Tendaguru Formation

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Tendaguru Formation
Stratigraphic range:
~165–130 Ma
Tendaguru Tendaguru3 (cropped).jpg
TypeGeological formation
Sub-unitsSee text
UnderliesMakonde Formation
OverliesNeoproterozoic gneiss basement
Thickness>110 m (360 ft)
OtherShale, siltstone, clay, conglomerate, limestone
Coordinates9°42′S 39°12′E / 9.7°S 39.2°E / -9.7; 39.2Coordinates: 9°42′S 39°12′E / 9.7°S 39.2°E / -9.7; 39.2
Approximate paleocoordinates29°24′S 16°42′E / 29.4°S 16.7°E / -29.4; 16.7
RegionLindi Region
Country Tanzania
ExtentMandawa Basin
Type section
Named forTendaguru Hill
Named byJanensch & Hennig
Year defined1914
Tendaguru Formation is located in Tanzania
Tendaguru Formation
Tendaguru Formation (Tanzania)
Location of Tendaguru in Tanzania

The Tendaguru Formation, or Tendaguru Beds are a highly fossiliferous formation and Lagerstätte in southeastern Tanzania. The formation represents the oldest sedimentary unit of the Mandawa Basin, overlying Neoproterozoic basement, separating by a long hiatus and unconformity. The formation reaches a total sedimentary thickness of more than 110 metres (360 ft). The formation ranges in age from the late Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous, Oxfordian to Hauterivian stages, with the base of the formation possibly extending into the Callovian.

The Tendaguru Formation is subdivided into six members; from oldest to youngest Lower Dinosaur Member, the Nerinella Member, the Middle Dinosaur Member, Indotrigonia africana Member, the Upper Dinosaur Member, and the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member. The succession comprises a sequence of sandstones, shales, siltstones, conglomerates with minor oolitic limestones, deposited in an overall shallow marine to coastal plain environment, characterized by tidal, fluvial and lacustrine influence with a tsunami deposit occurring in the Indotrigonia africana Member. The climate of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous was semi-arid with seasonal rainfall and the eustatic sea level was rising in the Late Jurassic from low levels in the Middle Jurassic. Paleogeographical reconstructions show the Tendaguru area was located in the subtropical southern hemisphere during the Late Jurassic.

The Tendaguru Formation is considered the richest Late Jurassic strata in Africa. The formation has provided a wealth of fossils of different groups; early mammaliaforms, several genera of dinosaurs, crocodyliforms, amphibians, fish, invertebrates and flora. More than 250 tonnes (250 long tons; 280 short tons) of material was shipped to Germany during early excavations in the early twentieth century. The faunal assemblage of the Tendaguru is similar to the Morrison Formation of the central-western United States, with an additional marine interbed fauna not present in the Morrison.

The dinosaur fauna found in the formation is similar to that of other highly fossiliferous stratigraphic units of the Late Jurassic; among others the Kimmeridge and Oxford Clays of England, the Sables de Glos, Argiles d'Octeville, Marnes de Bléville of France, the Alcobaça, Guimarota and Lourinhã Formations of Portugal, the Villar del Arzobispo Formation of Spain, the Shishugou, Kalazha and Shangshaximiao Formations in China, the Toqui Formation of Chile and Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina and the Morrison Formation, with the presence of dinosaurs with similar counterparts, e.g., Brachiosaurus and Stegosaurus in the Morrison, and Giraffatitan and Kentrosaurus in the Tendaguru.[1]


Map and stratigraphic column of the Tendaguru Formation

The Tendaguru Formation represents the oldest sedimentary unit in the Mandawa Basin, directly overlying Neoproterozoic basement consisting of gneiss. The contact contains a large hiatus, a missing sequence of stratigraphy, spanning the Paleozoic, Triassic and Early Jurassic. The formation is unconformably overlain by late Early Cretaceous sediments of the Makonde Formation, that forms the top of several plateaus; Namunda, Rondo, Noto, and Likonde-Kitale.[2]

