View of Tendaguru Hill, namesake of the formation
|Overlies||Neoproterozoic gneiss basement|
|Thickness||>110 m (360 ft)|
|Other||Shale, siltstone, clay, conglomerate, limestone|
|Named for||Tendaguru Hill|
|Named by||Janensch & Hennig|
The Tendaguru Formation, or Tendaguru Beds are a highly fossiliferous formation and Lagerstätte in southeastern Tanzania. The formation represents the oldest sedimentary unit of the Mandawa Basin, overlying Neoproterozoic basement, separating by a long hiatus and unconformity. The formation reaches a total sedimentary thickness of more than 110 metres (360 ft). The formation ranges in age from the late Middle Jurassic to the early Early Cretaceous, Oxfordian to Hauterivian stages, with the base of the formation possibly extending into the Callovian.
The Tendaguru Formation is subdivided into six members; from oldest to youngest Lower Dinosaur Member, the Nerinella Member, the Middle Dinosaur Member, Indotrigonia africana Member, the Upper Dinosaur Member, and the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member. The succession comprises a sequence of sandstones, shales, siltstones, conglomerates with minor oolitic limestones, deposited in an overall shallow marine to coastal plain environment, characterized by tidal, fluvial and lacustrine influence with a tsunami deposit occurring in the Indotrigonia africana Member. The climate of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous was semi-arid with seasonal rainfall and the eustatic sea level was rising in the Late Jurassic from low levels in the Middle Jurassic. Paleogeographical reconstructions show the Tendaguru area was located in the subtropical southern hemisphere during the Late Jurassic.
The Tendaguru Formation is considered the richest Late Jurassic strata in Africa. The formation has provided a wealth of fossils of different groups; early mammaliaforms, several genera of dinosaurs, crocodyliforms, amphibians, fish, invertebrates and flora. More than 250 tonnes (250 long tons; 280 short tons) of material was shipped to Germany during early excavations in the early twentieth century. The faunal assemblage of the Tendaguru is similar to the Morrison Formation of the central-western United States, with an additional marine interbed fauna not present in the Morrison.
The dinosaur fauna found in the formation is similar to that of other highly fossiliferous stratigraphic units of the Late Jurassic; among others the Kimmeridge and Oxford Clays of England, the Sables de Glos, Argiles d'Octeville, Marnes de Bléville of France, the Alcobaça, Guimarota and Lourinhã Formations of Portugal, the Villar del Arzobispo Formation of Spain, the Shishugou, Kalazha and Shangshaximiao Formations in China, the Toqui Formation of Chile and Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina and the Morrison Formation, with the presence of dinosaurs with similar counterparts, e.g., Brachiosaurus and Stegosaurus in the Morrison, and Giraffatitan and Kentrosaurus in the Tendaguru.
- 1 Description
- 2 Excavation history
- 3 Paleontological significance
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes and references
The Tendaguru Formation represents the oldest sedimentary unit in the Mandawa Basin, directly overlying Neoproterozoic basement consisting of gneiss. The contact contains a large hiatus, a missing sequence of stratigraphy, spanning the Paleozoic, Triassic and Early Jurassic. The formation is unconformably overlain by late Early Cretaceous sediments of the Makonde Formation, that forms the top of several plateaus; Namunda, Rondo, Noto, and Likonde-Kitale.
Based on extended geological and paleontological observations the "Tendaguruschichten" (Tendaguru Beds) were defined by Janensch as expedition leader and Hennig in 1914 to define a sequence of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous strata, exposed in the Tendaguru area, which is named after Tendaguru Hill.
