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Coordinates: 49°34′N 25°36′E / 49.567°N 25.600°E / 49.567; 25.600
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Flag of Ternopil
Coat of arms of Ternopil
Ternopil is located in Ukraine
Location within Ukraine
Ternopil is located in Ternopil Oblast
Ternopil (Ternopil Oblast)
Coordinates: 49°34′N 25°36′E / 49.567°N 25.600°E / 49.567; 25.600
Country Ukraine
OblastTernopil Oblast
RaionTernopil Raion
HromadaTernopil urban hromada
Founded1540 (484 years ago)
 • MayorSerhiy Nadal[1] (Svoboda)
 • Total86 km2 (33.2 sq mi)

320 m (1,050 ft)
 • Total225,004
 • Density2,600/km2 (6,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (CEST)
Area code+380 352

Ternopil (Ukrainian: Тернопіль, IPA: [terˈnɔp⁽ʲ⁾ilʲ] ; Polish: Tarnopol; Yiddish: טארנאפאל, romanizedTarnapol; Hebrew: טרנופול, romanizedTarnopol; German: Tannstadt), known until 1944 mostly as Tarnopol, is a city in the west of Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret. Administratively, it serves as the administrative centre of Ternopil Oblast. Ternopil is one of the major cities of Western Ukraine and the historical regions of Galicia and Podolia. It is served by Ternopil Airport. The population of Ternopil was estimated at 225,004 (2022 estimate).[2]

The city is the administrative center of Ternopil Oblast (region), as well as of surrounding Ternopil Raion (district) within the oblast. It hosts the administration of Ternopil urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[3]

Until 18 July 2020, Ternopil was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to Ternopil Raion even though it was the center of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three, the city was merged into Ternopil Raion.[4][5]


Jan Amor Tarnowski.

The city was founded in 1540 by Polish commander and Hetman Jan Amor Tarnowski.[6] Its Polish name Tarnopol means 'Tarnowski's city' and stems from a combination of the founder's family name and the Greek term polis.[7][8] The city served as a military stronghold and castle [6] On 15 April 1540,[6] the King of Poland, Sigismund I the Old,[6] in Kraków gave Tarnowski permission to establish Tarnopol,[6] near Sopilcze (Sopilche).[6] protecting the eastern borders of Polish Kingdom from Tatar raids. In 1570, the city passed to the Ostrogski family,[6] and in 1623 to the Zamoyski family.[6] During the Khmelnytsky Uprising, many residents of the city joined the ranks of the Cossack forces.[9] During the 1672–1676 Polish–Ottoman War, Tarnopol was almost completely destroyed by Turkish forces of Ibrahim Shishman Pasha in 1675, then rebuilt by Aleksander Koniecpolski.[9]

In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city came under Austrian rule. In 1809, after the War of the Fifth Coalition, the city came under Russian rule, incorporated into the newly created Ternopol krai, but in 1815 returned to Austrian rule in accordance with the Congress of Vienna. In 1870 Tarnopol was connected by railway with Lemberg.

During World War I the city passed from German and Austrian forces to Russia several times. In 1917, the city and its castle were burned down by fleeing Russian forces.[6] After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the city was proclaimed as part of the West Ukrainian People's Republic on 11 November 1918. After Polish forces captured Lwów during the Polish-Ukrainian War, Tarnopol became the country's temporary capital.[10] After the act of union between the West Ukrainian Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic, Ternopil formally became part of the UPR. On 15 July 1919, the city was captured.[10] by Polish forces. In July and August 1920 the Red Army captured Ternopil in the course of the Polish-Soviet War, and the city served as the capital of the short-lived Galician Soviet Socialist Republic. Under the terms of the Riga treaty, the area remained under Polish control.

The Church of St. Mary of the Perpetual Assistance was demolished after World War II.

