Ten Wings

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Ten Wings (十翼 shí yì) is a collection of commentaries (zhuan 傳) to the classical Chinese Book of Changes traditionally ascribed to Confucius.

  1. 彖傳 Tuan zhuan, or Commentary on the Judgment, the 1st 彖上傳
  2. Tuan zhuan, the 2nd 彖下傳
  3. 象傳 Xiang zhuan, or Overall Image, the 1st 象上傳 (sometimes called Great Xiang 大象)
  4. Xiang, the 2nd 象下傳 (aka Lesser Xiang or Little Images 小象)
  5. 繫辭傳 Xici zhuan, the Commentary on the Appended Phrases, the 1st 繫辭上傳
  6. Xici zhuan, the 2nd 繫辭下傳 (the two Xi Ci are also called the Great Commentary 大傳, to emphasize their importance)
  7. 文言傳 Wenyan zhuan, Commentary on the Words
  8. 序卦傳 Xugua zhuan, the Sequence of the Hexagrams
  9. 說卦傳 Shuogua zhuan, the Explanation of the Trigrams
  10. 雜卦傳 Zagua zhuan, the Assorted or Miscellaneous Hexagrams

Doubts concerning Confucius' authorship of the Wings were expressed by Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072) and Sima Guang (1019-1086) during the Northern Song dynasty. They were further consolidated by Yao Jiheng 姚際恆 (1647-1715) and Kang Youwei (1858-1927) of the Qing dynasty. The 20th century sinologists provide argumentation for rejection of the traditional creed.