The Tendaguru is divided into 6 members, which represent different depositional environments, with the 'Dinosaur Beds' representing terrestrial facies while the beds with genus/species names represent marine interbeds with shallow marine to lagoonal facies. In ascending order these are: the Lower Dinosaur Member, the Nerinella Member, the Middle Dinosaur Member, Indotrigonia africana Member, the Upper Dinosaur Member, and the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member.
|Fine to medium grained sandstones, intercalated conglomerates, siltstones and claystones||~200 m (660 ft)|
|Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member||Fine to medium grained sandstones with basal conglomerate||5–70 m (16–230 ft)|
|Tithonian||Upper Dinosaur Member||Ripple cross bedded fine grained sandstones and siltstones with intercalated claystone and micritic carbonates||~32 m (105 ft)|
|Indotrigonia africana Member||Calcite cemented sandstones, conglomerate beds, thin clay and silt layers with sandy limestones||20–50 m (66–164 ft)|
|Middle Dinosaur Member||Ripple cross bedded fine grained calcareous sandstones and siltstones and massive to crudely bedded silt and claystones||13–30 m (43–98 ft)|
|Nerinella Member||Trough cross bedded sandstone to massive sandstone||5–45 m (16–148 ft)|
|Lower Dinosaur Member||Cross bedded fine grained sandstones and siltstones, with Interbedded clay-rich siltstones||>20 m (66 ft)|
Paleogeography and depositional environment
The Tendaguru Formation was deposited in the Mandawa Basin, a post-Karoo, Mesozoic rift basin located between the Ruvu Basin and Rufiji Trough to the north and the Ruvuma Basin to the south. To the west of the basin, Archaen and Early Proterozoic basement rocks crop out. The main rift phase in present-day southeastern Africa led to the separation of Madagascar and the then-connected Indian subcontinent happened during the Early Cretaceous. The Songo Songo and Kiliwani gas fields are located just offshore the basin.
At time of deposition was undergoing a semi-arid climate with coastal influences that maintained somewhat higher moisture levels than seen inland. The upper parts of the formation, the Middle Dinosaur and Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Members in particular, showed prevailing semiarid conditions with pronounced dry seasons, based on palynologic analysis. The Tendaguru fauna was stable through the Late Jurassic.
During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the Gondwana paleocontinent was breaking up and the separation of the Laurasian and Gondwana supercontinents resulted from the connection of the Tethys Ocean with the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the South Atlantic developed towards the end of the Late Jurassic with the separation of South America and Africa. Africa became increasingly isolated from most other continents by marine barriers from the Kimmeridgian into the Early Cretaceous, but retained a continental connection with South America. Global sea levels dropped significantly in the Early Jurassic and remained low through the Middle Jurassic but rose considerably towards the Late Jurassic, deepening the marine trenches between continents.
The sedimentary rocks and fossils record a repeated shift from shallow marine to tidal flat environments indicating that the strata of the Tendaguru Formation were deposited near an oscillating strandline which was controlled by sea level changes. The three dinosaur-bearing members are continental to marginal marine and the three sandstone-dominated members are marginal marine in origin.
- Nerinella Member
The composition of benthic molluscs and foraminifera, euhaline to mesohaline ostracods, and dinoflagellate assemblages indicate marine, shallow water conditions for the Nerinella Member, in particular for the lower part. Sedimentation occurred as tidal channel fills, subtidal and tidal sand bars, minor storm layers (tempestites), and beach deposits. Overall, the Nerinella Member represents a variety of shallow subtidal to lower intertidal environments influenced by tides and storms.
- Middle Dinosaur Member
The sedimentological characteristics of the basal part of the Middle Dinosaur Member suggest deposition on tidal flats and in small tidal channels of a lagoonal paleoenvironment. The ostracod Bythocypris sp. from the member indicates polyhaline to euhaline conditions. Slightly higher up, a faunal sample dominated by the bivalve Eomiodon and an ostracod assemblage composed of brackish to freshwater taxa is indicative of a brackish water paleoenvironment with distinct influx of freshwater as revealed by the nonmarine ostracod genus Cypridea, charophytes, and other freshwater algae. The paleoenvironment of the ostracod assemblages of the Middle Dinosaur Member changed upsection from a marine setting in the basal parts through alternating marine-brackish conditions to freshwater conditions in the higher parts of this member. The highly sporadic occurrence, in this part of the section, of molluscs typical of marginal marine habitats indicates only a very weak marine influence, at sabkha-like coastal plains with ephemeral brackish lakes and ponds are recorded in the upper part of the Middle Dinosaur Member. This part also contains pedogenic calcretes indicating subaerial exposure and the onset of soil formation. The calcrete intraclasts within adjacent sandstone beds testify to erosive reworking of calcrete horizons. The presence of crocodyilforms indicates freshwater to littoral environments and adjacent terrestrial areas.
