Territorial authorities of New Zealand

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Map of New Zealand territorial authorities. Cities are bolded and capitalised. Regions are indicated with colours.

Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. There are 67 territorial authorities: 12 city councils, 53 district councils, Auckland Council and Chatham Islands Council. Six territorial authorities (Auckland Council, Nelson City Council, the Gisborne, Tasman, and Marlborough district councils and Chatham Islands Council) also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are unitary authorities. A unitary authority may also have local boards; currently only Auckland Council has them.[1]

Territorial authority districts are not subdivisions of regions, and some of them fall within more than one region. Taupo District has the distinction of straddling the boundaries of four different regions (see below). Regional council areas are based on water catchment areas, whereas territorial authorities are based on community of interest and road access. Regional councils are responsible for the administration of many environmental and public transport matters, while the territorial authorities administer local roading and reserves, sewerage, building consents, the land use and subdivision aspects of resource management, and other local matters. Some activities are delegated to council-controlled organisations.

Territorial authorities[edit]

Name Seat Area (km2)[2] Population[3] Rank
(population)
Density (/km2) Region(s)
Far North District Kaikohe 6,677 62,000 14 9.29 Northland
Whangarei District Whangarei 2,712 87,700 8 32.34 Northland
Kaipara District Dargaville 3,109 21,700 43 6.98 Northland
Auckland Auckland 4,940 1,614,300 1 326.78 unitary authority
Thames-Coromandel District Thames 2,207 28,400 38 12.87 Waikato
Hauraki District Paeroa 1,270 19,550 45 15.39 Waikato
Waikato District Ngaruawahia 4,403 71,200 12 16.17 Waikato
Matamata-Piako District Te Aroha 1,755 34,100 33 19.43 Waikato
Hamilton City Hamilton 110 161,200 4 1,465.45 Waikato
Waipa District Te Awamutu 1,470 51,600 21 35.10 Waikato
Otorohanga District Otorohanga 1,999 9,980 56 4.99 Waikato
South Waikato District Tokoroa 1,819 23,800 41 13.08 Waikato
Waitomo District Te Kuiti 3,535 9,660 56 2.73 Waikato (94.87%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (5.13%)
Taupo District Taupo 6,333 36,200 30 5.72 Waikato (73.74%)
Bay of Plenty (14.31%)
Hawke's Bay (11.26%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (0.69%)
Western Bay of Plenty District Greerton, Tauranga City 1,951 47,800 25 24.50 Bay of Plenty
Tauranga City Tauranga 135 128,200 5 928.99 Bay of Plenty
Rotorua District Rotorua 2,409 70,500 13 29.27 Bay of Plenty (61.52%)
Waikato (38.48%)
Whakatane District Whakatane 4,450 35,000 31 7.87 Bay of Plenty
Kawerau District Kawerau 24 6,800 64 283.33 Bay of Plenty
Opotiki District Opotiki 3,089 8,830 60 2.86 Bay of Plenty
Gisborne District Gisborne 8,386 47,900 24 5.71 Gisborne (Unitary authority)
Wairoa District Wairoa 4,077 8,150 62 2.00 Hawke's Bay
Hastings District Hastings 5,227 78,600 11 15.04 Hawke's Bay
Napier City Napier 105 61,100 15 581.90 Hawke's Bay
Central Hawke's Bay District Waipawa 3,332 13,600 49 4.08 Hawke's Bay
New Plymouth District New Plymouth 2,205 79,800 10 36.19 Taranaki
Stratford District Stratford 2,163 9,300 58 4.30 Taranaki (68.13%)
Manawatu-Wanganui (31.87%)
South Taranaki District Hawera 3,575 27,700 39 7.75 Taranaki
Ruapehu District Taumarunui 6,734 12,500 52= 1.86 Manawatu-Wanganui
Whanganui District Whanganui 2,373 43,800 28 18.46 Manawatu-Wanganui
Rangitikei District Marton 4,484 14,800 48 3.30 Manawatu-Wanganui (86.37%)
Hawke's Bay (13.63%)
Manawatu District Feilding 2,657 29,800 37 11.22 Manawatu-Wanganui
