|A leafless T. chebula tree|
Terminalia chebula, commonly known as black- or chebulic myrobalan, is a species of Terminalia, native to South Asia from India and Nepal east to southwest China (Yunnan), and south to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Vietnam.
In India, it is known as "Harad" in Hindi and Urdu, "Kadukkai" in Tamil, "Hirada" in Marathi, "Hilikha" in Assamese and "Horitoky" in Bengali.
Swedish naturalist Anders Jahan Retzius described the species.
- T. c. var. chebula – leaves and shoots hairless, or only hairy when very young
- T. c. var. tomentella – leaves and shoots silvery to orange hairy
Terminalia chebula is a medium to large deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. The leaves are alternate to subopposite in arrangement, oval, 7–8 cm (2.8–3.1 in) long and 4.5–10 cm (1.8–3.9 in) broad with a 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) petiole. They have an acute tip, cordate at the base, margins entire, glabrous above with a yellowish pubescence below. The fruit is drupe-like, 2–4.5 cm (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1.2–2.5 cm (0.47–0.98 in) broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges. The dull white to yellow flowers are monoecious, and have a strong, unpleasant odour. They are borne in terminal spikes or short panicles. The fruits are smooth ellipsoid to ovoid drupes, yellow to orange-brown in colour, with a single angled stone.
Distribution and habitat
Terminalia chebula Is found throughout South and Southeast Asia including in India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand. In China, it is native in W Yunnan and cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi (Nanning), and Taiwan (Nantou).
In India, it is found in the Sub Himalayan region from Ravi eastwards to West Bengal and Assam, ascending up to the altitude of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) in the Himalayas. This tree is wild in forests of Northern India, central provinces and Bengal, common in Madras, Mysore and in the southern part of the Bombay presidency.
Its habitat includes dry slopes up to 900 m (3,000 ft) in elevation.
Cultivation and uses
This tree yields smallish, ribbed and nut-like fruits which are picked when still green and then pickled, boiled with a little added sugar in their own syrup or used in preserves. The seed of the fruit, which has an elliptical shape, is an abrasive seed enveloped by a fleshy and firm pulp. Seven types of fruit are recognized (vijaya, rohini, putana, amrita, abhaya, jivanti, and chetaki), based on the region where the fruit is harvested, as well as the colour and shape of the fruit. Generally speaking, the vijaya variety is preferred, which is traditionally grown in the Vindhya Range of west-central India, and has a roundish as opposed to a more angular shape. The fruit also provides material for tanning leather and dyeing cloth.
Terminalia chebula is a main ingredient in the Ayurvedic formulation Triphala which is used for kidney and liver dysfunctions. The dried fruit is also used in Ayurveda as a purported antitussive, cardiotonic, homeostatic, diuretic, and laxative. It is also used as a soothing agent for dry cough.
A number of glycosides have been isolated from haritaki, including the triterpenes arjunglucoside I, arjungenin, and the chebulosides I and II. Other constituents include a coumarin conjugated with gallic acids called chebulin, as well as other phenolic compounds including ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-β-D-glucopyranose, chebulinic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, punicalagin, terflavin A, terchebin, luteolin, and tannic acid. Chebulic acid is a phenolic acid compound isolated from the ripe fruits. Luteic acid can be isolated from the bark.
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- Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan (2013). "The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 3 (3): 244–252. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60059-3. PMC 3631759. PMID 23620847.
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- Saleem, A.; Husheem, M.; Härkönen, P.; Pihlaja, K. (2002). "Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. Fruit". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 81 (3): 327–336. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00099-5. PMID 12127233.
- Lee, H. S.; Jung, S. H.; Yun, B. S.; Lee, K. W. (2007). "Isolation of chebulic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. And its antioxidant effect in isolated rat hepatocytes". Archives of Toxicology. 81 (3): 211–218. doi:10.1007/s00204-006-0139-4. PMID 16932919. S2CID 25751621.
- Lee, H. S.; Koo, Y. C.; Suh, H. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, K. W. (2010). "Preventive effects of chebulic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula on advanced glycation endproduct-induced endothelial cell dysfunction". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 131 (3): 567–574. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.039. PMID 20659546.
- Nierenstein, M.; Potter, J. (1945). "The distribution of myrobalanitannin". The Biochemical Journal. 39 (5): 390–392. doi:10.1042/bj0390390. PMC 1258254. PMID 16747927.
- Han, Quanbin; Song, Jingzheng; Qiao, Chunfeng; Wong, Lina; Xu, Hongxi (2006). "Preparative isolation of hydrolysable tannins chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid from Terminalia chebula by high-speed counter-current chromatography" (PDF). J. Sep. Sci. 29 (11): 1653–1657. doi:10.1002/jssc.200600089. PMID 16922284.
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Terminalia chebula(Haritaki; Abhaya) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20131203001654/http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/361-haritak