- Indotrigonia africana Member
The coarse-grained sandstone of the lower part of the Indotrigonia africana Member that shows highly variable transport directions is interpreted as deposits of large tidal channels. Grain-size, large-scale sedimentary structures, and the lack of both trace fossils and epifaunal and infaunal body fossils suggest high water energy and frequent reworking. This basal succession passes upward in cross-bedded sandstone and minor siltstone and claystone with flaser or lenticular bedding that are interpreted as tidal flat and tidal channel deposits. Horizontal to low-angle cross-bedded, fine-grained sandstone with intercalated bivalve pavements indicates tidal currents that operated in small flood and ebb tidal deltas and along the coast. Stacked successions of trough cross-bedded, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone of the upper part of the Indotrigonia africana Member are interpreted as tidal channel and sand bar deposits. At some places in the surroundings of Tendaguru Hill, these sediments interfinger with oolitic limestone layers that represent high-energy ooid shoals.
In the Tingutinguti stream section, the Indotrigonia africana Member exhibits several up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) thick, poorly sorted, conglomeratic sandstone beds. They contain mud clasts, reworked concretions and/or accumulations of thick-shelled bivalves (mainly Indotrigonia africana and Seebachia janenschi), and exhibit megaripple surfaces. These conglomeratic sandstone layers are interpreted as storm deposits. In the Dwanika and Bolachikombe stream sections, and in a small tributary of the Bolachikombe creek, a discrete, up to 70 centimetres (2.3 ft) thick conglomerate in the lower portion of the Indotrigonia africana Member displays evidence of a tsunami deposit. Overall, lithofacies and the diverse macroinvertebrate and microfossil assemblages of the Indotrigonia africana Member suggest a shallow marine environment. Based on the diverse mesoflora and the abundance of Classopollis, a nearby vegetated hinterland is postulated that was dominated by xerophytic conifers.
- Upper Dinosaur Member
The small-scale trough and ripple cross-bedded fine-grained sandstone at the base of the Upper Dinosaur Member is interpreted as tidal flat deposits. Unfossiliferous sandstone in the upper part was most likely deposited in small fluvial channels in a coastal plain environment, whereas argillaceous deposits were laid down in still water bodies such as small lakes and ponds. Rare occurrences of the ostracod Cypridea and charophytes signal the influence of freshwater, whereas the sporadic occurrence of marine invertebrates suggests a depositional environment close to the sea.
- Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member
Fining upward sequences of the basal part of the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member are interpreted as tidal channel fills, the overlying fine-grained sandstone, silt- and claystone as tidal flat deposits. From the immediate surroundings of Tendaguru Hill, invertebrates and vertebrates are poorly known and limit the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of this member. The composition of the land-derived sporomorph assemblage suggests a terrestrial vegetation which was dominated by cheirolepidiacean conifers in association with ferns.
The Tendaguru Beds as a fossil deposit were first discovered in 1906, when German pharmacist, chemical analyst and mining engineer Bernhard Wilhelm Sattler, on his way to a mine south of the Mbemkure River in German East Africa (today Tanzania), noticed enormous bones weathering out of the path near the base of Tendaguru Hill, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Mtapaia (close to Nambiranji village, Mipingo ward, 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Lindi town). Because of its morphology, the hill was locally known as "steep hill": "tendaguru" in the language of the local Wamwera people. Sattler sent a report of his discoveries that found its way to German palaeontologist Eberhard Fraas, then on a round trip through Africa, who visited the site in 1907 and with the aid of Sattler recovered two partial skeletons of enormous size.