Palmerston North City Palmerston North 395 86,300 9 218.48 Manawatu-Wanganui
Tararua District Dannevirke 4,364 17,600 46 4.03 Manawatu-Wanganui (98.42%)
Wellington (1.58%)
Horowhenua District Levin 1,064 31,900 35 29.98 Manawatu-Wanganui
Kapiti Coast District Paraparaumu 731 52,100 20 71.27 Wellington
Porirua City Porirua 175 55,400 18 316.57 Wellington
Upper Hutt City Upper Hutt 540 42,500 29 78.70 Wellington
Lower Hutt City Lower Hutt 376 103,400 7 275.00 Wellington
Wellington City Wellington 290 207,900 3 716.90 Wellington
Masterton District Masterton 2,300 24,600 40 10.70 Wellington
Carterton District Carterton 1,180 8,900 59 7.54 Wellington
South Wairarapa District Martinborough 2,387 10,100 55 4.23 Wellington
Tasman District Richmond 9,616 50,300 23 5.23 unitary authority
Nelson City Nelson 424 50,600 22 119.34 unitary authority
Marlborough District Blenheim 10,458 45,500 27 4.35 unitary authority
Kaikoura District Kaikoura 2,047 3,740 66 1.83 Canterbury
Buller District Westport 7,942 10,250 54 1.29 West Coast
Grey District Greymouth 3,474 13,550 50 3.90 West Coast
Westland District Hokitika 11,828 8,760 61 0.74 West Coast
Hurunui District Amberley 8,641 12,700 51 1.47 Canterbury
Waimakariri District Rangiora 2,217 57,800 16 26.07 Canterbury
Christchurch City Christchurch 1,415[4] 375,000 2 265.02 Canterbury
Selwyn District Rolleston 6,381 56,200 17 8.81 Canterbury
Ashburton District Ashburton 6,183 33,700 34 5.45 Canterbury
Timaru District Timaru 2,733 46,700 26 17.09 Canterbury
Mackenzie District Fairlie 7,140 4,520 65 0.63 Canterbury
Waimate District Waimate 3,554 7,950 63 2.24 Canterbury
Chatham Islands Territory Waitangi 794 610 67 0.77 unitary authority
Waitaki District Oamaru 7,109 22,100 42 3.11 Canterbury (59.61%)
Otago (40.39%)
Central Otago District Alexandra 9,956 19,700 44 1.98 Otago
Queenstown-Lakes District Queenstown 8,719 34,700 32 3.98 Otago
Dunedin City Dunedin 3,287 127,000 6 38.64 Otago
Clutha District Balclutha 6,334 17,450 47 2.75 Otago
Southland District Invercargill 29,552[5] 30,900 36 1.05 Southland
Gore District Gore 1,254 12,500 52= 9.97 Southland
Invercargill City Invercargill 389 54,700 19 140.62 Southland

Offshore islands[edit]

There are a number of islands where the Minister of Local Government is the territorial authority, two of which have a 'permanent population and/or permanent buildings and structures.' The main islands are listed below (population according to 2001 census in parenthesis):

In addition, seven of the nine groups of the New Zealand Outlying Islands are outside of any territorial authority:

History[edit]

1989 local government reforms[edit]

For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city. The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area.

New Zealand’s local government structural arrangements were significantly reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when approximately 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities. Regional councils were reduced in number from 20 to 13, territorial authorities (city/district councils) from 200 to 75, and special purpose bodies from over 400 to 7.[3] The new district and city councils were generally much larger and most covered substantial areas of both urban and rural land. Many places that once had a city council were now being administered by a district council.

As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings.

The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed.

Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000.

Changes since 1989[edit]

Since the 1989 reorganisations, there have been few major reorganisations or status changes in local government. Incomplete list:

Reports on completed reorganisation proposals since 1999 are available on the Local Government Commission's site (link below).

