Terêna or Etelena is spoken by 15,000 Brazilians. The language has a dictionary and written grammar. Many Terena people have low Portuguese proficiency. It is spoken in Mato Grosso do Sul. 20% are literate in their language, 80% literate in Portuguese.
- Terena at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Kinikinao & Guaná at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Chané at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Terena-Kinikinao-Chane". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Aikhenvald, "Arawak", in Dixon & Aikhenvald, eds., The Amazonian Languages, 1999.
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