Terrorism in the European Union
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The acts of terrorism that have either failed, been foiled or been successfully executed within the European Union (EU) have in large part been categorised by the European Police Office (Europol) as either pertaining to religious issues, right wing, left wing or separatist movements. The field is subject to considerable cooperation among national authorities.
European cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism include Europol, an EU agency, and Interpol. TREVI was an early example of EU cooperation in this field. In July 2014 the Government of France introduced legislation to combat terrorism by toughening surveillance, making it lawful to detain individuals linked to radical so called "Islamist" groups, and to block Internet sites that incite anti-Semitism, terrorism and hatred. The country's Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve revealed 600 French nationals were in Syria at the time or planned to go there. The bill includes a ban on foreign travel for up to six months for radicalized individuals, provides for the confiscation and invalidation of passports, and prohibits airlines from allowing such individuals to fly.
Since the November 2015 Paris attacks, security in the European Union has tightened significantly.
Europol provides annual statistics regarding terrorist attacks and terrorist related arrests in the EU, with data available from 2006. According to these data the vast majority of terrorist attacks in the EU are affiliated with Ethno-national or separatist motives, followed by left-wing attacks and those that are registered as 'unspecified'. A significant number of terror attacks are motivated religiously or associated with right-wing groups. However, among those arrested on terror-related crimes most are religiously motivated and form the largest group, followed by separatist related terror suspects. The relatively high incidence of arrests related to religiously motivated terrorism (in comparison to the number of such attacks) is at least in part related to recruitment networks for violent action outside the EU and to the dissemination of terrorist propaganda. Europol's reports do not provide a breakdown of the proportion of attacks that have been completed or the type of damage inflicted. In January 2015, The Economist compiled data regarding deaths due to political violence in western Europe since 2001. Terrorism in the EU seems to have a trend toward antisemetism caused by Muslim extremism with many of the attacks directed at Israeli targets. The European Jewish population is well assimilated and often physically indistinguishable from the general population so religious institutions and schools are often targeted. A significant death toll is caused by Islamist terrorism, especially when compared with the overall proportion of religiously motivated attacks reported by Europol.
List of incidents
This section shows incomplete lists of attacks carried out on land and in aviation, respectively, within the union and its preceding communities.
- Key: Motivation
|15 September 1958||Paris||France||1||3||Small arms fire||'FLN (Algerian nationalists)'|
|12 December 1969||Milan||Italy||17||88||Improvised explosive device||Ordine Nuovo||
Private citizens & property: A bomb detonates at 16:37 outside the National Agrarian Bank in Piazza Fontana, about 200 metres from the Duomo di Milano in Milan, killing 17 people and wounding 88. The same afternoon, three more bombs were detonated in Rome and Milan, and another was found undetonated.
Main article: Piazza Fontana bombing
|22 July 1970||Gioia Tauro||Italy||6||72||Improvised explosive device||Ordine Nuovo|
|31 May 1972||Sagrado||Italy||3||2||Improvised explosive device||'Vincenzo Vinciguerra & Charles Cicuttini'||
Government institutions attempting to frame the Red Brigades: A police patrol discovers a suspicious white Fiat 500 parked in the village of Peteano. The policemen attempt to open the hood of the vehicle, causing the explosives inside to detonate. Three police—identified as Antonio Ferrero, Franco-Donato Poveromo and Dongiovanni—are killed, while two others are seriously injured.
|5 September 1972 - 6 September 1972||Munich||Germany||17||-||Hostage taking||Black September|
|17 May 1973||Milan||Italy||4||45||Improvised explosive device||'Gianfranco Bertoli'
(alleged Gladio agent)
Government institutions: Gianfranco Bertoli throws a bomb into the courtyard of the police station in Milan in Via Fatebenefratelli during the unveiling of a plaque in memory of the commissioner Luigi Calabresi, killing four passers-by and injuring 45 others.
|14 December 1973||Marseille||France||4||20||Improvised Explosive Device||Charles
|17 December 1973||Rome||Italy||31||21||Grenade & Small arms fire||-||
Airports & airlines: Five terrorists pull weapons from their luggage in the terminal lounge at the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, killing two persons within the terminal. The terrorists then attack Pan Am Flight 110, a Boeing 707 bound for Beirut and Tehran, destroying it with incendiary grenades and killing 29 persons, including 4 senior Moroccan officials and 14 American employees of ARAMCO.