Based on extended geological and paleontological observations the "Tendaguruschichten" (Tendaguru Beds) were defined by Werner Janensch as expedition leader and Edwin Hennig in 1914 to define a sequence of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous strata, exposed in the Tendaguru area, which is named after Tendaguru Hill.[3]


The Tendaguru is divided into 6 members, which represent different depositional environments, with the 'Dinosaur Beds' representing terrestrial facies while the beds with genus/species names represent marine interbeds with shallow marine to lagoonal facies. In ascending order these are: the Lower Dinosaur Member, the Nerinella Member, the Middle Dinosaur Member, Indotrigonia africana Member, the Upper Dinosaur Member, and the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member.[4]

Stratigraphy of the Tendaguru Formation[5]
Formation Time period Member Lithology Thickness Image
Makonde Early Albian
Fine to medium grained sandstones, intercalated conglomerates, siltstones and claystones ~200 m (660 ft)
Barremian Unconformity
Tendaguru Hauterivian
Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Fine to medium grained sandstones with basal conglomerate 5–70 m (16–230 ft)
Tendaguru Formation - Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member.jpg
Berriasian Unconformity
Tithonian Upper Dinosaur Ripple cross bedded fine grained sandstones and siltstones with intercalated claystone and micritic carbonates ~32 m (105 ft)
Tendaguru Formation - Upper Dinosaur Member.jpg
Indotrigonia africana Calcite cemented sandstones, conglomerate beds, thin clay and silt layers with sandy limestones 20–50 m (66–164 ft)
Tendaguru Formation - Indotrigonia africana Member.jpg
Late Kimmeridgian
Middle Dinosaur Ripple cross bedded fine grained calcareous sandstones and siltstones and massive to crudely bedded silt and claystones 13–30 m (43–98 ft)
Tendaguru Formation - Middle Dinosaur Member.jpg
Nerinella Trough cross bedded sandstone to massive sandstone 5–45 m (16–148 ft)
Tendaguru Formation - Nerinella Member.jpg
Mid Oxfordian
Lower Dinosaur Cross bedded fine grained sandstones and siltstones, with Interbedded clay-rich siltstones >20 m (66 ft)
Early Jurassic Hiatus
Basement Neoproterozoic Gneiss

Paleogeography and depositional environment[edit]


Paleogeography and paleoclimate of the Late Jurassic (150 Ma). The Tendaguru Formation is indicated by A1, the Morrison Formation with M1-6 and the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation with S1.

The Tendaguru Formation was deposited in the Mandawa Basin, a post-Karoo,[6] Mesozoic rift basin located between the Ruvu Basin and Rufiji Trough to the north and the Ruvuma Basin to the south.[7] To the west of the basin, Archean and Early Proterozoic basement rocks crop out.[8] The main rift phase in present-day southeastern Africa led to the separation of Madagascar and the then-connected Indian subcontinent happened during the Early Cretaceous.[9] The Songo Songo and Kiliwani gas fields are located just offshore the basin.[10][11]

At time of deposition was undergoing a semi-arid climate with coastal influences that maintained somewhat higher moisture levels than seen inland.[12] The upper parts of the formation, the Middle Dinosaur and Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Members in particular, showed prevailing semiarid conditions with pronounced dry seasons, based on palynologic analysis.[13] The Tendaguru fauna was stable through the Late Jurassic.[14]

During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the Gondwana paleocontinent was breaking up and the separation of the Laurasian and Gondwana supercontinents resulted from the connection of the Tethys Ocean with the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the South Atlantic developed towards the end of the Late Jurassic with the separation of South America and Africa. Africa became increasingly isolated from most other continents by marine barriers from the Kimmeridgian into the Early Cretaceous, but retained a continental connection with South America. Global sea levels dropped significantly in the Early Jurassic and remained low through the Middle Jurassic but rose considerably towards the Late Jurassic, deepening the marine trenches between continents.[15]

Depositional environment[edit]

Generalized depositional environment of the Tendaguru Formation
HWL - high water line, LWL - low water line

The sedimentary rocks and fossils record a repeated shift from shallow marine to tidal flat environments indicating that the strata of the Tendaguru Formation were deposited near an oscillating strandline which was controlled by sea level changes. The three dinosaur-bearing members are continental to marginal marine and the three sandstone-dominated members are marginal marine in origin.[16]

