||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2013)|
Athletic training shoes or trainers (British English), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Australian English and Geordie English in the UK), running shoes, runners or gutties (Canadian English, Australian English, Scottish English and Hiberno-English), sneakers (North American English and New Zealand English), tennis shoes (North American English and Australian English), gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, takkies (South African English and Hiberno-English), rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvers (Nigerian English).
Plimsolls (British English) are "low tech" athletic shoes, and are also called 'sneakers' in American English and 'daps' in Welsh English. The word "sneaker" is often attributed to Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son, who, in 1917, coined the term because the rubber sole made the shoe stealthy. However, the word was in use at least as early as 1887, as the Boston Journ made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes".
These shoes acquired the nickname 'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived, according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.
Plimsolls were widely worn by vacationers and also began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, and these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army. Athletic shoes were increasingly used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were even found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were made compulsory in schools' physical education lessons in the UK.
British company J.W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the shoes were spiked to allow for greater traction and speed. The company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world, eventually receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for Team GB in the 1924 Summer Olympics - Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100-m and 400-m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear.
This style of footwear also became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called 'sneakers'. In 1892, the U.S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production. The first basketball shoes were designed by the Spalding as early as 1907. The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics increasingly became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U.S. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor.
During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, and differentiated designs were made available for men and women. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole.
Rudolf "Rudi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from World War I, and went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas. He also successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II.
During the 1950s, leisure opportunities greatly expanded, and children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely impact on the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late '50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became increasingly popular, and trainers designed specifically for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies also started to market their products as a lifestyle choice. Soon, shoes were available for football, jogging, basketball, running, etc. Every sport had its own shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology.
During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Sports endorsements grew larger, and marketing budgets went through the roof. Sneakers became a fashion statement and definition of identity and personality rather than humble athletic aids.
From 1970 (5 models) over 1998 (285 models) to 2012 (3,371), the number of sport shoe models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.
Use in sports
The term 'athletic shoes' is typically used for running in a marathon or half marathon, basketball, and tennis (amongst others), but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football, which are generally known as 'studs' or in North America as 'cleats'.
Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function, and ability to absorb impact. As the industry and designs have expanded, the term "athletic shoes" is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Today's designs include sandals, Mary Janes, and even elevated styles suitable for running, dancing, and jumping.
The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for the different purposes of use. A specific example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Many of these shoes are made up to a very large size because of athletes with large feet.
Running shoes come in a range of shapes suited to different running styles/abilities. Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.
A variety of specialised shoes are designed for specific uses:
- Racing flats
- Track shoe
- Skate shoes
- Climbing shoe
- Approach shoe
- Wrestling shoes
- Football boot
- Dance shoe
- High-tops cover the ankles.
- Low-tops do not cover the ankles.
- Mid-cut are in-between high-tops and low-tops.
- Sneaker boots extend to the calf.
'Sneakers' or 'canvas shoes' are casual athletic shoes.
Sneaker collectors, called "sneakerheads", use sneakers as fashionable items. Casual sneakers such as the Air Force One (Nike) or Superstar (Adidas) have become icons in today's pop culture. Artistically modified sneakers can sell for more than $500. In more recent years, the classic shoe Nike Dunk has come to the attention of sneakerheads. During the release of these shoes, people often lined up several hours before the shops opened, patiently waiting to get the shoes. Artistically modified runners can sell for up to $500 depending on their popularity. The opening-day cost for these shoes can range from US$60–300.
- Pettman, Charles (1913). Africanderisms; a glossary of South African colloquial words and phrases and of place and other names. p. 491.
- "Programmes - Categorised as Factual: History". BBC. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
- Susie Dent (2011). How to Talk Like a Local: From Cockney to Geordie. Random House. p. 99.
- "Foster's Famous Shoes".
- Smit, Barbara (2009). Sneaker Wars. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-124658-6.
- "How Adidas and PUMA were born". in.rediff.com. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2010.[dead link]
- Pribut, Stephen M. "A Sneaker Odyssey." Dr. Stephen M. Pribut's Sport Pages. 2002. Web. 23 June 2010.
- Aichner, T. and Coletti, P. 2013. Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 15(1): 20-35.
- Marius Bakken. "Fitting Your Running Shoes to Your Feet". Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- Smith, Ian. "Do the Shoes Fit?" Time; 09/27/99, Vol. 154 Issue 13, p. 111
- Globus, Sheila. "What's Your Athletic Shoe IQ?" Current Health 2; Sep2002, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p12
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Athletic shoes.|
- BBC Sport — "The history of running shoes"
- running shoe in the Visual Dictionary at Merriam-Webster.com
- "2002: A Sneaker Odyssey"
- "The History of Shoes"
- "The painful truth about trainers: Are running shoes a waste of money?"