Main article: 1973 Rome airport attacks and hijacking
|28 May 1974||Brescia||Italy||8||103||Improvised explosive device||-|
|4 August 1974||20px San Benedetto Val di Sambro||Italy||12||48||Improvised explosive device||Ordine Nero|
|15 September 1974||Paris||France||2||34||Improvised Explosive Device||PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)|
|20 November 1974||Savona||Italy||1||13||Improvised explosive device||-|
|24 October 1975||Paris||France||2||-||Grenade & Small arms fire||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|2 December 1975||Wijster||Netherlands||3||-||Hostage taking
|South Moluccan nationalists||
Transport: Seven South Moluccan terrorists seize a train with about 50 passengers on board in open countryside near the village of Wijster, halfway between Hoogeveen and Beilen. The hijacking lasted for 12 days and three hostages were killed. The dead hostages were identified as the driver Hans Braam, and passengers Bert Bierling and Leo Bulter.
Main article: 1975 Dutch train hostage crisis
|4 December 1975||Amsterdam||Netherlands||1||-||Hostage taking
|South Moluccan nationalists||
Diplomatic (Indonesian): Seven gunmen enter the consulate of the Republic of Indonesia and take 41 hostages, including 16 children from a school within the same building. One hostage attempts to flee the captors and falls several stories, causing serious injuries that he would succumb to 5 days later. The school children were quickly freed, and the remaining 25 adult hostages were released peacefully on 19 December.
|16 December 1976||Brescia||Italy||1||11||Improvised explosive device||-||
Private citizens & property: A bomb explodes at approximately 19:00 CET in the central area of the city, Piazzale Arnaldo, injuring 11 people and killing the German teacher Gritti Daller. The device was composed of a pressure cooker, padded with 800 grams of blasting explosive and ammonium nitrate, which could cause injuries up to 50 meters away.
|23 May 1977||Glimmen||Netherlands||8||6||Hostage taking
|South Moluccan nationalists||
Transport: Nine armed Moluccans pull the emergency brake on a train at around 9:00 and take about 50 passengers hostage. The hijacking lasted for 482 hours (20 days) before marines of the special anti-terrorist unit Bijzondere Bijstands Eenheid (BBE) started shooting at the train; an estimated 15000 bullets were shot at the train. One of the hostages and six hijackers were killed in the raid.
Main article: 1977 Dutch train hostage crisis
|9 June 1977||Rome||Italy||1||Small arms fire||'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'|
|13 March 1978||Assen||Netherlands||2||1||Hostage taking
|South Moluccan nationalists|
|16 March 1978||Rome||Italy||6||-||Grenade & Small arms fire -- Hostage taking
Political: The car of Aldo Moro, former prime minister and then president of Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana), is assaulted by a group of up to 8 members of Red Brigades (Italian: Brigate Rosse, or BR) terrorists in Via Fani in Rome.
Main article: Kidnapping of Aldo Moro
|20 May 1978||Paris||France||4||3||Grenade & Small arms fire||'PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)'|
|5 October 1978||Marseille||France||9||12||Small arms fire||
Private citizens & property: At about 21:00 (UTC+1), three hooded men armed with sub machine guns enter a quiet neighborhood bar and shoot 21 patrons, killing nine. The attack at Le Telephone bar was likely related to organized crime, although none of the attackers were identified.
|23 March 1979||The Hague||Netherlands||2||-||Small arms fire||'PIRA (Irish republicans)'|
|3 May 1979||Rome||Italy||2||1||Grenade & Small arms fire||'Red Brigades'||
Political: During the initial phase of the campaign for the general elections, a group at least 13 men of the Red Brigades attacked the headquarters of the Lazio Regional Committee for the Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana) in Piazza Nicosia. Brigadier Antonio Mea, died at the scene, while Agent of the State Police, Ollanu Peter, died on 10 May as a result of his injuries.
|12 October 1979||The Hague||Netherlands||1||-||Small arms fire||'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'|
|23 December 1979||Paris||France||1||-||Grenade & Small arms fire||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|10 March 1980||Rome||Italy||2||12||Improvised explosive device||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|28 January 1980||Paris||France||1||8||Improvised Explosive Device||
Diplomatic (Syrian): A bomb blast destroys the ground floor of the Syrian Embassy, killing one and injuring 8 others. Three of those injured were in a serious condition, including a pregnant woman. The attack happened 2 hours before the arrival of then Foreign Minister of Syria, Abdel Halim Khaddam, in France.
|17 July 1980||Paris||France||2||4||Small arms fire||'Guards of Islam
Government institutions (Shah of Iran): Former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar escapes an assassination attempt in which a French policeman and a woman neighbor are killed. Four other officers were wounded, one seriously. Allegedly posing as reporters, a trio of gunmen attempted to enter the exiled leader's apartment in Neuilly, a suburb of Paris. A police guard at an armored door to the residence resisted and a gunfight took place.
