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Clinical data
Trade namesForteo, Forsteo
BiosimilarsBonsity,[1] Kauliv,[2] Livogiva,[3] Osnuvo,[4] Qutavina,[5] Sondelbay,[6] Teribone,[7]
License data
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismLiver (nonspecific proteolysis)
Elimination half-lifeSubcutaneous: 1 hour
ExcretionKidney (metabolites)
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard100.168.733 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass4117.77 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • [H]/N=C(\N)/NCCC[C@@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc1c[nH]c2c1cccc2)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCN/C(=N/[H])/N)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc3cnc[nH]3)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc4ccccc4)C(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCSC)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc5cnc[nH]5)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCCN)NC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc6cnc[nH]6)NC(=O)[C@H](CCSC)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H]([C@@H](C)CC)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](C(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)N
  • InChI=1S/C181H291N55O51S2/c1-21-96(18)146(236-160(267)114(48-53-141(250)251)212-174(281)132(84-239)232-177(284)143(93(12)13)233-147(254)103(185)82-237)178(285)216-111(45-50-134(187)241)155(262)219-119(65-90(6)7)163(270)213-116(55-62-289-20)158(265)224-124(71-100-79-196-86-203-100)167(274)226-126(73-135(188)242)169(276)217-117(63-88(2)3)148(255)201-81-138(245)205-105(39-27-30-56-182)149(256)223-123(70-99-78-195-85-202-99)166(273)221-121(67-92(10)11)164(271)225-128(75-137(190)244)171(278)231-131(83-238)173(280)214-115(54-61-288-19)157(264)210-112(46-51-139(246)247)153(260)208-109(43-34-60-199-181(193)194)159(266)234-144(94(14)15)175(282)215-113(47-52-140(248)249)156(263)222-122(69-98-77-200-104-38-26-25-37-102(98)104)165(272)220-120(66-91(8)9)161(268)209-108(42-33-59-198-180(191)192)151(258)206-106(40-28-31-57-183)150(257)207-107(41-29-32-58-184)152(259)218-118(64-89(4)5)162(269)211-110(44-49-133(186)240)154(261)228-129(76-142(252)253)172(279)235-145(95(16)17)176(283)229-125(72-101-80-197-87-204-101)168(275)227-127(74-136(189)243)170(277)230-130(179(286)287)68-97-35-23-22-24-36-97/h22-26,35-38,77-80,85-96,103,105-132,143-146,200,237-239H,21,27-34,39-76,81-84,182-185H2,1-20H3,(H2,186,240)(H2,187,241)(H2,188,242)(H2,189,243)(H2,190,244)(H,195,202)(H,196,203)(H,197,204)(H,201,255)(H,205,245)(H,206,258)(H,207,257)(H,208,260)(H,209,268)(H,210,264)(H,211,269)(H,212,281)(H,213,270)(H,214,280)(H,215,282)(H,216,285)(H,217,276)(H,218,259)(H,219,262)(H,220,272)(H,221,273)(H,222,263)(H,223,256)(H,224,265)(H,225,271)(H,226,274)(H,227,275)(H,228,261)(H,229,283)(H,230,277)(H,231,278)(H,232,284)(H,233,254)(H,234,266)(H,235,279)(H,236,267)(H,246,247)(H,248,249)(H,250,251)(H,252,253)(H,286,287)(H4,191,192,198)(H4,193,194,199)/t96-,103-,105-,106-,107-,108-,109-,110-,111-,112-,113-,114-,115-,116-,117-,118-,119-,120-,121-,122-,123-,124-,125-,126-,127-,128-,129-,130-,131-,132-,143-,144-,145-,146-/m0/s1 ☒N
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Teriparatide, sold under the brand name Forteo, is a form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) consisting of the first (N-terminus) 34 amino acids, which is the bioactive portion of the hormone.[10] It is an effective anabolic (promoting bone formation) agent[12] used in the treatment of some forms of osteoporosis.[10][13] Teriparatide is a recombinant human parathyroid hormone analog (PTH 1-34).[10] It has an identical sequence to the 34 N-terminal amino acids of the 84-amino acid human parathyroid hormone.[10]

Medical uses[edit]

Teriparatide is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis;[10] for the increase of bone mass in men with primary or hypogonadal osteoporosis;[10] and treatment of men and women with osteoporosis associated with sustained systemic glucocorticoid therapy.[10]

It is effective in growing bone (e.g., 8% increase in bone density in the spine after one year)[14] and reducing the risk of fragility fractures.[15][16]

Teriparatide cuts the risk of hip fracture by more than half but does not reduce the risk of arm or wrist fracture.[17]


