Terabyte

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Multiples of bytes
Decimal
Value Metric
1000 kB kilobyte
10002 MB megabyte
10003 GB gigabyte
10004 TB terabyte
10005 PB petabyte
10006 EB exabyte
10007 ZB zettabyte
10008 YB yottabyte
Binary
Value IEC JEDEC
1024 KiB kibibyte KB kilobyte
10242 MiB mebibyte MB megabyte
10243 GiB gibibyte GB gigabyte
10244 TiB tebibyte TB terabyte
10245 PiB pebibyte
10246 EiB exbibyte
10247 ZiB zebibyte
10248 YiB yobibyte

The terabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix tera represents the fourth power of 1000, and means 1012 in the International System of Units (SI), and therefore one terabyte is one trillion (short scale) bytes. The unit symbol for the terabyte is TB.

1 TB = 1000000000000bytes = 1012bytes = 1000gigabytes.

A related unit, the tebibyte (TiB), using a binary prefix, is equal to 10244 bytes. One terabyte is about 0.9095 TiB.

1 TB is also used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote 1099511627776 (10244 or 240) bytes, particularly for sizes of semiconductor memory [1][2]and the Windows operating system.[3][4]

History[edit]

The first hard disk drives were created in the 1950s and 1960s and were the size of a refrigerator,[5][6] with a capacity of a few megabytes. In 1982, the first IBM PC with a hard disk drive was released, and had a capacity of 5 megabytes (0.000 005 TB).[7] The first single hard disks of terabyte size reached the mass market in early 2008. As of 2014, 1 terabyte solid state drives use an mSATA form factor.[8]

Costs[edit]

In 1991, consumer grade, 1 gigabyte (1/1000 TB) disk drives were available for US$2699 and more,[20] and two years later prices for this capacity had dropped to US$1499.[21] By 1995, 1 GB drives could be purchased for US$849.[22]

  • 2007: 1 terabyte hard disk costs US$375
  • 2010: 2 terabyte hard disk costs US$200
  • 2012: 4 terabyte hard disk US$450 (Hitachi, largest available in consumer market), 1 terabyte hard disk US$100
  • 2013: 4 terabyte hard disk US$179, 3 terabyte hard disk $129, 2 terabyte hard disk $100, 1 terabyte hard disk US$80
  • 2014: 4 terabyte hard disk US$150, 3 terabyte hard disk $129, 2 terabyte hard disk $90, 1 terabyte hard disk US$60
  • Early 2015: 4 terabyte hard disk US$134, 3 terabyte hard disc $89,[23] 2 terabyte hard disk $65, 1 terabyte hard disk US$45

Illustrative usage examples[edit]

Examples of the use of terabyte to describe data sizes in different fields are:

  • Library data: The U.S. Library of Congress Web Capture team claims that as of March 2014 "the Library has collected about 525 terabytes of web archive data" and that it adds about 5 terabytes per month.[24]
  • Online databases: Ancestry.com claims approximately 600 TB of genealogical data with the inclusion of US Census data from 1790 to 1930.[25]
  • Computer hardware: Hitachi introduced the world's first one terabyte hard disk drive in 2007.[26]
  • Historical Internet traffic: In 1993, total Internet traffic amounted to approximately 100 TB for the year.[27] As of June 2008, Cisco Systems estimated Internet traffic at 160 TB/s (which, assuming to be statistically constant, comes to 5 zettabytes for the year).[28] In other words, the amount of Internet traffic per second in 2008 exceeded all of the Internet traffic in 1993.
  • Social networks: As of May 2009, Yahoo! Groups had "40 terabytes of data to index".[29]
  • Video: Released in 2009, the 3D animated film Monsters vs. Aliens used 100 TB of storage during development.[30]
  • Usenet: In October 2000, the Deja News Usenet archive had stored over 500 million Usenet messages which used 1.5 TB of storage.[31]
  • Encyclopedia: In January 2010, the database of Wikipedia consists of a 5.87 terabyte SQL dataset.[32]
  • Climate science: In 2010, the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) was generating 10000 TB of data per year, from a supercomputer with a 20 TB memory and 7000 TB disk space.[33]
  • Audio: One terabyte of audio recorded at CD quality contains approx. 2000 hours of audio. Additionally, one terabyte of compressed audio recorded at 128 kB/s contains approx. 17,000 hours of audio.
  • The Hubble Space Telescope has collected more than 45 terabytes of data in its first 20 years of observations.[34]
  • The IBM computer Watson, against which Jeopardy! contestants competed in February 2011, has 16 terabytes of RAM.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MultiMediaCard (MMC) Electrical Standard, High Capacity (MMCA, 4.2) JESD84-B42 Page 100
  2. ^ JEDEC Definiton: mega (M) (as a prefix to units of semiconductor storage capacity)
  3. ^ How operating systems report drive capacity, Seagate Inc.
  4. ^ Windows disk space using TB as a binary value, from Seagate.com
  5. ^ "Computer History Museum | Timeline of Computer History : Storage Entries". Computerhistory.org. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  6. ^ "IBM 305 RAMAC- The First Computer with a Hard Disk Drive in 1956". Cedmagic.com. 1956-09-13. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  7. ^ "History of the Hard Disk". Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  8. ^ "Samsung Introduces Industry’s First 1 Terabyte mSATA SSD | Samsung Semiconductor Global Site" (Press release). Samsung.com. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 
  9. ^ a b "Convert terabytes (TB) to tebibytes (TiB) | Category : bits and bytes | Unit Conversion Center". Conversioncenter.net. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  10. ^ Hitachi introduces 1-Terabyte Hard Drive
  11. ^ Seagate Powers Next Generation Of Computing With Three New Hard Drives, Including World's First 1.5-Terabyte Desktop PC And Half-Terabyte Notebook PC Hard Drives
  12. ^ "WD® LAUNCHES INDUSTRY'S FIRST 2 TB HARD DRIVES" (Press release). 27 January 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. 
  13. ^ "WD to launch 2TB hard drive this week". Electronista. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  14. ^ Murph, Darren (2009-01-26). "Western Digital's 2TB Caviar Green HDD on sale in Australia". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  15. ^ "The Linear Tape File System" (PDF). 
  16. ^ "Hitachi 4 Terabyte HDD Price, Hitachi Touro Price [Hard Drives 2012]". Techlivez.com. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  17. ^ "Drive advance fuels terabyte era". BBC News. 15 October 2007. 
  18. ^ "1TB USB stick shoved into Swiss Army knife". The Register. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  19. ^ "HGST Ships 6TB Ultrastar® He6 Helium-filled Drives for High-density, Massive Scale-out Data Center Environments | HGST Storage". Hgst.com. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  20. ^ "The High and the Mighty," Macworld, July 1991.
  21. ^ "1- and 2-Gigabyte Hard Drives", MacUser, July 1993.
  22. ^ Ivan Smith. "Cost of Hard Drive Space". Ns1758.ca. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  23. ^ http://www.ncixus.com/products/?usaffiliateid=1000031504&sku=66009&vpn=ST3000DM001&manufacture=Seagate&promoid=1413
  24. ^ "Web Archiving FAQs: How large is the Library's archive?". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  25. ^ "Ancestry.com Adds U.S. Census Records". CBS News. 2006-06-22. 
  26. ^ "Hitachi Introduces 1-Terabyte Hard Drive". PC World. 2007-01-07. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  27. ^ Swanson, Bret (2007-10-03). "Discovery Institute's Technology Blog: An exabyte here, an exabyte there". disco-tech. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  28. ^ White, Bobby (2008-06-16). "Cisco Projects Growth To Swell for Online Video". The Wall Street Journal. 
  29. ^ "Yahoo! Groups Blog". 2009-05-09. 
  30. ^ IRENE THAM (2009-04-08). "Taking a monster shit; Massive computer power was needed to create the 3-D movie Monsters Vs Aliens.". The Straits Times. The 3-D movie used up close to 100 terabytes of disk space and more than 40 million hours of rendering. 
  31. ^ "Usenet Sale: Sounds to Silence?". 2000-10-25. Retrieved 2009-10-13. It's loaded with 500 million postings .... [and has] ballooned to over 1.5 terabytes 
  32. ^ "Data dumps – Meta". Meta.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  33. ^ [1][dead link]
  34. ^ "NASA – NASA – The Hubble Story". Nasa.gov. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  35. ^ "It’s Technical, Dear Watson – The "Jeopardy!" playing computer’s feeds and speeds". ibmsystemsmag.com. February 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-04.