermentation[edit]

In the Malay archipelago, fermented durian is known by many names. It is commonly known as "tempoyak" in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Southern Sumatra region (South Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu and Lampung provinces). It is known as pekasam in Aceh and asam durian in the Minangkabau region of West Sumatra.[5] The word asam which translates to "sour" describes its fermentation process.

Tempoyak is made by taking the flesh of durian and mixing it with salt. It is kept at room temperature and left to ferment for three to five days.[1] As a fermented food, the tempoyak-making process involves a number of different lactic acid bacteria. Isolated lactic acid bacteria which form colonies in fermented durian are Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus subsp. fersantum.[6][5] These lactic acid bacteria inhibit the growth of harmful decomposing bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, which in turn preserves the durian flesh. Besides its functions as a food preservative, fermented tempoyak also serves as a natural food flavoring. The addition of tempoyak into chili paste and curry can add a distinct aroma and savoury flavour to the dish.

History[edit]

Just like many fermented food products in the region (e.g. belacan, tempeh, oncom, tapai), tempoyak was probably discovered unintentionally; from the excessive unconsumed durian and thus left fermented, during the abundance of durian season in the region.

Tempoyak is mentioned in Hikayat Abdullah as a staple food for the people of Terengganu. When Abdullah Abdul Kadir visit Terengganu around the year 1836, he said that one of the favorite food of the local resident is Tempoyak.[7] Based on Hikayat Abdullah, tempoyak is a food special to the ethnic Malays, which is the Malay in Malaysia and Indonesia which is in Sumatera and Kalimantan.

Indonesia[edit]

Tempoyak ikan patin, Pangasius in sweet and spicy tempoyak sauce, specialty of Palembang.

In Indonesia, tempoyak is especially popular in Palembang, and also in other cities in Sumatera such as Jambi, Bengkulu, Lampung and also Pontianak in Kalimantan.

In Palembang the dish tempoyak ikan patin (Pangasius catfish in tempoyak sauce) and brengkes (pepes) tempoyak are well known, which is a steamed fermented durian paste in banana leaf container,[8] usually mixed with patin (Pangasius fish) as brengkes ikan patin tempoyak.[9] A spicy condiment called sambal tempoyak is made from the mixture of fermented durian, ground belacan (shrimp paste) and chili pepper.[4]

Brengkes tempoyak iwak lais served in a traditional restaurant in Palembang.

In Lampung, tempoyak is made as sambal seruit tempoyak. Seruit is shredded fried freshwater fishes, such as patin (Pangasius), baung (Hemibagrus), lais (Kryptopterus), belida (featherback) or mas (carp), mixed with ground chili pepper, tomato, shallot, shrimp paste, lime juice, young unripe mango, salt and tempoyak.[10]

In Pontianak, tempoyak is usually served as spicy condiment, mixed with red chili pepper, fresh shrimp or teri (anchovy) and petai (green stinky bean).[11]

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, tempoyak is specifically popular in the state of Pahang and Perak, yet it is also can be found elsewhere, from Kuala Lumpur to Sarawak. In Malaysia, tempoyak is an essential ingredient for gulai tempoyak ikan patin (pangasius fish tempoyak curry).[3] In Sarawak, tempoyak is available in marketplace. It taste sour and salty with a lot of durian nutty flavour, and essential ingredient for cooking soup with tang hoon or glass noodles.[2]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "What Is Tempoyak?". Year of the Durian. 2014-11-14.
  2. ^ a b "Tempoyak,the Malaysian fermented durian". Malaysia Vegetarian Food.
  3. ^ a b "Patin in Fermented Durian Paste (Gulai Tempoyak Ikan Patin)". Kuali.
  4. ^ a b KF Seetoh (September 28, 2012). "Revisiting Durian Sambal Tempoyak". Yahoo News: Makansutra.
  5. ^ a b Sunandar (January 15, 2011). "Pembuatan Tempoyak (Asam Durian)" (in Indonesian).
  6. ^ Ekowati, 1998
  7. ^ Hikayat Abdullah (in Malay).
  8. ^ Tifa Asrianti (25 February 2012). "Farah Quinn: Scene & Heard: The Comfort Food Zone". The Jakarta Post.
  9. ^ Dahrani Putri (21 September 2013). "Lezatnya Brengkes Ikan Patin Tempoyak". Sriwijaya Post (in Indonesian).
  10. ^ "Resep dan Cara membuat Sambal Seruit khas Lampung". D'Sambal (in Indonesian).
  11. ^ "Tempoyak makanan khas Pontianak". Pontianak (in Indonesian).