Following the discovery in 1906, teams from the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (1907–1913), and the British Museum (Natural History), London (1924–1931) launched a series of collecting expeditions that remain unequalled in scope and ambition. Led by the vision and influence of geologist Wilhelm von Branca, the German expeditions were particularly successful, in large part because the project was taken up as a matter of national ambition (Germany was then a young nation, having been unified by von Bismarck less than 40 years earlier) and enjoyed the benevolence of many wealthy patrons. Eventually, nearly 250 tons of bones, representing an entirely new dinosaur fauna that remains the best understood assemblage from all of former Gondwana, was shipped to Berlin.
From there, the material was transported to Fraas' institution, the Royal Natural History Collection in Stuttgart, Germany. Fraas described two species in the badly known genus "Gigantosaurus"; G. robustus and G. africanus (today Janenschia robusta and Tornieria africana, respectively).
German Tendaguru Expedition
The Berlin's Natural History Museum excavated at Tendaguru hill and in the surroundings for four years. From 1909 through 1911, Werner Janensch as expedition leader and Edwin Hennig as assistant directed excavations, while Hans Reck and his wife Ina Reck led the 1912 field season. Other European participants include Hans von Staff. In the rainy seasons the scientists explored the geology of the colony German East Africa on long safaris.
Possible dinosaur eggs have been recovered from the formation.
The fauna of the Tendaguru Formation has been correlated with the Morrison Formation of the central-western United States, several formations in England, among which the Kimmeridge Clay and Oxford Clay, and France (Sables de Glos, Argiles d'Octeville, Marnes de Bléville), the Alcobaça, Guimarota and Lourinhã Formations of Portugal, the Villar del Arzobispo Formation of Spain, the Shishugou, Kalazha and Shangshaximiao Formations of China, and the Toqui Formation of the Magallanes Basin, Chile and the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of the Cañadón Asfalto Basin in central Patagonia, Argentina.
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text;
|Mammaliaformes reported from the Tendaguru Formation|
|Allostaffia||A. aenigmatica||Quarry Ig||Middle Dinosaur||Three isolated molars||Originally described as Staffia, later renamed Allostaffia as Staffia was preoccupied bya foraminifer.
Assigned to Haramiyida (though possibly a gondwanathere instead).
|Brancatherulum||B. tendagurense||Unspecified||Upper Dinosaur||Dentary without teeth||Either a stem-zatherian or dryolestidan.|
|Tendagurodon||T. janenschi||Quarry Ig||Middle Dinosaur||Single tooth||One of the earliest amphilestids|
|Tendagurutherium||T. dietrichi||Quarry Ig||Middle Dinosaur||Partial dentary with damaged last molar||Either a peramurid or an australosphenidan|
|Pterosaurs reported from the Tendaguru Formation|
|Tendaguripterus||T. recki||Quarry Ig||Middle Dinosaur||A partial mandible with teeth|||
|?Indeterminate archaeopterodactyloid||Mkoawa Mtwara||Humerus|||
|Indeterminate azhdarchid||Mkoawa Mtwara|||
|Indeterminate dsungaripteroid||Upper Dinosaur||Humerus|||
|Pterodactylus||P. maximus||Mkoawa Mtwara||Later determined to be an indeterminate pterodactyloid|
|P. brancai||Mkoawa Mtwara||Tibiotarsi||Later determined to be an indeterminate dsungaripteroid|
|P. arningi||Mkoawa Mtwara||Later determined to be an indeterminate pterosaur|
|Rhamphorhynchus||R. tendagurensis||Mkoawa Mtwara||Later determined to be an indeterminate "rhamphorhynchoid"|
|Ornithischians reported from the Tendaguru Formation|
|Dysalotosaurus||D. lettowvorbecki||Quarry Ig||Middle Dinosaur||"Large number of mostly disassociated cranial and postcranial elements"|||
|Kentrosaurus||K. aethiopicus||Quarry Q, Ig, St, S, Ny, Li, XX, r, y, d, Ng, X, H, IX, Om, bb, Ha, XIV, II, IV, V, VIII, G, e, g, Ki||Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur||"[Two] composite mounted skeletons, [four] braincases, [seven] sacra, more than [seventy] femora, approximately 25 isolated elements, juvenile to adult"|||
