|Arjuna flowers with a Sykes's warbler|
(Roxb.) Wight & Arn.
Terminalia arjuna is a tree of the genus Terminalia. It is commonly known as arjuna or arjun tree in English, thella maddi in Telugu, kumbuk in Sinhala, marudha maram in Tamil and neer maruthu (നീർമരുത്) in Malayalam. Hole Matthi in Kannada.
The arjuna grows to about 20–25 metres tall; usually has a buttressed trunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches drop downwards. It has oblong, conical leaves which are green on the top and brown below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided into five wings, appears between September and November.
Distribution and habitat
The arjuna is seen across the Indian Subcontinent, and usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and south and central India, along with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is known as matthimara in Kannada, neer maruthu in Malayalam 'marutha maram' (marutham pattai) in Tamil, thella maddi (తెల్ల మద్ది) in Telugu and kohda in Rajasthan, Kumbuk in Sinhala.
Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine
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The arjuna was introduced into siddha by saint Agastiyar through his prose Gunavakatam and in Ayurveda as a treatment for heart disease by Vagbhata (c. 7th century CE). It is traditionally prepared as a milk decoction. In the Ashtānga Hridayam, but was also mentioned in many ancient Hindu vedas, and was a known practice for thousands of years, passed down by tradition, before vagbhata mentioned it in his writings. Vagbhata mentions arjuna in the treatment of wounds, hemorrhages and ulcers, applied topically as a powder. The Arjuna plant (lat. Terminalia arjuna) has traditionally been used to treat heart disease for centuries, which is why it got the nickname “Guardian of the heart.” The hero of the famous epic “Mahabharata”, was named after this tree because of its protective effects.
Terminalia arjuna in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore
- Biswas, Moulisha; Biswas, Kaushik; Karan, Tarun K; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Ghosh, Ashoke K; Haldar, Pallab K (2011). "Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Terminalia arjuna leaf". Journal of Phytology. 3 (1): 33–8.
- "Arjun Tree". Eco India.
- The CABI Encyclopedia of Forest Trees. 2013. p. 464. ISBN 9781780642369.
- Rastogī, Rekhā (2008). Let Us Identify The Useful Trees(New). Children's Book Trust. p. 7,8. ISBN 978-81-7011-919-7.
- "GERIATRICS AND SIDDHA MEDICINE".[self-published source?]
- "Terminalia arjuna prevents any heart disease".
- M.P. Shiva. "Non-wood forest products In 15 countries of Tropical Asia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
- "Arjuna". Todd Caldecott. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
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- Dwivedi S (November 2007). "Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.—A useful drug for cardiovascular disorders". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 114 (2): 114–29. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.003. PMID 17875376.
- Karthikeyan K, Bai BR, Gauthaman K, Sathish KS, Devaraj SN (October 2003). "Cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury". Life Sciences. 73 (21): 2727–39. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00671-4. PMID 13679240.
- Meghwani H, Prabhakar P, Mohammed SA, Seth S, Hote MP, Banerjee SK, Arava S, Ray R, Maulik SK (July 2016). "Beneficial effects of aqueous extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.), An ayurvedic drug in experimental pulmonary hypertension". J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 184–194. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.029. PMID 27401289.