Terrorism in France

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Terrorism in France refers to the terrorist attacks that have targeted the country and its population during the 20th and 21st centuries. Terrorism, in this case is much related to the country's history, international affairs and political approach. Legislation has been set up by lawmakers to fight terrorism in France.

CBC News reported in December 2018 that the number of people killed in terrorist attacks in France since 2015 was 249, with the number of wounded at 928.[1]

Terrorist incidents map of France 1970-2015. Paris, Corsica and Southwestern France are major places of incidents. A total of 2,616 incidents are plotted
Terrorism deaths in France recorded in the Global Terrorism Database. The spike in 2015 is over 6 times the previous maximum since 1970 and is indicated by a number off the scale.

Terrorism in (or involving) France[edit]

Abu Nidal Organization Action Directe Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula ASALA (Armenian nationalists)
Carlos the Jackal Charles Martel Group CSPPA (Lebanese faction) GIA (Islamic extremists)
Guards of Islam (Iranian agents) Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)

List of significant terrorist incidents inside France[edit]

France
Date Sub Location Deaths Injuries Type Perpetrator Description of target and attack
15 September 1958 Île-de-France Paris 1 3 Small arms fire FLN (Algerian nationalists) -- Government institutions
Several gunmen fire into the car of the French Minister of Information, Jacques Soustelle. The minister survives unharmed, however four bystanders are struck and one is killed.[4]
18 June 1961 Marne (department) Blacy, Marne 28 100+ Improvised Explosive Device Organisation armée secrète -- Private citizens & property
A bomb attack on a StrasbourgParis train carried: it was the deadliest terrorist attack in modern French history until the November 2015 Paris attacks.[5]
14 December 1973 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Marseilles 4 20 Improvised Explosive Device Charles
Martel Group
-- Diplomatic (Algeria)
A man exits a car and throws a bomb into the compound of the Algerian Consulate; the subsequent explosion kills 4 and injures 20 more, 4 seriously.[6]
15 September 1974 Île-de-France Paris 2 34 Improvised Explosive Device PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb explodes at the Drugstore Saint Germain, part of the fashionable circuit of restaurants and bars on Paris’s Left Bank, killing two and injuring 34.[7]
24 October 1975 Île-de-France Paris 2 - Grenade & Small arms fire ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
As İsmail Erez is returning from a reception -- and as his vehicle approached the building of the Turkish Embassy in Paris -- a group of 3–4 armed Armenian militants ambush the automobile, killing him and his driver Talip Yener.[8][9]
20 May 1978 Île-de-France Paris 4 3 Grenade & Small arms fire PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) -- Airports & airlines
Three terrorists open fire on El Al passengers in the departure lounge. All three terrorists are killed, along with one policeman, and three French tourists are also injured.[10]
5 October 1978 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Marseilles 9 12 Small arms fire -- Private citizens & property
At about 21:00 (UTC+1), three hooded men armed with sub machine guns enter a quiet neighborhood bar and shoot 21 patrons, killing nine. The attack at Le Telephone bar was likely related to organized crime, although none of the attackers were identified.[11]
23 December 1979 Île-de-France Paris 1 - Grenade & Small arms fire ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
A gunman fires an automatic weapon amid crowds of Christmas shoppers, killing the director of the Turkish National Tourist Office, Yilmaz Colton, in Paris. The director was struck by three bullets while walking along the Champs-Élysées.[12]
28 January 1980 Île-de-France Paris 1 8 Improvised Explosive Device ' -- Diplomatic (Syrian)
A bomb blast destroys the ground floor of the Syrian Embassy, killing one and injuring 8 others. Three of those injured were in a serious condition, including a pregnant woman. The attack happened 2 hours before the arrival of then Foreign Minister of Syria, Abdel Halim Khaddam, in France.[13]
17 July 1980 Île-de-France Paris 2 4 Small arms fire Guards of Islam
(Iranian agents)
-- Government institutions (Shah of Iran)
Former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar escapes an assassination attempt in which a French policeman and a female neighbour are killed. Four other officers were wounded, one seriously. Allegedly posing as reporters, a trio of gunmen attempted to enter the exiled leader's apartment in Neuilly, a suburb of Paris. A police guard at an armored door to the residence resisted and a gunfight took place.[14][15]
29 July 1980 Rhône-Alpes Lyon 2 11 Small arms fire ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
Two gunmen storm the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon. The gunmen are unable to locate the Turkish consul general and open fire on the waiting area, killing two people and wounding eleven others, two seriously.[16]