2007–2009 Royal Commission on Auckland Governance[edit]

On 26 March 2009, the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance recommended the Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland City, Manukau, Papakura and Franklin territorial councils and the Auckland Regional Council be abolished and the entire Auckland region to be amalgamated into one "supercity".[5] The area would consist of one city council (with statutory provision for three Maori councillors), four urban local councils, and two rural local councils:

  • Rodney local council would lose Orewa, Dairy Flat, and Whangaparaoa but retain the remainder of the current Rodney District. The split areas as well as the current North Shore City would form a Waitemata local council.
  • Waitakere local council would consist of the current Waitakere City as well as the Avondale area.
  • Tamaki Makaurau would consist of the current Auckland City and Otahuhu (excluding CBD)
  • Manukau local council would consist of the urban parts of the current Manukau City and of the Papakura District.
  • Hunua local council would consist of the entire Franklin District, much of which is currently in the Waikato Region, along with rural areas of the current Papakura District and Manukau City.
  • The entire Papakura District would be dissolved between urban and rural councils.

The National-led Government responded within about a week. Its proposal, which will go to a Select Committee, has the supercity and many community boards but no local councils and for the first election no separate seats for Maori.

Public reaction to the Royal Commission report was mixed, especially in regards to the Government's amended proposal. Auckland Mayor John Banks supported the amended merger plans.[6]

Criticism of the amended proposal came largely from residents in Manukau, Waitakere and North Shore Cities.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] In addition, Maori Affairs Minister Pita Sharples spoke against the exclusion of the Maori seats, as recommended by the Royal Commission.[14][15] Opposition Leader Phil Goff called for a referendum on the issue.[16]

Failed proposed changes[edit]

  • 2015: Proposals to amalgamate local councils in Wellington[17] and Northland were accepted[18] by the Local Government Commission for consideration, although following consultation they ultimately were not formed into a final proposal. The status quo remains.
  • 2015: Amalgamation of four local councils and the regional council in Hawke's Bay was proposed by the Local Government Commission. A district wide referendum was held in Sep-2015, and the proposal was defeated by 66% of voters.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Better Local Government". Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  2. ^ Living Density: Table 1, Housing Statistics, Statistics New Zealand. Accessed 25 January 2009. Areas are based on 2001 boundaries. Water bodies greater than 15 hectares are excluded.
  3. ^ Local Government Reform in New Zealand Wallis, J.and Dollery, B. (2000) Local Government Reform in New Zealand. Working Paper Series in Economics, No 2000-7,May 2000, ISBN 1-86389-682-1, University of New England School of Economic Studies, Armidale NSW 2351 Australia. Copyright 2000 by Joe Wallis and Brian Dollery.
  4. ^ Chatham Islands Council Act 1995, Parliament of New Zealand, 1995, Statute No 041, Commenced: 1 November 1995, retrieved 4 February 2008.
  5. ^ Thompson, Wayne (28 March 2009). "Super-city tipped to save $113m a year". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  6. ^ Thompson, Wayne (8 April 2009). "Proposal 'a great start' says Banks, but other mayors critical – Super City – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Protest gets backing". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Marching for Waitakere". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "Supercity protesters hit the streets – national". Stuff.co.nz. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  10. ^ Udanga, Romy. "Call for a united front". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  11. ^ Udanga, Romy. "Supercity fears emerge". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  12. ^ Kemeys, David. "Who stole our voice? – auckland". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "Govt's super-council leaflets anger mayor – National – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  14. ^ Tahana, Yvonne (8 April 2009). "Anger rises over lack of Maori seats – National – NZ Herald News". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  15. ^ Kotze, Karen. "Hui calls for representation". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Let Auckland decide on local government changes | Scoop News". Scoop.co.nz. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ "Hawke's Bay Reorganisation Poll : PROGRESS RESULT" (PDF). Electionz.com. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 

External links[edit]