Nerinella Member

The composition of benthic molluscs and foraminifera, euhaline to mesohaline ostracods, and dinoflagellate assemblages indicate marine, shallow water conditions for the Nerinella Member, in particular for the lower part. Sedimentation occurred as tidal channel fills, subtidal and tidal sand bars, minor storm layers (tempestites), and beach deposits. Overall, the Nerinella Member represents a variety of shallow subtidal to lower intertidal environments influenced by tides and storms.[17]

Middle Dinosaur Member

The sedimentological characteristics of the basal part of the Middle Dinosaur Member suggest deposition on tidal flats and in small tidal channels of a lagoonal paleoenvironment. The ostracod Bythocypris sp. from the member indicates polyhaline to euhaline conditions. Slightly higher up, a faunal sample dominated by the bivalve Eomiodon and an ostracod assemblage composed of brackish to freshwater taxa is indicative of a brackish water paleoenvironment with distinct influx of freshwater as revealed by the nonmarine ostracod genus Cypridea, charophytes, and other freshwater algae. The paleoenvironment of the ostracod assemblages of the Middle Dinosaur Member changed upsection from a marine setting in the basal parts through alternating marine-brackish conditions to freshwater conditions in the higher parts of this member.[17] The highly sporadic occurrence, in this part of the section, of molluscs typical of marginal marine habitats indicates only a very weak marine influence,[18] at sabkha-like coastal plains with ephemeral brackish lakes and ponds are recorded in the upper part of the Middle Dinosaur Member. This part also contains pedogenic calcretes indicating subaerial exposure and the onset of soil formation.[17] The calcrete intraclasts within adjacent sandstone beds testify to erosive reworking of calcrete horizons.[18] The presence of crocodyilforms indicates freshwater to littoral environments and adjacent terrestrial areas.[19]

Indotrigonia africana Member

The coarse-grained sandstone of the lower part of the Indotrigonia africana Member that shows highly variable transport directions is interpreted as deposits of large tidal channels. Grain-size, large-scale sedimentary structures, and the lack of both trace fossils and epifaunal and infaunal body fossils suggest high water energy and frequent reworking. This basal succession passes upward in cross-bedded sandstone and minor siltstone and claystone with flaser or lenticular bedding that are interpreted as tidal flat and tidal channel deposits. Horizontal to low-angle cross-bedded, fine-grained sandstone with intercalated bivalve pavements indicates tidal currents that operated in small flood and ebb tidal deltas and along the coast. Stacked successions of trough cross-bedded, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone of the upper part of the Indotrigonia africana Member are interpreted as tidal channel and sand bar deposits. At some places in the surroundings of Tendaguru Hill, these sediments interfinger with oolitic limestone layers that represent high-energy ooid shoals.[17]

In the Tingutinguti stream section, the Indotrigonia africana Member exhibits several up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) thick, poorly sorted, conglomeratic sandstone beds. They contain mud clasts, reworked concretions and/or accumulations of thick-shelled bivalves (mainly Indotrigonia africana and Seebachia janenschi), and exhibit megaripple surfaces. These conglomeratic sandstone layers are interpreted as storm deposits. In the Dwanika and Bolachikombe stream sections, and in a small tributary of the Bolachikombe creek, a discrete, up to 70 centimetres (2.3 ft) thick conglomerate in the lower portion of the Indotrigonia africana Member displays evidence of a tsunami deposit. Overall, lithofacies and the diverse macroinvertebrate and microfossil assemblages of the Indotrigonia africana Member suggest a shallow marine environment. Based on the diverse mesoflora and the abundance of Classopollis, a nearby vegetated hinterland is postulated that was dominated by xerophytic conifers.[17]

Upper Dinosaur Member

The small-scale trough and ripple cross-bedded fine-grained sandstone at the base of the Upper Dinosaur Member is interpreted as tidal flat deposits. Unfossiliferous sandstone in the upper part was most likely deposited in small fluvial channels in a coastal plain environment, whereas argillaceous deposits were laid down in still water bodies such as small lakes and ponds. Rare occurrences of the ostracod Cypridea and charophytes signal the influence of freshwater, whereas the sporadic occurrence of marine invertebrates suggests a depositional environment close to the sea.[17]

Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member

Fining upward sequences of the basal part of the Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi Member are interpreted as tidal channel fills, the overlying fine-grained sandstone, silt- and claystone as tidal flat deposits. From the immediate surroundings of Tendaguru Hill, invertebrates and vertebrates are poorly known and limit the palaeoenvironmental interpretation of this member. The composition of the land-derived sporomorph assemblage suggests a terrestrial vegetation which was dominated by cheirolepidiacean conifers in association with ferns.[16]

Excavation history[edit]

Geologic map of the Tendaguru Formation with sample locations

The Tendaguru Beds as a fossil deposit were first discovered in 1906, when German pharmacist, chemical analyst and mining engineer Bernhard Wilhelm Sattler, on his way to a mine south of the Mbemkure River in German East Africa (today Tanzania), noticed enormous bones weathering out of the path near the base of Tendaguru Hill, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Mtapaia (close to Nambiranji village, Mipingo ward, 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Lindi town).[3][20] Because of its morphology, the hill was locally known as "steep hill": "tendaguru" in the language of the local Wamwera people. Sattler sent a report of his discoveries that found its way to German palaeontologist Eberhard Fraas, then on a round trip through Africa, who visited the site in 1907 and with the aid of Sattler recovered two partial skeletons of enormous size.[21]

Following the discovery in 1906, teams from the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (1907–1913), and the British Museum (Natural History), London (1924–1931) launched a series of collecting expeditions that remain unequalled in scope and ambition. Led by the vision and influence of geologist Wilhelm von Branca, the German expeditions were particularly successful, in large part because the project was taken up as a matter of national ambition (Germany was then a young nation, having been unified by von Bismarck less than 40 years earlier) and enjoyed the benevolence of many wealthy patrons. Eventually, nearly 250 tons of bones, representing an entirely new dinosaur fauna that remains the best understood assemblage from all of former Gondwana, was shipped to Berlin.[22]

From there, the material was transported to Fraas' institution, the Royal Natural History Collection in Stuttgart, Germany. Fraas described two species in the badly known genus "Gigantosaurus"; G. robustus and G. africanus (today Janenschia robusta and Tornieria africana, respectively).[21]

German Tendaguru Expedition[edit]

The Berlin's Natural History Museum excavated at Tendaguru hill and in the surroundings for four years. From 1909 through 1911, Werner Janensch as expedition leader and Edwin Hennig as assistant directed excavations, while Hans Reck and his wife Ina Reck led the 1912 field season. Other European participants include Hans von Staff. In the rainy seasons the scientists explored the geology of the colony German East Africa on long safaris.

In popular culture[edit]

The 1998, an illustrated book in Swahili, whose title translates as Dinosaurs of Tendaguru, was published for young readers in East Africa. It presents a slightly different, fictitious story of the first discovery, which is attributed to a Tanzanian farmer, rather than to the German engineer Sattler.[23]

Paleontological significance[edit]

Possible dinosaur eggs have been recovered from the formation.[24]

The fauna of the Tendaguru Formation has been correlated with the Morrison Formation of the central-western United States,[25] several formations in England, among which the Kimmeridge Clay and Oxford Clay, and France (Sables de Glos, Argiles d'Octeville, Marnes de Bléville), the Alcobaça, Guimarota and Lourinhã Formations of Portugal,[26] the Villar del Arzobispo Formation of Spain, the Shishugou, Kalazha and Shangshaximiao Formations of China, and the Toqui Formation of the Magallanes Basin, Chile and the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of the Cañadón Asfalto Basin in central Patagonia, Argentina.[27]

Fossil content[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.