3 October 1980 Île-de-France Paris 4 40 Improvised Explosive Device - -- Religious figures & institutions
A bomb went off outside the Union Libérale Israélite de France synagogue on Rue Copernic. The bomb had been hidden in the saddlebags of a motorcycle parked outside the synagogue on the eve of Simchat Torah. The explosion happened shortly before the end of services, however one of those killed were members of the congregation. French police initially suspected that the attack had been carried out by neo-Nazis, but later attributed it to the PFLP or one of its offshoots.[17][18][19][20]
25 November 1980 Île-de-France Paris 2 1 Small arms fire - -- Private citizens & property
An unknown gunman murders the Jewish owners of a Paris travel agency that specialized in tours to Israel. The assailant walked into the office of IT-Tours and fired from an automatic pistol, fatally wounding Edwin Douek, the proprietor. His wife, Michele, was killed instantly and a clerk was slightly wounded. Edwin Douek died of his wounds later in a hospital.[21]
4 March 1981 Île-de-France Paris 2 1 Small arms fire ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
Two gunmen open fire on Turkish Labour Attache, Resat Morali, and the Religious Affairs Officer in the Turkish Embassy, Tecelli Ari. Both are killed.[22]
24 September 1981 Île-de-France Paris 1 2 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Diplomatic (Turkish)
At about 11:30 CET, four members of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia took over the consulate killing a Turkish guard, wounding the Turkish Consul and taking 56 people hostage, including 8 women and a 3-year-old child.
Shortly after midnight, the militants' leader started the negotiations that led to the end of the ordeal at about 2 a.m. He was promised by French authorities that the four militants would receive political asylum. The next day, however, the French Government issued a statement saying that the men would have to stand trial on charges growing out of the assault, including the death of a Turkish guard.[23]
29 March 1982 Limousin Ambazac 5 27 Improvised Explosive Device Carlos the Jackal -- Transport
A explosion on a Paris-Toulouse express train kills five passengers and injures 27 near Ambazac. The blast in the baggage compartment of the Capitole Express was caused by several pounds of extremely powerful explosives, intentionally planted. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal was tried for involvement in the attack and was subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[24][25]
22 April 1982 Île-de-France Paris 1 47 Car bomb Carlos the Jackal -- Political
A powerful car bomb detonates in a crowded street in central Paris during the morning rush hour, killing a young woman and injuring 46 people. The apparent target are the offices of the Libyan newspaper Al-Watan al-Arabi. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal is tried for involvement in the attacks and is subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[25][26]
9 August 1982 Île-de-France Paris 6 22 Grenade & Small arms fire Abu Nidal Organization -- Private Citizens & Property
Two assailants throw grenades into the dining room of the Chez Jo Goldenberg restaurant and fire machine guns at the patrons. Six people die, including two American tourists, and 22 others are wounded in the attack on the Jewish restaurant in Paris's Marais district.[27][28]
21 August 1982 Île-de-France Paris 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device - -- Diplomatic (United States)
A bomb, that police said was intended to target a United States diplomat, explodes on a luxurious residential street on the Left Bank near the Eiffel Tower, killing a bomb disposal expert and wounding two others. The bomb had been planted under the vehicle of Roderick Grant, commercial counselor at the United States Embassy in Paris.[29]
28 February 1983 Île-de-France Paris 1 4 Improvised Explosive Device ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb detonates at the Turkish-owned Marmara Voyages tourism agency in central Paris, killing one female employee and injuring four others. The blast reportedly caused the roof of the offices to collapse.[30][31]
15 July 1983 Île-de-France Paris 8 55 Improvised Explosive Device ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Airports & airlines
A bomb explodes inside a suitcase at the Turkish Airlines check-in desk in the south terminal of the Orly Airport, sending flames through the crowd of passengers checking in for a flight to Istanbul. The bomb consisted of a half kilo of Semtex explosive connected to three portable gas bottles, which caused extensive burns on the victims. Three people were killed immediately in the blast and another five died in hospital. Four of the victims were French, two were Turkish, one was American, and one was Swedish.[32][33][34]
5 August 1983 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Avignon 7 - Small arms fire -- Private citizens & property