As a consequence of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Ternopil was incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic as part of Ternopol Oblast. On 2 July 1941, the city was occupied by the Nazis. Between then and July 1943, 10,000 Jews were killed by Nazi Germans, and another 6,000 were rounded up and sent to Belzec extermination camp. A few hundred others went to labor camps. During most of this time Jews lived in the Tarnopol Ghetto.[11][12] Many Ukrainians were sent as forced labour to Germany. Following the Act of restoration of the Ukrainian state proclaimed in Lviv on 30 June 1941, Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) was active in Ternopil region and battled for the independence of Ukraine, opposing Nazis, Polish Armia Krajowa and People's Army of Poland as well as the Soviets. During the Soviet offensive in March and April 1944, the city was almost completely destroyed by Soviet artillery. [13] Finally, Ternopol was occupied by the Red Army on 15 April 1944. After the second Soviet occupation, 85% of the city's living quarters were destroyed.[6]

Following the Potsdam Conference in 1945, Poland's borders were redrawn and Ternopil was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. The ethnic Polish population of the area was forcibly deported to postwar Poland[14] In the following decades, Ternopil was rebuilt in a typical Soviet style and only a few buildings were reconstructed.

Following the fall of the Soviet Union, Ternopil became part of the independent Ukraine as a city of regional significance. On 31 December 2013, the 11th Artillery Brigade, descendant of artillery units that had been based in the city since 1949, was disbanded.[15] In 2020, as part of the administrative reform in Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three, the city was merged into Ternopil Raion.[16][17]

During the Russo-Ukrainian War, Ternopil was struck by Russian missiles on 13 May 2023, minutes before Ternopil natives Tvorchi performed at the Eurovision Song Contest 2023.[18]



Ternopil has a moderate continental climate with cold winters and warm summers.

Climate data for Ternopil (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.2
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.3
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.5
Record low °C (°F) −31.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.5 8.2 7.6 7.4 9.5 10.6 11.0 8.7 7.9 7.2 7.5 8.9 102.0
Average relative humidity (%) 85.3 83.6 79.3 70.6 68.9 73.5 74.2 74.2 78.5 81.2 86.4 87.3 78.6
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[19]
Source 2: Climatebase.ru (extremes)[20]


School No. 5 (former girls' school of St. Jadwiga in Ternopil

According to Ukrainian Census (2001), Ternopil city and Ternopil oblast are homogeneously populated by ethnic Ukrainians. Ternopil city and Ternopil oblast are also homogeneously Ukrainian-speaking.[21]

National structure of Ternopil Oblast - 1,138.5 (100%)

  • Ukrainians - 1,113.5 (97.8%)
  • Russians - 14.2 (1.2%)
  • Poles - 3.8 (0.3%)

Native languages in Ternopil:

According to a survey conducted by the International Republican Institute in April-May 2023, 98 % of the city's population spoke Ukrainian at home, and 1 % spoke Russian.[22][full citation needed]


Ternopil railway station

Ternopil is a centre for the light industry, food industry, radio-electronic and construction industries. In the Soviet and early post-Soviet period, a harvester plant and a porcelain factory operated in the city.


Ternopil is an important railway hub with connections to most major railway stations of Ukraine. The city lies on the M12 international highway connecting western and central regions of Ukraine. Trolleybus lines and a bus station are active in the city. Water transport operates on Ternopil artificial lake mostly for tourist purposes. An airport was opened for civilian traffic in 1985, but ceased commercial operations in 2010.

Higher education

Teachers of Ternopil State Medical University.

Universities include:

Main sights

Notable people

Franciszek Kleeberg
Yaroslav Stetsko


  • Olga Babiy (born 1989), a Ukrainian chess player and Woman Grandmaster
  • Petr Badlo (born 1976) a Ukrainian football manager and former footballer with 470 club caps.
  • Olha Maslivets (born 1978) a Russian windsurfer who competed at four Summer Olympics
  • Ihor Semenyna (born 1989) a Ukrainian football midfielder with 330 club caps

People from Ternopil Oblast

Solomiya Krushelnytska

Lived in Ternopil

  • Sofia Yablonska (1907-1971), Ukrainian-French travel writer, photographer and architect.
  • Les Kurbas (1887-1937), Ukrainian theatre director and actor, founder of the first Ukrainian theatre in Ternopil.

