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Terraform (software)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Original author(s)Mitchell Hashimoto et al.
Initial release28 July 2014; 9 years ago (2014-07-28)
Stable release
1.9.1 / 3 July 2024; 3 days ago (2024-07-03)[1]
Written inGo
Operating systemLinux, FreeBSD, macOS, OpenBSD, Solaris, and Microsoft Windows
Available inEnglish
TypeInfrastructure as code
LicenseBusiness Source License v1.1[2](source-available)
Websitewww.terraform.io Edit this on Wikidata

Terraform is an infrastructure-as-code software tool created by HashiCorp. Users define and provide data center infrastructure using a declarative configuration language known as HashiCorp Configuration Language (HCL), or optionally JSON.[3]



Terraform manages external resources (such as public cloud infrastructure, private cloud infrastructure, network appliances, software as a service, and platform as a service) with "providers". HashiCorp maintains an extensive list of official providers, and can also integrate with community-developed providers.[4] Users can interact with Terraform providers by declaring resources[5] or by calling data sources.[6] Rather than using imperative commands to provision resources, Terraform uses declarative configuration to describe the desired final state. Once a user invokes Terraform on a given resource, Terraform will perform CRUD actions on the user's behalf to accomplish the desired state.[7] The infrastructure as code can be written as modules, promoting reusability and maintainability.[8]

Terraform supports a number of cloud infrastructure providers such as Amazon Web Services, Cloudflare,[9] Microsoft Azure, IBM Cloud, Serverspace, Selectel[10] Google Cloud Platform,[11] DigitalOcean,[12] Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, Yandex.Cloud,[13] VMware vSphere, and OpenStack.[14][15][16][17][18]

HashiCorp maintains a Terraform Module Registry, launched in 2017.[19] In 2019, Terraform introduced the paid version called Terraform Enterprise for larger organizations.[20]

License change


Terraform was previously free software available under version 2.0 of the Mozilla Public License (MPL). On August 10, 2023, HashiCorp announced that all products produced by the company would be relicensed under the Business Source License (BSL), with HashiCorp prohibiting commercial use of the community edition by those who offer "competitive services".[21]

The last MPL-licensed version of Terraform was forked as "OpenTofu", which is backed by the Linux Foundation. In April 2024, HashiCorp sent a cease and desist notice to the OpenTofu project, stating that it had incorporated code from a BSL-licensed version of Terraform without permission and "incorrectly re-labeled HashiCorp's code to make it appear as if it was made available by HashiCorp originally under a different license." OpenTofu denied the allegation, stating that the code cited had originated from an MPL-licensed version of Terraform.[22][23]


  1. ^ "Releases - hashicorp/terraform". Retrieved 7 July 2024 – via GitHub.
  2. ^ "LICENSE" – via GitHub.
  3. ^ "Syntax - Configuration Language".
  4. ^ "Providers".
  5. ^ "Resources".
  6. ^ "Data Sources".
  7. ^ "Configuration".
  8. ^ "Modules".
  9. ^ "Cloudflare Provider". Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  10. ^ "Selectel Provider". 12 April 2023.
  11. ^ "Google Cloud Platform Provider for Terraform". Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  12. ^ Starr-Bochicchio, Andrew (22 October 2018). "Introducing the DigitalOcean Terraform Provider". DigitalOcean Blog. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Yandex Cloud Provider". 31 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Terraform vs. Chef, Puppet, etc. - Terraform by HashiCorp". Terraform by HashiCorp. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  15. ^ Bryant, Daniel (26 March 2017). "HashiCorp Terraform 0.9. Released with State Locking, State Environments, and Destroy Provisioners". InfoQ. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  16. ^ Yevgeniy., Brikman (2017). Terraform Writing Infrastructure as Configuration. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 9781491977057. OCLC 978667796.
  17. ^ Somwanshi, Sneha (1 March 2015). "Choosing the Right Tool to Provision AWS Infrastructure". ThoughtWorks Blog.
  18. ^ Turnbull, James (2016). The Terraform Book. James Turnbull. ISBN 9780988820258.
  19. ^ Atkins, Martin (16 November 2017). "HashiCorp Terraform 0.11". HashiCorp Blog. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  20. ^ HashiCorp. "HashiCorp Terraform - Provision & Manage any Infrastructure". HashiCorp: Infrastructure enables innovation. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  21. ^ "HashiCorp Adopts Business Source License for All Products". InfoQ. Retrieved 20 October 2023.
  22. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (11 April 2024). "OpenTofu Denies Hashicorp's Code-Stealing Accusations". DevOps.com. Retrieved 13 April 2024.
  23. ^ Jackson, Joab (12 April 2024). "OpenTofu Project Denies HashiCorp's Allegations of Code Theft". The New Stack. Retrieved 13 April 2024.