Mammaliaformes reported from the Tendaguru Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
Allostaffia A. aenigmatica Quarry Ig Middle Dinosaur Three isolated molars Originally described as Staffia, later renamed Allostaffia as Staffia was preoccupied bya foraminifer.[28]
Assigned to Haramiyida (though possibly a gondwanathere instead).[29]
Brancatherulum B. tendagurense Unspecified Upper Dinosaur[30] Dentary without teeth Either a stem-zatherian or dryolestidan.[31]
Tendagurodon T. janenschi Quarry Ig Middle Dinosaur Single tooth One of the earliest amphilestids[32]
Tendagurutherium T. dietrichi Quarry Ig Middle Dinosaur Partial dentary with damaged last molar Either a peramurid or an australosphenidan[29]


Pterosaurs reported from the Tendaguru Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
Tendaguripterus T. recki[33] Quarry Ig Middle Dinosaur A partial mandible with teeth [33]
Pterosaur fossils from Tendaguru
?Indeterminate archaeopterodactyloid Mkoawa Mtwara Humerus [33][34]
Indeterminate azhdarchid Mkoawa Mtwara [33]
Indeterminate dsungaripteroid Upper Dinosaur[30] Humerus [34]
Pterodactylus P. maximus Mkoawa Mtwara Later determined to be an indeterminate pterodactyloid[33]
P. brancai Mkoawa Mtwara Tibiotarsi[35] Later determined to be an indeterminate dsungaripteroid[33]
P. arningi Mkoawa Mtwara Later determined to be an indeterminate pterosaur[33]
Rhamphorhynchus R. tendagurensis Mkoawa Mtwara Later determined to be an indeterminate "rhamphorhynchoid"[33]


Ornithischians reported from the Tendaguru Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
Dysalotosaurus D. lettowvorbecki Quarry Ig Middle Dinosaur "Large number of mostly disassociated cranial and postcranial elements" [24][36]
Dryosaurus lettowvorbecki skeleton.jpg
Kentrosaurus K. aethiopicus Quarry Q, Ig, St, S, Ny, Li, XX, r, y, d, Ng, X, H, IX, Om, bb, Ha, XIV, II, IV, V, VIII, G, e, g, Ki Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur "[Two] composite mounted skeletons, [four] braincases, [seven] sacra, more than [seventy] femora, approximately 25 isolated elements, juvenile to adult" [24][37]
Fossil Kentrosaurus aethiopicus in Museum für Naturkunde Berlin 001.JPG


Sauropods reported from the Tendaguru Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
Australodocus A. bohetii Quarry G Upper Dinosaur Two neck vertebrae; more undescribed remains destroyed during World War II [38]
Dicraeosaurus D. hansemanni Quarry Q, m, St, dd, Sa Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur "Skeleton lacking skull and forelimbs, [two] partial skeletons, isolated vertebrae, and limb elements" [24][39]
Dicraeosaurus Berlin.jpg
D. sattleri Quarry La, s, O, ab, E, M, o, Ob, bb, XIV, G, GD Middle & Upper Dinosaur "[Two] partial skeletons without skulls, isolated postcranial remains" [24][39]
Dicraeosaurus sattleri Skeletal.svg
Giraffatitan[24] G. brancai Quarry Q, J, Ig, Y, St, dd, S, TL, XX, Ma, JR, Ng, Bo, To, p, t, Lw, D, N, ab, cc, X, IX, Z, T, Aa, l, E, XIV, II, G, e, Ki, No, R, F, XII, GD, XV, Sa, U, i Lower, Middle & Upper Dinosaur The new genus Giraffatitan was erected to hold the former Brachiosaurus species, B. brancai after scientists concluded that it was distinct enough from the Brachiosaurus type species, B. altithorax, to warrant such a reclassification.[40]
Museum für Naturkunde (36556352434).jpg
Janenschia J. robusta Quarry dd, P, IX, B, G, Oa, NB Middle & Upper Dinosaur Known from hindlimb and forelimb material, left pubis and two right ischia [24][41]
Tendaguria T. tanzaniensis Nambango site Upper Dinosaur "[Two] associated cranial dorsal vertebrae" A turiasaur[24][42]
Tornieria T. africanus Quarry St, k, MD, A, e, Sa Middle & Upper Dinosaur "More than [three] partial skeletons, a few skull elements, [and] many isolated postcranial elements" [24][43]
Wamweracaudia W. keranjei A sequence of caudal vertebrae [41]
Brachiosaurus B. brancai Mkoawa Mtwara "[Five] partial skeletons, more than [three] skulls, [and] isolated limb elements" B. brancai was distinct enough from the non-Tendaguru Brachiosaurus type species B. altithorax that it was moved to its own genus, Giraffatitan.[24][40][44]
B. fraasi Remains attributed to B. fraasi were later referred to B. brancai, and thus now Giraffatitan[24][40]
Diplodocinae indet. Indeterminate Kijenjere Upper Dinosaur Partial skull Belonging to a form that is closely related to Diplodocus[45]
Diplodocinae indet. - Tendaguru Formation.jpg
Diplodocidae indet. Indeterminate Kijenjere Upper Dinosaur Caudal vertebrae and metatarsal Originally referred to as "Barosaurus africanus"[46]
Diplodocidae indet. (Barosaurus africanus) - Tendaguru Formation.jpg
Diplodocidae indet. Indeterminate Trench XIV Upper Dinosaur Articulated pedes Possibly representing two different taxa[47]
Diplodocidae indet. - Tendaguru Formation.jpg
Flagellicaudata indet. Indeterminate Upper Dinosaur Braincase Referred to Flagellicaudata indet. based on the derived characters shared with this group[48]
Flagellicaudata indet. - braincase - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg
"The Archbishop" [note 1]
The Archbishop.jpeg