International relations

Mayor of Ternopil awarded with a Council of Europe flag by a PACE member during a ceremony in 2014

Ternopil is twinned with:

Former twin towns include:

Stadium naming controversy

In 2021, Ternopil created international outrage, especially in the Jewish community, by deciding to name a city stadium in honor of Nazi collaborator Roman Shukhevych.[30] Shukhevych was the military leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army during World War II and was known for his collaboration with the Nazi regime[31][32] as well as his responsibility for the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia. As a result, the City Council of Tarnów decided to suspend its partnership with Ternopil.[33]

Joel Lion, the Israeli Ambassador to Ukraine, expressed Israel’s strong objection to the city's choice to name the stadium in honor of Roman Shukhevych. Lion wrote, "We strongly condemn the decision of Ternopil city council to name the City Stadium after the infamous Hauptman (Captain) of the SS 201st Schutzmannschaft Roman Shukhevych and demand the immediate cancellation of this decision".[32][34]

The Eastern Europe Director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Efraim Zuroff wrote, "It is fully understandable that Ternopil seeks to honor those who fought against Soviet Communism, but not those behind the mass murder of innocent fellow citizens." in a statement attempting to convince Ternopil to reconsider the "renaming of its stadium in honor of Nazi collaborator, Hauptmann of the SS Schutzmannschaft 201, Roman Shukhevych, an active participant in the mass murder of Jews and Poles in World War II."[35]

Russo-Ukrainian War

In June 2022, due to full-scale Russian invasion and missile strikes from the territory of Belarus, Ternopil suspended its partnership with the city of Pinsk.


An international open-air music festival called Faine Misto [uk] has been held annually near Ternopil for 2–4 days in July since 2013.[36][37]



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  2. ^ a b Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Тернопольская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  4. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України. 17 July 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Archived 13 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine[permanent dead link]
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  10. ^ a b The Jewish and German population accepted the new Ukrainian state, but the Poles started the military campaign against the Ukrainian authority [...] On November 11, 1918 following bloody fighting, the Polish forces captured Lwów. The government of the WUPR moved to Ternopol and from the end of December the Council and the Government of the WUPR were located in Ivano-Frankivsk.
    (in Ukrainian) West Ukrainian People's Republic in the "Dovidnyk z istoriï Ukraïny" (A hand-book on the History of Ukraine), 3-Volumes, Kyiv, 1993–1999, ISBN 5-7707-5190-8 (t. 1), ISBN 5-7707-8552-7 (t. 2), ISBN 966-504-237-8 (t. 3).
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  13. ^ Frieser, Karl-Heinz; Schmider, Klaus; Schönherr, Klaus; Schreiber, Gerhard; Ungváry, Kristián; Wegner, Bernd (2007). Die Ostfront 1943/44 – Der Krieg im Osten und an den Nebenfronten [The Eastern Front 1943–1944: The War in the East and on the Neighbouring Fronts] (in German). Vol. VIII. München: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. ISBN 978-3-421-06235-2. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  14. ^ Włodzimierz Borodziej; Ingo Eser; Stanisław Jankowiak; Jerzy Kochanowski; Claudia Kraft; Witold Stankowski; Katrin Steffen (1999). Stanisław Ciesielski (ed.). Przesiedlenie ludności polskiej z Kresów Wschodnich do Polski 1944–1947 [Resettlement of Poles from Kresy 1944–1947] (in Polish). Warsaw: Neriton. pp. 29, 50, 468. ISBN 83-86842-56-3.
  15. ^ Влада Тернополя наполягає на відновленні військових частин на Західній Україні [Ternopil authorities insist on restoration of military units in western Ukraine]. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (in Ukrainian). 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  17. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України. 17 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Ukraine Eurovision act's city Ternopil attacked before performance". BBC News. 13 May 2023. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  19. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  20. ^ "Ternopil, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  21. ^ "2001 | English version | Results | General results of the census | National composition of population". Archived from the original on 17 December 2011.
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  23. ^ Padokh, Yaroslav (2001). "Chubaty, Mykola". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 26 July 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
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  30. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (9 January 2007). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2913-4. ...on the German side and Roman Shukhevych ('Tur', 'Taras Chuprynka') as head of the Ukrainian staff, wore the uniform of the Wehrmacht.
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  36. ^ "Faine Misto Festival". www.festivalfinder.eu. European Festivals Association. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  37. ^ "ФАЙНЕ МІСТО | ТЕРИТОРІЯ ВІЛЬНИХ ЛЮДЕЙ | Історія" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2021.


External links