Tennessee's 1st congressional district
|Tennessee's 1st congressional district|
Tennessee's 1st congressional district is the congressional district of northeast Tennessee, including all of Carter, Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Hancock, Hawkins, Johnson, Sullivan, Unicoi, and Washington counties and parts of Jefferson County and Sevier County. It is largely coextensive with the Tennessee portion of the Tri-Cities region of northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia.
Cities and towns represented within the district include Blountville, Bristol, Church Hill, Elizabethton, Erwin, Greeneville, Johnson City, Jonesborough, Kingsport, Morristown, Mountain City, Newport, Pigeon Forge, Roan Mountain, Rogersville, Sneedville, Sevierville and Tusculum. The 1st district's seat in the U.S. House of Representatives has been held by Republicans since 1881.
The district was created in 1805 when the at-large seat was divided among multiple districts.
Election results from other races
|1998||Governor||Sundquist 77% - Hooker 23%|
|2000||President||George W. Bush 61% – Al Gore 38%|
|Senate||Frist 75% - Clark 25|
|2002||Senate||Alexander 66% - Clement 34%|
|Governor||Hilleary 57% - Bredesen 43%|
|2004||President||George W. Bush 68% – John Kerry 31%|
|2006||Governor||Bredesen 59% - Bryson 41%|
|Senate||Corker 62% - Ford Jr. 38%|
|2008||President||John McCain 70% – Barack Obama 28.6%|
|Senate||Alexander 76% - Tuke 24%|
|2010||Governor||Haslam 78% - McWherter 22%|
|2012||President||Mitt Romney 72.7% – Barack Obama 25.7%|
|Senate||Corker 77% - Clayton 23%|
|2014||Governor||Bill Haslam 78% - Brown 22%|
|Senate||Alexander 71% - Ball 29%|
|2016||President||Donald Trump 76.7% – Hillary Clinton 19.7%|
|2018||Governor||Lee 78% - Dean 22%|
|Senate||Blackburn 72% - Bredesen 28%|
|2020||President||Donald Trump 76.2% – Joe Biden 22.1%|
|Senate||Hagerty 80% - Bradshaw 20%|
The 1st has generally been a very secure voting district for the Republican Party since the American Civil War, and is one of only two ancestrally Republican districts in the state (the other being the neighboring 2nd district).
Republicans (or their antecedents) have held the seat continuously since 1881 and for all but four years since 1859, while Democrats (or their antecedents) have held the congressional seat for all but eight years from when Andrew Jackson was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1796 (as the state's single at large representative) up to the term of Albert Galiton Watkins ending in 1859.
The 1st was one of four districts in Tennessee whose congressmen did not resign when Tennessee seceded from the Union in 1861. Thomas Amos Rogers Nelson was reelected as a Unionist (the name used by a coalition of Republicans, northern Democrats and anti-Confederate Southern Democrats) to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and taken to Richmond. Nelson was paroled and returned home to Jonesborough, where he kept a low profile for the length of his term.
Like the rest of East Tennessee, slavery was not as common in this area as the rest of the state due to its mountain terrain, which was dominated by small farms instead of plantations. The district was also the home of the first exclusively abolitionist periodicals in the nation, The Manumission Intelligencer and The Emancipator, founded in Jonesborough by Elihu Embree in 1819.
Due to these factors, this area supported the Union over the Confederacy in the Civil War, and identified with the Republican Party after Tennessee was readmitted to the Union in 1867, electing candidates representing the Unionist Party—a merger of Republicans and pro-Union Democrats—both before and after the war. This allegiance has continued through good times and bad ever since, with Republicans dominating every level of government. While a few Democratic pockets exist in the district's urban areas, they are not enough to sway the district. Since 1898, Democrats have only crossed the 40 percent barrier twice, in 1962 and 1976.
The district's Republican bent is no less pronounced at the presidential level. It was one of the few areas of Tennessee where Barry Goldwater did well in 1964. Indeed, Johnson and Washington counties are among the few counties in the country to have never supported a Democrat for president. Franklin D. Roosevelt turned in respectable showings in the district during his four runs for president, as did Jimmy Carter in 1976. However, Carter is the last Democrat to come close to carrying any county in the district.
The district typically gives its congressmen very long tenures in Washington; indeed, it elected some of the few truly senior Southern Republican congressmen before the 1950s. Only nine people have represented it since 1921. Two of them, B. Carroll Reece and Jimmy Quillen, are the longest-serving members of the House in Tennessee history. Reece held the seat for all but six years from 1921 and 1961, while Quillen held it from 1963 to 1997.
List of members representing the district
Recent election results
|Republican||Phil Roe (Incumbent)||182,252||76|
|Green||Robert N. Smith||2,872||1.2|
|Republican||Phil Roe (incumbent)||115,533||82.8|
|Independent||Robert D. Franklin||9,906||7.1|
|Green||Robert N. Smith||9,869||7.1|
|Independent||Michael D. Salyer||4,148||3.0|
|Independent||Scott Kudialis (write-in)||14||0.0|
|Republican||Phil Roe (incumbent)||198,293||78.4|
|Independent||Paul Krane (write-in)||6||0.0|
|Republican||Phil Roe (incumbent)||172,835||77.1|
Historical district boundaries
- Geography, US Census Bureau. "Congressional Districts Relationship Files (state-based)". www.census.gov.
- Bureau, Center for New Media & Promotion (CNMP), US Census. "My Congressional District". www.census.gov.
- "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- Pathé, Simone (January 3, 2020). "Tennessee's Phil Roe won't run for reelection in 2020". Roll Call. Washington, D.C. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- ""A Patriot's Voice", Neal O'Steen, Tennessee Alumnus Summer 1997". utk.edu. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010.
- "Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture: Slavery". tennesseeencyclopedia.net. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- "First Abolition Publications 1A82 - Jonesborough, Tn. - Tennessee Historical Markers on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com.
- L.A. Coolidge (1897). "Tennessee". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Fifth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
- Johnson, Cheryl L. (February 28, 2019). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018". Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- State of Tennessee General Election Results, November 3, 2020, Results By Office (PDF) (Report). Secretary of State of Tennessee. December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present