Theropods reported from the Tendaguru Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
?Abelisauridae indet. Indeterminate Quarry TL Upper Dinosaur A left tibia, a right tibia, and a femur[49] Possibly an indeterminate abelisaurid.[49]
Megalosauroidea indet. Indeterminate Quarry MW Upper Dinosaur left tibia and left astragalus[49] A large indeterminate megalosauroid.[49]
Elaphrosaurus E. bambergi Quarry Ig, dd, ?RD Middle Dinosaur, ?Upper Dinosaur "Postcranial skeleton"[50] An elaphrosaurine noasaurid[24]
Elaphrosaurus bambergi.jpg
Ostafrikasaurus O. crassiserratus Quarry Om Upper Dinosaur "Tooth" Previously thought to be a spinosaurid, now known to be a ceratosaurid.[51][52]
Veterupristisaurus V. milneri Quarry St Middle Dinosaur "Vertebrae" The earliest known carcharodontosaurid.[49]
Veterupristisaurus Skeletal Diagram.png
?Allosaurus ?A. tendagurensis Quarry TL Middle Dinosaur A tibia[24][53] Remains now considered "Tetanurae indet." Possibly a megalosauroid or carcharodontosaurid.[49] Originally referred to Allosauridae'
Allosaurus tendagurensis.jpg
?Ceratosaurus C. roechlingi Quarry St, MW Middle & Upper Dinosaur Caudal vertebra Tentatively referred to Ceratosauridae.[49] Originally referred to Allosauridae.
Labrosaurus L. stechowi Quarry St, MW Middle Dinosaur Teeth A ceratosaurid, possibly a species of Ceratosaurus.[49] Originally referred to Allosauridae.
?Torvosaurus T. sp ("T." ingens) Quarry St, MW Upper Dinosaur Teeth Includes remains previously referred to "Megalosaurus" ingens - now known as "Torvosaurus ingens". Also known from the Tacuarembó Formation.[54]


Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images
Bernissartia B. sp Upper & Middle Dinosaur [30][55]


Group Fossils Member Notes Images
Lissamphibia ?Salientia Middle Dinosaur [30]


Group Fossils Member Notes Images
Rhinobatoidea Engaibatis schultzei Upper Dinosaur [56]
Engaibatis schultzei - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg
Semionotidae Lepidotes tendaguruensis Middle Dinosaur [30]
Lepidotes sp. Upper & Middle Dinosaur [57]
Lepidotes sp. - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg
Hybodontidae Hybodus sp. Upper Dinosaur [58]
Hybodus sp. - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg
Lonchidiidae Lonchidion sp. Upper Dinosaur [59]
Lonchidion sp. - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg
Orthacodontidae Sphenodus sp. Upper Dinosaur [60]
Sphenodus sp. - Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania.jpg