Teriparatide is contraindicated for those with open epiphyses, metabolic bone diseases, Paget's Disease of bone, bone metastases, history of skeletal malignancies, or prior external beam or implant radiation therapy involving the skeleton.[10] In the animal studies and in one human case report, it was found to potentially be associated with developing osteosarcoma in test subjects after over two years of use.[18]

Adverse effects[edit]

Adverse effects of teriparatide include headache, nausea, dizziness, and limb pain.[15] Teriparatide has a theoretical risk of osteosarcoma, which was found in rat studies but not confirmed in humans.[12] This may be because, unlike humans, rat bones grow for their entire life.[12] The tumors found in the rat studies were located on the end of the bones which grew after the injections began.[19] After nine years on the market, there were only two cases of osteosarcoma reported.[14] This risk was considered by the FDA as "extremely rare" (1 in 100,000 people)[15] and is only slightly more than the incidence in the population over 60 years old (0.4 in 100,000).[15]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Teriparatide is a portion of human parathyroid hormone (PTH), amino acid sequence 1 through 34, of the complete molecule (containing 84 amino acids). Endogenous PTH is the primary regulator of calcium and phosphate metabolism in bone and kidney. PTH increases serum calcium, partially accomplishing this by increasing bone resorption. Thus, chronically elevated PTH will deplete bone stores. However, intermittent exposure to PTH will activate osteoblasts more than osteoclasts. Thus, once-daily injections of teriparatide have a net effect of stimulating new bone formation leading to increased bone mineral density.[20][21][22]

Society and culture[edit]

Legal status[edit]

Teriparatide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1987.[10][23] Teriparatide (Forteo) was approved by the FDA in November 2002, for the treatment of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women who are at high risk for having a fracture.[24] In October 2019, the US FDA approved the recombinant teriparatide product with brand name Bonsity.[1]


Recombinant teriparatide is sold by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Forteo and Forsteo. In June 2020, Alvogen, Inc, Pfenex Inc.'s commercialization partner, launched teriparatide injection (Bonsity) in the United States. Teriparatide injection was developed by Pfenex Inc and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2019.[1] Teriparatide injection is pharmaceutically equivalent to Forteo (that is, has the same active ingredient in the same strength, dosage form and route of administration) and has been shown to have comparable bioavailability. These characteristics allowed the product to be approved under a 505(b)(2) NDA for which Forteo was the reference drug. It may provide a lower-cost teriparatide option for increasing bone density in patients at high risk for fracture, and is FDA-approved for the same indications as Forteo, which means it can be used for the same patients as Forteo, including new patients and those currently responding to treatment.[25]

Teriparatide was approved for medical use in the European Union in June 2003.[11] A synthetic teriparatide from Teva Generics has been authorized for marketing in the European Union.[26] Biosimilar product from Gedeon Richter plc has been authorized in the European Union.[27] In October 2019, the US FDA approved a recombinant teriparatide product.[1]

In June 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended the approval of the biosimilar products Qutavina and Livogiva.[5][3] Qutavina and Livogiva were approved for medical use in the European Union in August 2020.[5][3]

Osnuvo was approved for medical use in Canada in January 2020.[4]

Sondelbay was approved for medical use in the European Union in March 2022.[6][28]

On 10 November 2022, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Kauliv, intended for the treatment of osteoporosis.[29] The applicant for this medicinal product is Strides Pharma Cyprus.[29] Kauliv was approved for medical use in the European Union in February 2023.[30][2]


Teriparatide is undergoing a clinical trial with zoledronic acid as a treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta to reduce the risk of broken bones.[31]

Combined teriparatide and denosumab[edit]

Combined teriparatide and denosumab increased BMD more than either agent alone and more than has been reported with approved therapies. Combination treatment might, therefore, be useful to treat patients at high risk of fracture by increasing BMD. However, there is no evidence of fracture rate reduction in patients taking a teriparatide and denosumab combination. The first such trial was published by Leder et al. in Lancet in 2013 with further data subsequently published in JCEM in a trial of post menopausal osteoporotic women demonstrating larger bone mineral density increases in the spine and hip with combination therapy compared to either drug alone.[32][33]