At approximately 4:00 (UTC+1), two gunmen shoot to dead seven people at a Sofitel Hotel in a popular holiday town. The victims include the French consul-general for Saarbrücken in West Germany, Lucien Andre. Three other hotel guests and three employees of Sofitel were also killed after apparently being rounded up and ushered into a hotel room.[35]
1 October 1983 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Marseilles 1 26 Improvised Explosive Device ASALA (Armenian nationalists) -- Private Citizens & Property
One man is killed and 26 people injured when multiple bombs destroyed the American, Soviet and Algerian pavilions at an international trade fair in Marseilles. An Armenian guerrilla group took responsibility for the attack in a telephone call to the police. However then Interior Minister, Gaston Defferre, later stated that the far rightist Charles Martel Group had also taken responsibility for the blast.[36]
31 December 1983 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Marseilles 5 58+ Improvised Explosive Device Carlos the Jackal -- Transport
A bomb explodes in the two first-class cars of an AGV locomotive as it heads north toward Paris, from the Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles. Although the train was travelling at about 160 kilometres per hour, it does not derail. Rescue workers find 2 passengers dead and 20 wounded, 5 of them seriously.
Half an hour later a second bomb explodes in the baggage checkroom of the main hall at the Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles, killing 2 people and wounding at least 38. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal is tried for involvement in the attacks and is subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[25][37][38]
7 February 1984 Île-de-France Paris 2 1 Small arms fire Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad -- Government institutions (Shah of Iran)
Gholam Ali Oveisi, a four-star general under Iran's late shah, and his brother, an ex-colonel, are killed by gunmen in central Paris. Their driver is also wounded.[39][40]
8 February 1984 Île-de-France Paris 1 - Small arms fire Abu Nidal Organization -- Diplomatic (Emirati)
A lone gunman shoots and kills the United Arab Emirates' ambassador to France outside the diplomat's Paris home. Khalifa Ahmed Abdel Aziz al-Mubarak is killed in a district of Paris nearby the Eiffel tower.[41]
25 January 1985 Île-de-France Paris 1 - Small arms fire Action Directe -- Government institutions
General René Audran, a senior official of the French Ministry of Defence, is shot to dead in front of his residence at La Celle-Saint-Cloud.[42]
23 February 1985 Île-de-France Paris 1 15 Improvised Explosive Device - -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb explodes at an entrance to the Paris branch of the British-owned department store Marks & Spencer as it opened for business, killing a man and wounding 15 other people. Telephone calls claiming responsibility were received from the Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance, an outlawed group seeking the independence of France's Caribbean territories; and from Direct Action, a left-wing extremist group that had announced its fusion with the Red Army Faction terrorists of Germany.[43]
3 March 1985 Île-de-France Paris 4 - Small arms fire - -- Government institutions (Foreign: Khmer Rouge)
Try Meng Huot -- a doctor in chemistry who had been a lecturer at the University of Paris before he became a Khmer Rouge leader -- is killed in his Parisian apartment alongside his wife and another unidentified couple.[44]
20 March 1986 Île-de-France Paris 2 28 Improvised Explosive Device CSPPA (Lebanese faction) -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb explodes in a packed mall of luxury boutiques on the Champs-Elysees, killing 2 people and wounding 28. A second bomb, found on a metro train, was defused by police demolition experts before it could explode. A terrorist organization calling itself the Committee of Solidarity With Arab and Middle Eastern Political Prisoners asserted responsibility for the attack in a handwritten letter sent to the Beirut office of a Western news agency.[45][46]
25 April 1986 Rhône-Alpes Lyon 1 - Small arms fire - -- Business
Kenneth Marston, director of a French subsidiary of Black & Decker, is shot to death outside his home.[47]
9 September 1986 Île-de-France Paris 1 18 Improvised Explosive Device CSPPA (Lebanese faction) -- Government institutions
A bomb explodes inside the post office of the Hôtel de Ville, killing one person and wounding 18 others. The dead man is identified as Marguerite Thuault, an employee of the post office.[48][49]
15 September 1986 Île-de-France Paris 1 51 Improvised Explosive Device CSPPA (Lebanese faction) -- Government institutions
A bomb explodes inside the Parisian police headquarters, killing one person and wounding 51 others, two seriously.[48]
17 September 1986 Île-de-France Paris 5 50+ Improvised Explosive Device CSPPA (Lebanese faction) -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb thrown from a passing car explodes in front of a Tati department store on the Left Bank, killing at least 5 people and wounding about 50. The blast, which occurred about 17:30, destroyed the entire front of the seven-story building on the rue de Rennes.[50]