Group Taxa Member
bold is defining
Notes Images
Gastropods Pseudomelania dietrichi Middle Dinosaur [19]
Promathildia sp. Middle Dinosaur [19]
Nerinella cutleri Nerinella [61]
Tendaguru Formation - invertebrates.jpg
Bivalves Eomiodon cutleri Upper Dinosaur [62]
Indotrigonia africana Indotrigonia africana [63]
Rutitrigonia bornhardti Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi [62]
Rutitrigonia schwarzi [62]
Acesta cutleri Lower Dinosaur [64]
Actinostreon hennigi Indotrigonia africana [65]
Entolium corneolum Lower Dinosaur [64]
Falcimytilus dietrichi Middle Dinosaur [19]
Grammatodon irritans Lower Dinosaur [64]
Indotrigonia dietrichi Lower Dinosaur [64]
Liostrea dubiensis, L. kindopeensis Indotrigonia africana [65]
Lithophaga suboblonga Indotrigonia africana [65]
Meleagrinella radiata Lower Dinosaur [64]
Nanogyra nana Lower Dinosaur [64]
Protocardia schenki Lower Dinosaur [64]
Seebachia janenschi Indotrigonia africana [17]
Corals Astrocoenia bernensis Indotrigonia africana [65]
Meandrophyllia oolithotithonica Indotrigonia africana [65]
Thamnoseris sp. Indotrigonia africana [65]
Ostracods Bythocypris sp. Middle Dinosaur [17]
Cypridea sp. Middle & Upper Dinosaur [17]


Group Taxa Member Notes Images
Araucariaceae Araucariacites Lower Dinosaur [66]
Cheirolepidiaceae Classopollis Indotrigonia africana
Lower Dinosaur
Cupressaceae Cupressinoxylon sp. Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi [67]
Cycadaceae Cycadoxylon sp. Indotrigonia africana [68]
Ginkgoaceae Ginkgoxylon sp. Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi [69]
Taxodiaceae Glyptostroboxylon sp. Middle Dinosaur [67]
Taxaceae Taxaceoxylon sp. Rutitrigonia bornhardti-schwarzi [69]
Prasinophyta Cymatiosphaera sp. Indotrigonia africana [70]
Zygnemataceae Ovoidites parvus Middle Dinosaur [70]
Dinoflagellates various Indotrigonia africana
Middle Dinosaur
Gymnosperm pollen various Indotrigonia africana
Middle Dinosaur
Pteridophytic and bryophytic spores various Indotrigonia africana
Middle Dinosaur

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]


  1. ^ Formal description in preparation by Michael Taylor in 2019


  1. ^ Mateus, 2006, pp.223–232
  2. ^ Bussert et al., 2009, p.154
  3. ^ a b Bussert et al., 2009, p.142
  4. ^ Schwarz-Wings & Böhm, 2014, p.82
  5. ^ Bussert et al., 2009, p.152
  6. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.28
  7. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.8
  8. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.33
  9. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.3
  10. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.17
  11. ^ Muhongo, 2013, p.22
  12. ^ Noto & Grossmann, 2010, p.7
  13. ^ Schrank, 1999, p.181
  14. ^ Noto & Grossmann, 2010, p.9
  15. ^ Arratia et al., 2002, p.227
  16. ^ a b Bussert et al., 2009, p.168
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bussert et al., 2009, p.167
  18. ^ a b Aberhan et al., 2002, p.32
  19. ^ a b c d Aberhan et al., 2002, p.33
  20. ^ Maier, 2003
  21. ^ a b Fraas, 1908
  22. ^ Cifelli, 2003, p.608
  23. ^ Maier, Gerhard (2003). African Dinosaurs Unearthed. The Tendaguru Expeditions. Bloomington and Indianapolis (Indiana University Press), p. 304. pp. 380, 50 figs. ISBN 0253342147.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Weishampel et al., 2004, p.552
  25. ^ Taylor, 2009, p.790
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