Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries)
The Ten Thousand (Ancient Greek: οἱ Μύριοι) was a force of mercenary units, mainly Greek, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401–399 BC) was recorded by Xenophon (one of their leaders) in his work, The Anabasis.
The "ten thousand" marched inland and fought the Battle of Cunaxa and then marched back to Greece during the years 401 BC to 399 BC. Xenophon stated in The Anabasis that the Greek heavy troops scattered their opposition twice during the battle; only one Greek was even wounded. Only after the battle did they hear that Cyrus had been killed, making their victory irrelevant and the expedition a failure.
The "ten thousand" were in the middle of a very large empire with no food, no employer, and no reliable friends. They offered to make their Persian ally Ariaeus king, but he refused on the grounds that he was not of royal blood and so would not find enough support among the Persians to succeed. They offered their services to Tissaphernes, a leading satrap of Artaxerxes, but he refused them, and they refused to surrender to him. Tissaphernes was left with a problem; a large army of heavy troops, which he could not defeat by frontal assault. He supplied them with food and, after a long wait, led them northwards for home, meanwhile detaching Ariaeus and his light troops from their cause.
The Greek senior officers accepted the invitation of Tissaphernes to a feast, where they were made prisoner, taken up to the king, and decapitated. The Greeks then elected new officers and set out to march northwards to the Black Sea through Corduene and Armenia. Xenophon records the joyful moment when the "ten thousand" (by then actually far fewer) finally saw the sea, signifying their escape, whereupon they shouted Thalatta! Thalatta! ("The Sea! The Sea!").
Order of battle
According to Xenophon, the Ten Thousand were composed of:
- 4,000 hoplites under Xenias the Arcadian, until he left the army in Syria
- 1,500 hoplites and 500 light infantry under Proxenus of Boeotia
- 1,000 hoplites under Sophaenetus the Stymphalian
- 500 hoplites under Socrates the Achaean (not to be confused with the philosopher)
- 300 hoplites and 300 peltasts under Pasion the Megaran, until he left the army in Syria
- 1000 hoplites, 800 Thracian peltasts, and 200 Cretan archers (and more than 2,000 men who came from Xenias and Pasion when they deserted) under Clearchus of Sparta,
- 3000 hoplites under Sosis the Syracusan
- 1,000 hoplites under Sophaenetus the Arcadian
- 700 hoplites under Chirisophus the Spartan
- 1,000 hoplites and 500 Thessalian peltasts under Menon
- 400 Greek deserters from Artaxerxes' army
In addition, they were backed up by a fleet of 35 triremes under Pythagoras the Spartan and 25 triremes under Tamos the Egyptian, as well as 100,000 Persian troops under Ariaeus the Persian (although Xenophon lists them as 100,000, most modern historians believe Ariaeus' troops were only around 20,000).
Until shortly after the Battle of Cunaxa, the Spartan general Clearchus was recognized as the commander of the army. When Tissaphernes arrested and executed Clearchus, Proxenus, Menon, Agias (possibly the same person as Sophaenetus), and Socrates, their places were taken by Xenophon, Timasion, Xanthicles, Cleanor, and Philesius, with the Spartan Chirisophus as the general commander.
When the Ten Thousand started their journey in 401 BC, Xenophon tells us that they numbered around 10,400. At the time Xenophon left them two years later, their number had dwindled to just under 6,000.
- The novel The Sea, the Sea by Iris Murdoch, winner of the 1978 Booker Prize was named for this event.
- David Drake's 1988 novel The Forlorn Hope features a plot revolving around a group of mercenaries caught behind enemy lines, who must fight their way to freedom. Drake's own writings describe Xenophon's Anabasis as being the model for the first segment of the book.
- Harold Coyle's 1993 novel The Ten Thousand shows the bulk of the US Forces in modern Europe fighting their way across and out of Germany instead of laying down their weapons when the Germans stole nuclear weapons that were being removed from Ukraine. The operational concept for their move was based on Xenophon's Ten Thousand.
- The 2001 novel The Ten Thousand by Michael Curtis Ford is a fictional account of this group's exploits.
- Shane Brennan's In the Tracks of the Ten Thousand: A Journey on Foot through Turkey, Syria and Iraq (London: Robert Hale, 2005) is an account of his 2000 journey to re-trace the steps of the Ten Thousand.
- Valerio Massimo Manfredi's 2007 novel L'armata perduta (The Lost Army) tells the story of the army told through Abira, a Syrian girl, who decides to follow a Greek warrior named Xeno (Xenophon).
- Paul Kearney's 2008 novel The Ten Thousand is set in fantasy world which is based on Xenophon's record of the historical Ten Thousand.
- John Ringo's 2008 novel The Last Centurion tells the story of a U.S. Stryker company that is left in Iran after a worldwide plague, and must repeat the journey of the Ten Thousand to return home. The Ten Thousand and Anabasis are frequently mentioned. Ringo also introduces a group of veterans outfitted with captured enemy weapons called the Ten Thousand, based around a core group called the Six Hundred in his Legacy of the Aldenata series.
- The 1965 novel The Warriors is inspired by Anabasis. It tells the story of a gang (the Warriors) from New York's Coney Island forced to fight their way home from the Bronx after an all-city gang meeting at which a would-be gang-unifier is killed, the Dominators are blamed, and the Dominators lose their leader. The novel was adapted into the 1979 film The Warriors. In the film, the would-be-emperor figure is named Cyrus, the Coney Island gang's fallen leader is named Cleon, and the film's final scenes take place at the edge of the sea.
- Xenophon (1904) [c. 370 BCE (repr. 1961)]. Anabasis. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Book 4, Chapter 7, Section 24. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Xenophon. Anabasis book 1, chapter 2, IX
- Xenophon. Anabasis book 1, chapter 2, XI
- Jordison, Sam (11 February 2009). "Booker Club: The Sea, the Sea". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Tuplin, Christopher (2005). Tsetskhladze, Gocha R., ed. "Ancient West & East, Issue 1". Brill. pp. 212–213. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Curtis Ford, Michael (2002). The Ten Thousand: A Novel of Ancient Greece. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-1250062567.
- The Project Gutenberg EText
- Anabasis at The University of Adelaide
- Álvarez Rico, Mauricio (2002). "The Greek military camp in the Ten Thousand's army". Gladius. 22: 29–56. ISSN 0436-029X.