18 October 1986 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Toulon 4 - Car bomb - --
A car explodes in the seafront market place at Toulon, killing the four occupants and setting fire to a nearby building. The police said it may have been carrying explosives in preparation for a bomb attack.[51]
17 November 1986 Île-de-France Paris 1 - Small arms fire Action Directe -- Business
A man and woman firing from a motorcycle kill the head of the French auto-maker Renault. Georges Besse is struck down by gunfire as he exited from his car, unaccompanied by bodyguards. He had been appointed chairman of the company in January 1985.[52]
19 December 1988 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Cagnes sur Mer 1 12 Improvised Explosive Device French and European Nationalist Party -- Private Citizens & Property
At 3:00 (UTC+1), two homemade bombs explode at a crowded hostel for mostly North African immigrant workers, killing a Romanian national and wounding at least 12 others. The first blast destroyed a number of vehicles on the street, and following this a second blast, under the main stairwell of the building, destroyed the corridor into which many residents had come to check the first blast.[53][54]
5 October 1994 Île-de-France Paris 4 6 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking - -- Government institutions
Three police officers and a taxi driver are killed, and six other people -- including two more officers -- are wounded in separate shoot outs with two masked gunmen in Paris. The pair broke into a Paris police station to steal fire arms, then took a taxi driver hostage and forced him to drive them to the Bois de Vincennes park on the outskirts of Paris, where the final shoot out took place.[55]
25 July 1995 Île-de-France Paris 8 150 Improvised explosive device GIA
(Islamists)
-- Transport
Eight people are killed and 150 wounded in an explosion of a gas canister packed with nails and bolts on a Paris regional train at the Gare de Saint-Michel-Notre-Dame rail station. The bombing was claimed by the Armed Islamic Group as reprisals for French support for Algeria's army-backed government.[56][57]
3 December 1996 Île-de-France Paris 3 85 Improvised explosive device GIA
(Islamists)
-- Transport
A blast at 18:03 CET rips open the doors of a train on the southbound track of the Port Royal station of the regional express network on the Left Bank, scattering the wounded -- totaling over 85 -- over the platform. Three people succumb to injuries caused by the bomb made from a 28-pound camping gas canister filled with nails.[58][59]
19 April 2000 Brittany Plévin 1 - Improvised explosive device - -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb explodes beside a McDonald's in a small town in Brittany, killing a restaurant worker. The explosion, in the Dinan area, happens at about 10:00 CET, near the restaurant's drive-through window.[60]
6 December 2007 Île-de-France Paris 1 4 Improvised explosive device - -- Private Citizens & Property
A parcel bomb explodes at a legal office in central Paris killing a secretary and seriously injuring a lawyer. Several other people were lightly hurt in the unclaimed blast shortly before 13:00 CET on the fourth floor of a building in the capital's fashionable eighth arrondissement or district.[61]
15 March 2012 Midi-Pyrénées Montauban 2 1 Small arms fire Mohammed Merah (Islamist) -- Government institutions
At around 14:00 CET, two uniformed soldiers were killed and a third was seriously injured outside a shopping centre in Montauban, while withdrawing money from a cash machine. They were all from the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment (17e Régiment du génie parachutiste), whose barracks are close to the town. Corporal Abel Chennouf, 24, and Private Mohamed Legouad, 23, both of North African origin, were killed. Corporal Loïc Liber, 28, from Guadeloupe, was left in a coma.[62][63]
19 March 2012 Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse 5
(one perp.)
1 Small arms fire Mohammed Merah (Islamist) -- Religious figures & institutions
At about 8:00 CET, a man drove up to the Ozar Hatorah school on a motorcycle. He dismounted, and immediately opened fire toward the schoolyard. Four people died: 30-year-old Rabbi Jonathan (Yonatan) Sandler; his two oldest (out of three) children Aryeh, aged 6, and Gabriel, aged 3; and the head teacher's daughter, eight-year-old Miriam Monsonego, the girl shot in the head. Bryan Bijaoui, a 17-year-old Jewish boy, was gravely injured.[64][65][66]
7 January 2015 Île-de-France Paris 14
(2 perps.)
11 Small arms fire Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula -- Private Citizens & Property
At about 11:30 CET, two militants armed with assault rifles and other weapons forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. They fired up to 50 shots, initially killing 11 people and injuring 11 others, and shouted "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "God is [the] greatest") during their attack.
9 January 2015 Île-de-France Paris 5
(one perp.)
