Terengganu Malay

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Terengganuan Malay
Base Tranung
بهاس ترڠݢانو
Native to Malaysia
Region Terengganu, Mersing (Johor), Kuantan (Pahang)
Ethnicity Terengganuan Malays
Native speakers
1.1 million  (2010)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist list
zlm-coa
  zlm-inl
Glottolog None

Terengganuan Malay (Malay: Bahasa Terengganu, Terengganuan Malay: Base Tranung/Ganu) is a variant of Malayan languages or dialect spoken in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia along the coastal areas of Terengganu all the way southward to coastal Pahang and Mersing, Johor and eastward towards Anambas Islands, Indonesia in the South China Sea. Highly localised Peranakan-like Chinese minority in Terengganu adopt Terengganu dialect as part of their mother tongues along with Hokkien. At the Terengganu–Kelantan border, it is not the dominant language. For example, Kelantan dialect is more popular in the northern town of Besut, district of Terengganu. It is sometimes unintelligible to standard Malay speakers, although they share a lot of similarities. Terengganuan Malay use Roman alphabets and Jawi script - Arabic transliteration for its writing. Terengganu Malay is closely related to Kelantan-Pattani Malay and Pahang Malay due to its borders between these two states and more distantly related to Kedah Malay.

Recently, Terengganuan Malay has experienced popularity in mainstream Malaysian media. Terengganu Malay was used in many local television dramas and movies. Radio stations such as Terengganu FM and Hot FM Terengganu mainly used Terengganu Malay in its broadcast along with Malaysian.

Vocabulary[edit]

Several comparisons between Standard Malay and Terengganu Malay with English translations:

Standard Malay Terengganu Malay English
Saya Ambe/aku/saye/kite/oghang I/me
Anda/Kamu Mung/Deme/Awok You
Siapa Piye Who
Suka Brehi Like/interest
Ketawa Suke/Gelekek Laugh
Juga Ghetek/Gok (pronounce as Gɔʔ) Also
Kandang Gok Cage
Yang Hok That
Beritahu Kabo/Royak To tell
Tak nak Tak Mboh Do not want
Tidur Tido/Jeretoh Sleep
Apa Nape/Mende/Gape What
Degil Babey/Gong Stubborn
Selalu Sokmo Always
Duit/Wang Pitih/Yya/Ghiya Money
Kenapa Bakpe Why
Tidak Dok No
Ya Ho/Ye Yes
Jambatan Getok Bridge
Garang Bekeng Pugnacious
Apa Khabar Ape Kabo/Guane Gamok How are you?
Tangkap Tagak/Igak Catch
Ejek Nyenyeh/Nganjing Insulting
Naik angin Mmusang Angry
Dia Ye/Nye They
Leka Ghalik Preoccupied
Letih Dok ghok Tired
Beg Plastik Supik/Jabir Plastic Bag
Kawan Saing Friend
Sempat Dang Make it
Berani Tebeng Brave
Kerap Keghek Many times
Azan Bang Adhan (Islamic call to prayer)
Jangan Doksoh/Soh Beng Do not
Kedekut Kupik Stingy
Biar Lok Let
Cuba Ce/Tra Try
Sekarang Lening Today
Keluar Tubek Out
Ais Ping Ice (refers to ice cubes in water)
Tolong Tulong/Tapi Help
Letak Letok/Skung Put
Buang Tohok Throw away
Panjat Khabak Climb
Lempar Lepo/Plekong/Petong Throw
Bau Baung Smell

Intensifier[edit]

Standard Malay Terengganu Malay English
Sangat Putih Puteh Lepuk/Sepuk Very White
Sangat Hitam Itang Beletung/Belegang Very Dark
Sangat Merah Meroh Nyale/Merang Very Red
Sangat Kuning Kuning Sio Very Yellow
Sangat Busuk Busuk Kohong/Hapok Very Smelly
Sangat Hancing Hacing Pering Very Stenchy
Sangat Hanyir Hanyir Mekok Very Fishy
Sangat Wangi Wangi Mekok Very Fragant
Sangat Tengik Tengik Bango Very Rancid
Sangat Masin Masing Pekok Very Salty
Sangat Manis Manih Leting Very Sweet
Sangat Tawar Tawo Hebe Very Tasteless
Sangat Pahit Pahik Lepang Very Bitter
Sangat Masam Masang Rebang Very Sour

Numerals[edit]

Numerals in Terengganu Malay is closely related to those of neighbouring Kelantanese Malay, however it differs in terms of pronunciation especially the end letter.

Standard Malay Terengganu Malay English
Satu Se One
Dua Duwe Two
Tiga Tige Three
Empat Pak Four
Lima Lime Five
Enam Nang Six
Tujuh Tujoh Seven
Lapan Lapang Eight
Sembilan Smilang/Mmilang Nine
Sepuluh Spuloh/Ppuloh Ten
Seratus Sratoh One Hundred
Seribu Sribu One Thousand
Sejuta Sjute One Million

Animals[edit]

Terengganu Malay also had distinct words for some animals, mostly in terms of pronunciation.