|Sauropods reported from the Tendaguru Formation|
|Australodocus||A. bohetii||Quarry G||Upper Dinosaur||Two neck vertebrae|||
|Dicraeosaurus||D. hansemanni||Quarry Q, m, St, dd, Sa||Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur||"Skeleton lacking skull and forelimbs, [two] partial skeletons, isolated vertebrae, and limb elements"|||
|D. sattleri||Quarry La, s, O, ab, E, M, o, Ob, bb, XIV, G, GD||Middle & Upper Dinosaur||"[Two] partial skeletons without skulls, isolated postcranial remains"|||
|Giraffatitan||G. brancai||Quarry Q, J, Ig, Y, St, dd, S, TL, XX, Ma, JR, Ng, Bo, To, p, t, Lw, D, N, ab, cc, X, IX, Z, T, Aa, l, E, XIV, II, G, e, Ki, No, R, F, XII, GD, XV, Sa, U, i||Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur||The new genus Giraffatitan was erected to hold the former Brachiosaurus species, B. brancai after scientists concluded that it was distinct enough from the Brachiosaurus type species, B. altithorax, to warrant such a reclassification.|
|Janenschia||J. robusta||Quarry dd, P, IX, B, G, Oa, NB||Middle & Upper Dinosaur||Known from hindlimb and forelimb material, left pubis and two right ischia|||
|Tendaguria||T. tanzaniensis||Nambango site||Upper Dinosaur||"[Two] associated cranial dorsal vertebrae"||A turiasaur|
|Tornieria||T. africanus||Quarry St, k, MD, A, e, Sa||Middle & Upper Dinosaur||"More than [three] partial skeletons, a few skull elements, [and] many isolated postcranial elements"|||
|Wamweracaudia||W. keranjei||A sequence of caudal vertebrae|||
|Brachiosaurus||B. brancai||Mkoawa Mtwara||"[Five] partial skeletons, more than [three] skulls, [and] isolated limb elements"||B. brancai was distinct enough from the non-Tendaguru Brachiosaurus type species B. altithorax that it was moved to its own genus, Giraffatitan.|
|B. fraasi||Remains attributed to B. fraasi were later referred to B. brancai, and thus now Giraffatitan|
|Diplodocinae indet.||Indeterminate||Kijenjere||Upper Dinosaur||Partial skull||Belonging to a form that is closely related to Diplodocus|
|Diplodocidae indet.||Indeterminate||Kijenjere||Upper Dinosaur||Caudal vertebrae and metatarsal||Originally referred to as "Barosaurus africanus"|
|Diplodocidae indet.||Indeterminate||Trench XIV||Upper Dinosaur||Articulated pedes||Possibly representing two different taxa|
|Flagellicaudata indet.||Indeterminate||Upper Dinosaur||Braincase||Referred to Flagellicaudata indet. based on the derived characters shared with this group|
|Turiasauria indet.||Indeterminate||Teeth||Teeth potential indicating a turiasaurian sauropod; a group currently only known from Europe. Presence in the Lourinhã Formation also support that this group would be present here given the similarity of the two faunas.|
|"The Archbishop"||[note 1]|
|Theropods reported from the Tendaguru Formation|
|Elaphrosaurus||E. bambergi||Quarry Ig, dd, ?RD||Middle Dinosaur, ?Upper Dinosaur||"Postcranial skeleton"||An elaphrosaurine noasaurid|
|Ostafrikasaurus||O. crassiserratus||Quarry Om||Upper Dinosaur||"Tooth"||The earliest known spinosaurid|
|Veterupristisaurus||V. milneri||Quarry St||Middle Dinosaur||"Vertebrae"||The earliest known carcharodontosaurid|
|?Allosaurus||?A. "tendagurensis"||Quarry TL||A tibia||Remains now considered "Tetanurae indet."|
|Ceratosaurus||C. roechlingi||Quarry St, MW||Middle & Upper Dinosaur||Caudal vertebra||Remains now considered indeterminate|
|Labrosaurus||L. stechowi||Quarry St, MW||Middle Dinosaur||Teeth||Remains now considered indeterminate|
|Megalosaurus||M. ingens||Quarry St, MW||Upper Dinosaur||Teeth||Remains now considered indeterminate|
|Crocodyliforms||Bernissartia sp.||Upper & Middle Dinosaur|||
|Rhinobatoidea||Engaibatis schultzei||Upper Dinosaur|||
|Semionotidae||Lepidotes tendaguruensis||Middle Dinosaur|||
|Lepidotes sp.||Upper & Middle Dinosaur|||
|Hybodontidae||Hybodus sp.||Upper Dinosaur|||
|Lonchidiidae||Lonchidion sp.||Upper Dinosaur|||
|Orthacodontidae||Sphenodus sp.||Upper Dinosaur|||