9 Small arms fire -- hostage taking
(1 day)
Amedy Coulibaly (Islamist) -- Private Citizens & Property
At about 1:00 CET, an Islamist militant who pledged allegiance to Islamic State, enters the Hypercacher kosher superette in Porte de Vincennes and takes up to 20 Jewish patrons hostage. Four Jewish hostages die and held fifteen others are held during a siege in which Coulibaly demands that the two militants responsible for the attack on the satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo not be harmed.
26 June 2015 Rhône-Alpes Saint-Quentin-Fallavier 1 2 Bladed weapon & Improvised Explosive Device Yassine Salhi (Islamist) -- Private Citizens & Property
At about 9:30 CEST, a suspected Islamic militant decapitates a man and drives a company van into gas cylinders at an Air Products gas factory near Lyon. The attacker placed the head of a victim on a fence railing, and planted two Jihadist flag banners alongside it. Video surveillance footage showed that the perpetrator also tried to ignite several canisters containing flammable chemicals.
21 August 2015 Nord-Pas-de-Calais Oignies 0 5 Small arms, bladed weapons Ayoub El Kahzani (Islamist) -- Transport
At about 17:45 CEST, a 26-year-old Moroccan national carrying an AK-47, a semi-automatic pistol, 300 rounds and a box cutter, opens fire on a Thalys train traveling from Amsterdam to Paris. The gunman was attacked and subdued by four men (three Americans and one British), who beat him unconscious. The train was diverted to Arras where the man was arrested and identified. The man had been previously flagged with an "S" card, France's warning alert for someone believed to be a national security risk.[67]
13 November 2015 Île-de-France Paris, Saint-Denis 130 (+7) 368 AK-47 assault rifles, hand grenades, various explosives, suicide vests Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
On the evening of 13 November 2015, a series of coordinated terrorist attacks comprising mass shootings and suicide bombings occurred in Paris and Saint-Denis, France. Beginning at 21:16 CET,[68] three separate explosions and six mass shootings occurred, including bombings near the Stade de France in the northern suburb of Saint-Denis.[68][69] The deadliest attack was at the Bataclan theatre where attackers took hostages and engaged in a standoff with police until it was ended at 00:58 CET 14 November 2015. 130 civilians were killed in the attacks.
14 July 2016 Nice Nice 86 (+1) 434 Vehicular attack Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
On the evening of 14 July 2016, a vehicle-ramming attack took place in Nice, France when a man deliberately drove a cargo truck into a crowd of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais. 86 people were killed and 434 others were injured.
13 June 2016 Île-de-France Magnanville 2 0 Knife Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
On 13 June 2016, a police officer and his wife, a police secretary, were stabbed to death in their home in Magnanville (about 35 miles west of Paris) by a man acting on an "order" by ISIL to "kill infidels".
3 February 2017 Île-de-France Paris 0 1 Knife Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
On 3 February 2017, armed with two 40-centimetre machetes a 29-year-old Egyptian terrorist attacked patrolling guards outside the Louvre museum. One of the guards was slightly injured during the attack as the perpetrator was shot dead.
20 April 2017 Île-de-France Paris 1 (+1) 3 AK-47 assault rifle Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Police officers & Private Citizen
On 20 April 2017,a police officer was killed and two more were injured alongside a tourist by an assailant wielding a Kalashnikov rifle on the Champs-Élysées, a shopping boulevard in Paris, France.
23 March 2018 Aude Aude 4 (+1) 15 Handgun, hunting knife and homemade explosives Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Police officers & Private Citizens
On 23 March 2018, a 25 year old assailant hijacked a car in Carcassonne, France, killing one. He then shot at some off duty officers and then drove to the nearby town of Trèbes where he stormed a local supermarket, killing three, including a policeman, and taking several hostage. He was later shot and killed.
12 May 2018 Île-de-France Paris 1 (+1) 4 Knife Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizen
A 21-year-old Chechnia-born man armed with a knife, killed one pedestrian and injured four more near the Palais Garnier, the opera house in Paris, France, before being fatally shot by police.
11 December 2018 Grand Est Strasbourg 5 (+1) 11 Modele 1892 revolver and knife Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens
A 29-year-old French citizen of Algerian origin killed five civilians and wounded 11 others at a Christmas market in Strasbourg, France, before being killed in a shootout with police two days later.
24 May 2019 Rhône-Alpes Lyon 0 13 Improvised Explosive Device -- Private Citizens
A packet bomb explodes in front of a bakery in the pedestrian zone of Lyon. 13 people were wounded. A 24-year old male student from Algeria was arrested 3 days later. No group has claimed responsibility of the attack yet.

