Tereré

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Tereré
Terere.jpg
Traditional guampa made of palo santo, a typical wood in Paraguay.
TypeInfusion, cold
Country of originGuaraní-Jesuit Missions, Paraguay[1]
Practices and traditional knowledge of Terere in the culture of Pohã Ñana, Guaraní ancestral drink in Paraguay
CountryParaguay
Reference01603
RegionLatin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription2020 (17 session)
ListKnowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe
Guampa made of cattle horn with details in silver

Tereré or Terere (of Guaraní origin[2]) is an infusion of yerba mate (botanical name Ilex paraguariensis), similar to mate but prepared with cold water and ice rather than with hot water,[3] and in a slightly larger vessel. This infusion has its roots in Pre-Columbian America, which established itself as traditional in the Guaranitic region during the time of Guaraní-Jesuit Missions, just as the Jesuit chronicles of the 17th and 18th centuries give certainty.[4]

The Guaraní people call this infusion ka'ay,[5] where ka'a means herb and y means water.

First of all was consumed by the Guaraní natives. It was strengthened during the Guaraní-Jesuit Missions time in the area of that missions. Tereré was spread by the dwellers of that region, and for centuries was a social beverage. People usually prepare one jar of natural water and a "guampa/mate/porongo" (Spanish) / "cuia" (Portuguese) with a "bombilla" (Spanish) / "bomba" (Portuguese) which is shared among the group of people. That area of the Guaraní-Jesuit Missions have a fairly hot climate and this drink is believed to refresh the body and can be a very low-calorie, non-alcoholic beverage. Additionally, it is an important ritual signifying trust and communion.

Many people drink tereré with added medicinal herbs, both medicinal and refreshing. In northeastern Argentina it is commonly prepared either with water, medicinal herbs and ice cubes (called "tereré de agua" (tereré prepared with water)) or citrus, as in south-western Brazil, fruit juices like: lemon, lime, orange or pineapple. Although this practice varies depending on the region, since in Formosa Province (Argentina) it is more normally prepared with medicinal herbs. In Paraguay it is usually prepared with medicinal herbs, with the exception of the citrus juice preparation which is often prepared in the South of that country. Mixing fruit juices with tereré is commonly called "tereré de jugo" (tereré prepared with juice)-in northeastern Argentina- or "tereré ruso" (Russian tereré) -more used in Paraguay- because this practice is more common with Slavic immigrants in the northeast of Argentina and southern Paraguay.

Guampas/Mates/Cuias are a kind of glass that can be made from animal horns, usually made from cattle horns, but some people made guampas from stainless steel, wood, mate/porongo (a kind of cucurbit native from South America), or silver. The new guampa/mate/cuia or the one not used for some time needs to be watered before use, because the lower part of the cuia is usually capped with a round piece of wood. By filling the guampa/cuia with water the wood expands, covering all leaks in the guampa/cuia. Guampas, mates and Cuias are also made from wood and covered in leather or steel.

Bombilla is a metal straw with a filter at the end. The yerba mate is placed at the bottom of the guampa, and as water is added the bombilla drinks from the guampa the clear green liquid.

Tereré in Argentina[edit]

In Argentina, depending on the region of the country and/or the person who primes it, it is taken with medicinal herbs and cold water with ice cubes or with some citrus juice, usually prepared with the envelope juices. It is normally consumed in hot days for most of the people in that region, where is considered part of the regional culture from the time before Columbus.

Tereré is part of the diet of native peoples, such as the Qom people, who consume it within their diet based on stews and "torta fritas/chipá cuerito". An investigation revealed that more than 90% of the qom will consume tereré very often during much of the day.[6]

Tereré in Brazil[edit]

Due to the hot climate, Tereré is very popular throughout the Central-West and Northern region of Brazil. It may be prepared with a variety of juices or lemon water. Many varieties of Tereré can be found, with flavors such as passionfruit, pineapple, grape, or even coffee flavored tereré. It is drunk ice cold or else it will heat up quickly due to the very hot climates of Brazil. Even though coffee is the most popular beverage here, tereré has left its mark greatly on many cultures of numerous states throughout Brazil.

Preparation[edit]

Most preparations of tereré begin by filling a cured yerba mate gourd, guampa 2/3 to 3/4 full of yerba mate.[7][8] Then, ice cubes and/or herbs are added to the water on to the vacuum flask. The drinking vessel is then filled with ice water. At this point, a mate straw (bombilla 'or' bombilla para mate)[9] is inserted through the mixture to the bottom of the vessel, while a thumb is kept over the bombilla tip in order to keep it from becoming clogged.[10] The liquid is consumed through the straw, and refilled as desired.

Some of the more popular juices and fruits to use in tereré are lime, orange, lemon, mango, peach, or grapefruit. Some of the more popular herbs to use in tereré are peppermint, boldo, lemongrass, or lemon verbena. Of course, any herb or juice could be added, even beer and lime cola have their supporters.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Página 4) "EL PADRE PEDRO DE MONTENEGRO, 1711. SU TRATAMIENTO DE HERBORISTERAPIA PARA LAS AFECCIONES MENTALES Y SUS REFERENCIAS A LA MEDICINA HIPOCRÁTICO-GALÉNICA" - Published in the Memories of 14th Investigation Session. Third meeting of investigatos of Psychology from MERCOSUR.
  2. ^ "Tereré in RAE dictionary"
  3. ^ (in Spanish) ¿QUE ES EL TERERE? (Paraguay)
  4. ^ (Página 4) "EL PADRE PEDRO DE MONTENEGRO, 1711. SU TRATAMIENTO DE HERBORISTERAPIA PARA LAS AFECCIONES MENTALES Y SUS REFERENCIAS A LA MEDICINA HIPOCRÁTICO-GALÉNICA" - Published in the Memories of 14th Investigation Session. Third meeting of investigatos of Psychology from MERCOSUR.
  5. ^ "Diccionario Guaraní Interactivo". www.uni-mainz.de. Retrieved November 23, 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ Lagranja, Elena Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia; Navarro, Alicia (2013). "Prácticas alimentarias y actividad física en adultos de una población Toba de la provincia de Formosa, Argentina". Diaeta. Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietista. 32 (146). ISSN 1852-7337.
  7. ^ "Todo sobre el tereré". Retrieved November 23, 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ "¿Cómo hacer un mate tereré? - Rincón Recetas". rinconrecetas.com. Retrieved November 23, 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Comprar bombilla para mate - El Mate". mate.com.es. March 27, 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ a b "Terere". ma-tea.com. Retrieved May 30, 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

Further reading[edit]

  • Asunción 1537: Madre de la gastronomía del Río de la Plata y de Matto Grosso do Sul. Vidal Domínguez Díaz (2017).
  • Poytáva: Origen y Evolución de la Gastronomía Paraguaya. Graciela Martínez (2017).