|Cupressaceae||Cupressinoxylon sp.||Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi|||
|Cycadaceae||Cycadoxylon sp.||Indotrigonia africana|||
|Ginkgoaceae||Ginkgoxylon sp.||Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi|||
|Taxodiaceae||Glyptostroboxylon sp.||Middle Dinosaur|||
|Taxaceae||Taxaceoxylon sp.||Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi|||
|Prasinophyta||Cymatiosphaera sp.||Indotrigonia africana|||
|Zygnemataceae||Ovoidites parvus||Middle Dinosaur|||
|Gymnosperm pollen||various||Indotrigonia africana
|Pteridophytic and bryophytic spores||various||Indotrigonia africana
- List of stratigraphic units with dinosaur body fossils
- List of African dinosaurs
- Manda Formation, Triassic fossiliferous formation of Tanzania
- Usili Formation, Permian fossiliferous formation of Tanzania
- Mugher Mudstone, Tithonian fossiliferous formation of Ethiopia
- Ksar Metlili Formation, Tithonian to Berriasian fossiliferous formation of Morocco
- Kirkwood Formation, Berriasian to Hauterivian fossiliferous formation of South Africa
- Sundays River Formation, Valanginian to Hauterivian fossiliferous formation of South Africa
- Bajada Colorada Formation, Berriasian to Valanginian fossiliferous formation of Argentina
- Dinosaurs of Tendaguru, Book for young readers in Swahili
Notes and references
- Formal description in preparation by Michael Taylor in 2019
- Mateus, 2006, pp.223–232
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.154
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.142
- Schwarz-Wings & Böhm, 2014, p.82
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.152
- Muhongo, 2013, p.28
- Muhongo, 2013, p.8
- Muhongo, 2013, p.33
- Muhongo, 2013, p.3
- Muhongo, 2013, p.17
- Muhongo, 2013, p.22
- Noto & Grossmann, 2010, p.7
- Schrank, 1999, p.181
- Noto & Grossmann, 2010, p.9
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.227
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.168
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.167
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.32
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.33
- Maier, 2003
- Fraas, 1908
- Cifelli, 2003, p.608
- Weishampel et al., 2004, p.552
- Taylor, 2009, p.790
- Mateus, 2006, p.1
- Noto & Grossmann, 2010, p.3
- Heinrich, 2004
- Chimento et al., 2016
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.30
- Averianov & Martin, 2015, p.327
- Heinrich, 1998, p.269
- Barrett et al., 2008
- Costa & Kellner, 2009, p.814
- Galton, 1980
- "Table 19.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.414
- "Table 16.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.344
- Remes, 2007
- "Table 13.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.264
- Taylor, M.P., 2009, pp.787-806
- Mannion et al., 2019
- "Table 13.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.261
- "Table 13.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.265
- "Table 13.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.267
- Remes, 2009, p.26
- Remes, 2009, p.28
- Remes, 2009, p.30
- Remes, 2009, p.34
- Mateus et al., 2014
- "Table 3.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.48
- Buffetaut, 2012, p.2
- Rauhut, 2011
- "Table 4.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.75
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.164
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.219
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.224
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.213
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.216
- Arratia et al., 2002, p.218
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.159
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.165
- Bussert et al., 2009, p.162
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.27
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.34
- Aberhan et al., 2002, p.25
- Kahlert et al., 1999, p.192
- Kahlert et al., 1999, p.188
- Kahlert et al., 1999, p.190
- Schrank, 1999, p.173
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tendaguru Formation.|
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