  1. ^ a b c d "Drug Approval Package: Bonsity". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "Kauliv EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 18 July 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2023. Retrieved 8 March 2023. Text was copied from this source which is copyright European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  3. ^ a b c "Livogiva EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 26 May 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) for Osnuvo". Health Canada. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "Qutavina EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 26 May 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  6. ^ a b c "Sondelbay EPAR". European Medicines Agency. 24 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 March 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  7. ^ Lisbeth Tristan de Brea (18 September 2018). "Nota de Seguridad de Medicamentos" (PDF). Panama: Directora Nacional de Farmacia y Drogas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 December 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Teriparatide Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 25 November 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  9. ^ "FDA-sourced list of all drugs with black box warnings (Use Download Full Results and View Query links.)". nctr-crs.fda.gov. FDA. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Forteo- teriparatide injection, solution". DailyMed. 29 April 2021. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  11. ^ a b "Forsteo EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Riek AE, Towler DA (2011). "The pharmacological management of osteoporosis". Missouri Medicine. 108 (2): 118–23. PMC 3597219. PMID 21568234.
  13. ^ Saag KG, Shane E, Boonen S, Marín F, Donley DW, Taylor KA, et al. (November 2007). "Teriparatide or alendronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (20): 2028–39. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa071408. PMID 18003959.
  14. ^ a b Kawai M, Mödder UI, Khosla S, Rosen CJ (February 2011). "Emerging therapeutic opportunities for skeletal restoration". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 10 (2): 141–56. doi:10.1038/nrd3299. PMC 3135105. PMID 21283108.
  15. ^ a b c d Rizzoli R, Reginster JY, Boonen S, Bréart G, Diez-Perez A, Felsenberg D, et al. (August 2011). "Adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions in the management of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis". Calcified Tissue International. 89 (2): 91–104. doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9499-8. PMC 3135835. PMID 21637997.
  16. ^ Murad MH, Drake MT, Mullan RJ, Mauck KF, Stuart LM, Lane MA, et al. (June 2012). "Clinical review. Comparative effectiveness of drug treatments to prevent fragility fractures: a systematic review and network meta-analysis". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (6): 1871–80. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-3060. PMID 22466336.
  17. ^ Díez-Pérez A, Marin F, Eriksen EF, Kendler DL, Krege JH, Delgado-Rodríguez M (March 2019). "Effects of teriparatide on hip and upper limb fractures in patients with osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Bone. 120: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2018.09.020. hdl:10230/36878. PMID 30268814.
  18. ^ Harper KD, Krege JH, Marcus R, Mitlak BH (February 2007). "Osteosarcoma and teriparatide?". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 22 (2): 334. doi:10.1359/jbmr.061111. PMID 17129179. S2CID 36420876.
  19. ^ "Forteo". drugs.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  20. ^ Bauer W, Aub JC, Albright F (January 1929). "Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism: V. Study of the bone trabeculae as a readily available reserve supply of calcium". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 49 (1): 145–62. doi:10.1084/jem.49.1.145. PMC 2131520. PMID 19869533.
  21. ^ Selye H (1932). "On the stimulation of new bone formation with parathyroid extract and irradiated ergosterol". Endocrinology. 16 (5): 547–558. doi:10.1210/endo-16-5-547.
  22. ^ Dempster DW, Cosman F, Parisien M, Shen V, Lindsay R (December 1993). "Anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on bone". Endocrine Reviews. 14 (6): 690–709. doi:10.1210/edrv-14-6-690. PMID 8119233.
  23. ^ "Teriparatide injection, solution". DailyMed. 1 November 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  24. ^ "Drug Approval Package: Forteo [teriparatide (rDNA origin)] Injection; NDA #021318". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 31 March 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  25. ^ "Pfenex Announces U.S. Commercial Launch of Teriparatide Injection" (Press release). Pfenex Inc. 12 June 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020 – via GlobeNewswire.
  26. ^ BfArM (8 May 2017). "PUBLIC ASSESSMENT REPORT - Decentralised Procedure - Teriparatid-ratiopharm 20 µg / 80ml, Solution for injection" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  27. ^ "Summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for Terrosa". 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  28. ^ "Sondelbay Product information". Union Register of medicinal products. Archived from the original on 4 March 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  29. ^ a b "Kauliv: Pending EC decision". European Medicines Agency. 11 November 2022. Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2023. Text was copied from this source which is copyright European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  30. ^ "Kauliv Product information". Union Register of medicinal products. Archived from the original on 27 January 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  31. ^ "New trial for people with brittle bone disease". BBC News. 16 January 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  32. ^ Leder BZ, Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Burnett-Bowie SA, Zhu Y, Foley K, et al. (May 2014). "Two Years of Denosumab and Teriparatide Administration in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis (The DATA Extension Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (5): 1694–1700. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-4440. PMC 4010689. PMID 24517156.
  33. ^ Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Lee H, Kumbhani R, Siwila-Sackman E, McKay EA, et al. (July 2013). "Teriparatide and denosumab, alone or combined, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: the DATA study randomised trial". The Lancet. 382 (9886): 50–56. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60856-9. PMC 4083737. PMID 23683600.

External links[edit]

  • "Teriparatide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.