List of international terrorist incidents with significant French casualties[edit]

Foiled attacks[edit]

Towards the end of March 2016, police arrested a Paris citizen named Reda Kriket, and upon searching his apartment, they discovered five assault rifles, a number of handguns, and an amount of chemical substances that could be used to make explosives.[79]

Kriket was convicted in absentia by a Belgian court in a 2015 case involving Abdelhamid Abaaoud.[80]

Terrorism and mental illness[edit]

Under French law, any grave act of violence committed with intent “to seriously disturb public order through intimidation or terror,” is an act of terrorism; the public prosecutor decides which cases will be investigated as acts of terrorism.[81] Writing in Le Figaro attorney Gilles-William Goldnadel characterized the public prosecutor's decision not to investigate a crime, Murder of Sarah Halimi as terrorism, as "purely and simply ideological," asserting that the killer, who recited verses form the Quran before breaking into an apartment and murdering a Jewish woman, "had the profile of a radical Islamist, and yet somehow there is a resistance to call a spade a spade.”[81] Sarah Halimi's murder was heard by neighbors in her building and in neighboring building over an extended period of time. Neighbors also saw the killer throw his victim from the balcony of her home, and heard the killer praying aloud after the murder.[82][81] In September, 2017, the prosecutor officially characterized the murder as an "antisemitic" hate-crime crime.[83]

According to Jean-Charles Brisard, director of the French think tank Center for the Analysis of Terrorism, “It needs to have a certain degree of willingness to disrupt the French public order.”[clarification needed][81] [84]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dec 12, Jonathon Gatehouse · CBC News · Posted:; December 12, 2018 2:23 PM ET | Last Updated:. "By the numbers: France's battle against terror | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  2. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2017). Global Terrorism Database (globalterrorismdb_0617dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
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  14. ^ Treuthardt, Paul (18 July 1980). "Bakhtiar Escapes Assassination Attempt In Paris". The Lewiston Journal. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
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  17. ^ "Bomb Kills 3 in Antwerp". The Reading Eagle. 1981-10-20.
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  23. ^ 60 held 15 hours in a siege in Paris. The New York Times. September 25, 1981, Friday, Late City Final Edition
  24. ^ "Blast on French Train Is Attributed to a Bomb". The New York Times. 31 October 1982. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
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  33. ^ The New York Times. Death Toll Rises to 7 After Terror at Orly. July 22, 1983
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