Standard Malay Terengganu Malay English
Kerbau Kuba Buffalo
Ayam Ayang Chicken
Ular Ulo Snake
Ikan Tongkol Ikang Aye Euthynnus affinis
Ikan Cencaru Ikang Kerah Ekor Torpedo scad
Ikan Pelaga Ikang Sekila/Skila Fighting Fish
Labah-labah Llabe Spider
Ketam Ketang Crab
Kumbang Kkabo Beetle
Lintah Litoh Slug

Names[edit]

People in Terengganu usually pronounce Terengganu as "Tranung" (with guttural r like Arabic "gh"), Teganung, Ganu, Ganung or Teganu.

In Standard Malay it is called Bahasa Terengganu, in Terengganuan Malay it is called Bahse or Base Ganu/Tranung or Cakak Tranung.

Distribution[edit]

Terengganuan Malay is natively spoken in most parts of Terengganu (exclude Besut), all the way down to Kuantan and Cherating in Pahang and Mersing in Johor. Terengganuan Malay dialects are still spoken on the Indonesian islands of Anambas off the coast of Pahang and Sarawak. The Anambas people are culturally and linguistically closer to Terengganuan[1] but with more influences from Sundanese, Javanese, Buginese and Johor-Riau Malays which came from various parts of Indonesia. Terengganuan Malay are also spoken in big cities like Kuala Lumpur where there was a large Terengganuan communities.

Sub-Dialects[edit]

Terengganuan Malay has two major sub-dialects that is Coastal (zlm-coa) and Inland (zlm-inl). The sub-dialect spoken in Kuala Terengganu district are the de facto standard sub-dialect of Terengganuan Malay.[2] However, the most distinct of all sub-dialects is Hulu Terengganu Malay spoken in Hulu Terengganu district and is mostly unintelligible to Coastal Terengganuan Malays speakers. People in Setiu mostly speak a mixed Kelantanese-Terengganuan Malay due to its border between Besut which predominantly use Kelantan-Pattani Malay[3][4] and Kuala Terengganu which use the more prestige form of Terengganuan Malay. People in Dungun, Marang and Kemaman usually speak similar to those in Kuala Terengganu but with influences from Standard Malay and Pahang Malay as well.

Pronunciation[edit]

Terengganuan Malay has a distinct pronunciation and grammar compared to Standard Malay. The Grammatical order and Pronunciation is similar but distinct to those of the neighbouring Pahang and Kelantanese Malay.[5]

Pronunciation /a/ followed by a nasal consonant changes to /ŋ/ ayam ايم ('chicken') becomes ayang; makan ماكن (to eat) becomes makang

/a/ at the end of syllables changes to /ɔʔ/ minta مينتا ('to ask') becomes mitok

/ah/ changes /ɔh/ rumah رومه ('house') becomes rumoh

/a/ changes to /ə/ saya ساي ('I') becomes saye, similar to Standard Malay language

/i/ changes to /iŋ/ sini سيني ('here') becomes sining

/ua/ changes to /ɔ/ buaya بواسو ('crocodile') becomes boye

/aj/ becomes /aː/ sungai سوڠاي ('river') becomes sunga

/aw/ becomes /a/ pisau ڤيساو ('knife') changes to pisa

/ia/ before a nasal vowel changes to = /ijaŋ/ siam سيام ('Siam') becomes siyang

/ia/ changes to /ɛ/ biasa بياسا ('once') becomes bese

/s/ and /f/ at the end of syllables changes to /h/ malas مالس ('lazy') changes to malah

/m/ and /n/ at the end of syllables changes to /ŋ/ hakim حاكيم (judge) changes to hakeng

/r/ changes to /ʀ/ orang اورڠ ('person') becomes oghang

final consonants are often only pronounced as a glottal stop. bukit بوكيت ('hill') becomes buke’ (bukiʔ) words are distinguished between lengthened initial consonant

final /l/ are silent. example: tinggal ('left') becomes tingga, tebal ('thick') becomes teba usually /l/ as in /lah/ are removed and became /ah/. example: Banyaklah ('so many') becomes banyok ah.

bulang ('moon') vs. bːulang ('many months'); katok ('to strike') vs. kːatok ('frog'); siku ('elbow') vs. sːiku ('hand tool')

Some Notable Terengganuan phrases[edit]

"starang baroh" means "really"... a popular phrase used when you want to show or express something that is really serious or true.

Example:
Ambe dok tau starang baroh

As opposed to Standard Malay or West coast Malay dialects:-

Saya memang tak tahu langsung

Another famous Terengganuan Malay phrases that have been used by Terengganu people is "Senyung sokmo" which mean "Senyum selalu" in standard Malay and "Smile always" in English. It is widely used by Terengganu people to wish other people well and to brighten their days.

External links[edit]

Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, DBP Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia

Loghat Terengganu | Terengganu

Bahasa Malaysia Simple Fun - Terengganu Malay Language

References[edit]