Terrano (grape)

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Grape (Vitis)
Color of berry skin Noir
Species Vitis vinifera
Also called Teran and other synonyms
Origin Member of the Refosco family. Believed to have originated in Italy.

Terrano or Teran (in Croatian) is a Croatian, Italian and Slovenian dark-skinned grape variety, bearing the mark of recognized traditional denomination.[1][2][3] It is a member of the Refosco family of grape varieties, which also includes Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso.

Traditional Kraški Teran does not age well - notably, chemical analyses have confirmed that the content of bivalent iron starts to diminish radically two years after fermentation - and should be consumed within its first year; after that, the wine quickly loses its attractive vitality and can even become bitter and flat.[4][5][6]


Areas of Terra Rossa and Terrano growing regions in Croatia, Italy and Slovenia

Terrano wine is primarily grown on the Karst Plateau within the Slovenian Primorska wine region (where it is called Kraški teran) and Italian Carso DOC (with two main varieties called Terrano del Carso and Carso Rosso (red Carso)), as well as in the West Istrian wine region of Croatia (called Istarski Teran or Terrano D'Istria in Italian). Teran is the principal red wine grape in these regions. In the Carso DOC, the grape is sometimes blended with Piccola nera.[7] In Italy it is also used in the DOC Cagnina di Romagna in Emilia-Romagna.

The Italian and Slovene parts of the Karst Plateau (Carso and Kras, respectively) are located on either side of the Italian-Slovene border. In this area the Terra Rossa is present in part of the municipalities of Sežana and Komen, around the villages of Tomaj and Dutovlje. In Italy, it is present in the area of Monrupino, Sgonico, Duino-Aurisina and in a very limited part of the municipality of Trieste (between Opicina and the Slovenian border). In Croatia, it is found in Western Istria.

History, properties and food matching[edit]

Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote that puccinum was the favorite of Augustus's wife Livia who lived to the respectable age of 82. The medicinal properties of lactic acid and bivalent iron, that are highly contained in Kraski Teran, have been confirmed by a modern medicine. The wine stimulates the appetite and facilitates digestion of fatty foods.

A bottle of teran wine from western Istria, Croatia, made of the same-named grapes

Kraski Teran is traditionally well paired together with pršut (prosciutto or air-dried ham). However, it matches also with other pork dishes, sausages, pancetta or cooked ham with horseradish (traditional foods of the Kras Plateau and Istria). Kraski Teran should be served at 15 - 16 °C (59 - 60.8 °F).


Although Teran is made of refosco grapes grown on Terra Rossa it is often a misnomer in other regions where it is known by different synonyms: Cagnina (in Emilia-Romagna), Crodarina, Gallizio, Gallizza, Istranin, Istranyun, Istrianka, Istrijanac, Istrijanka, Magnacan, Reffosco, Refosca, Refosco D'Istria, Refosco del Carso, Refosco Magnacan, Refoscone, Refošk, Refošk Istarski, Rifosco, Taran, Tarin, Teran, Teran Black, Teran Blauer, Teran Crni, Teran Noir, Teranovka, Terant, Terin, Terran Noir, Terran Tcherny, Terrana, Terrano A Raspo Bianco, Terrano A Raspo Rosso, Terruna, and Terrura.[2]


  1. ^ Jancis Robinson, ed. (2006). "Teran". Oxford Companion to Wine (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 692. ISBN 0-19-860990-6. 
  2. ^ a b Terrano, Vitis International Variety Catalogue, accessed 2010-10-23
  3. ^ Agrotur TERAN PTP / TERRANO, accessed 2012-05-21
  4. ^ Grča Cellar
  5. ^ Slovenia vino
  6. ^ sl:Kraški teran
  7. ^ J. Robinson, J. Harding and J. Vouillamoz Wine Grapes - A complete guide to 1,368 vine varieties, including their origins and flavours pg 797 Allen Lane 2012 ISBN 978-1-846-14446-2