|27 July 1980||Antwerp||Belgium||1||20||Grenade||'Abu Nidal Organization'||
Religious figures & institutions: A Palestinian threw a hand grenade at a party of Jewish schoolchildren leaving for a vacation, killing one and wounding 20 others. The attacker, Said Al Nasr, was later arrested and sentenced to prison. In 1991, however, Nasr was 'traded' for the release of a Belgian-French family kidnapped in Libya—a demand of the Abu Nidal Organization.
|29 July 1980||Lyon||France||2||11||Small arms fire||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|2 August 1980||Bologna||Italy||85||200+||Improvised explosive device||Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari||
Private citizens & property: At 10:25, a time-bomb contained in an unattended suitcase detonated inside an air-conditioned waiting room, which, the month being August (and with air conditioning being uncommon in Italy at the time), was full of people. The explosion destroyed most of the main building and hit the Ancona–Chiasso train that was waiting at the first platform. The roof of the waiting room collapsed onto the passengers, which greatly increased the total number killed in the attack.
Main article: Bologna massacre
|3 October 1980||Paris||France||4||40||Improvised Explosive Device||-||
Religious figures & institutions: A bomb went off outside the Union Libérale Israélite de France synagogue on Rue Copernic. The bomb had been hidden in the saddlebags of a motorcycle parked outside the synagogue on the eve of Simchat Torah. The explosion happened shortly before the end of services, however one of those killed were members of the congregation. French police initially suspected that the attack had been carried out by neo-Nazis, but later attributed it to the PFLP or one of its offshoots.
Main article: 1980 Paris synagogue bombing
|25 November 1980||Paris||France||2||1||Small arms fire||-||
Private citizens & property: An unknown gunman murders the Jewish owners of a Paris travel agency that specialized in tours to Israel. The assailant walked into the office of IT-Tours and fired from an automatic pistol, fatally wounding Edwin Douek, the proprietor. His wife, Michele, was killed instantly and a clerk was slightly wounded. Edwin Douek died of his wounds later in a hospital.
|4 March 1981||Paris||France||2||1||Small arms fire||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|21 July 1981||Athens||Greece||2||-||Small arms fire||
Private citizens & property: Two gunmen open fire on the offices of the Angeli Koussis Shipping and Tourism Co., killing two employees of the firm.
|24 September 1981||Paris||France||1||2||Small arms fire -- Hostage taking
|'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'||
Diplomatic (Turkish): At about 11:30 CET, four members of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia took over the consulate killing a Turkish guard, wounding the Turkish Consul and taking 56 people hostage, including 8 women and a 3-year-old child.
Main article: 1981 Turkish consulate attack in Paris
|20 October 1981||Antwerp||Belgium||3||106||Truck bomb||-||
-- Religious figures & institutions: A truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp. Three people were killed and 106 wounded. The attack took place on a Tuesday morning in the diamond district of Antwerp, shortly before Simchat Torah religious services were to begin.
Main article: 1981 Antwerp bombing
|29 March 1982||Ambazac||France||5||27||Improvised Explosive Device||'Carlos the Jackal'||
Transport: A explosion on a Paris-Toulouse express train kills five passengers and injures 27 near Ambazac. The blast in the baggage compartment of the Capitole Express was caused by several pounds of extremely powerful explosives, intentionally planted. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal was tried for involvement in the attack and was subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
|22 April 1982||Paris||France||1||47||Car bomb||'Carlos the Jackal'||
Political: A powerful car bomb detonates in a crowded street in central Paris during the morning rush hour, killing a young woman and injuring 46 people. The apparent target are the offices of the Libyan newspaper Al-Watan al-Arabi. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal is tried for involvement in the attacks and is subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
|9 August 1982||Paris||France||6||22||Grenade & Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'||
Private Citizens & Property: Two assailants throw grenades into the dining room of the Chez Jo Goldenberg restaurant and fire machine guns at the patrons. Six people die, including two American tourists, and 22 others are wounded in the attack on the Jewish restaurant in Paris's Marais district.
Main article: Goldenberg restaurant attack
|21 August 1982||Paris||France||1||2||Improvised Explosive Device||-||
Diplomatic (United States): A bomb, that police said was intended to target a United States diplomat, explodes on a luxurious residential street on the Left Bank near the Eiffel Tower, killing a bomb disposal expert and wounding two others. The bomb had been planted under the vehicle of Roderick Grant, commercial counselor at the United States Embassy in Paris.
|9 October 1982||Rome||Italy||1||37||Grenade & Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'||
Religious figures & institutions: As the families of the local Jewish community began leaving the Great Synagogue of Rome, five Palestinian attackers walked to the rear the synagogue and threw at least three hand grenades at the crowd, and afterwards sprayed the crowd with submachine fire. A 2-year-old toddler, Stefano Gaj Taché, was killed in the attack after being hit by shrapnel.
Main article: 1982 Great Synagogue of Rome attack
|28 February 1983||Paris||France||1||4||Improvised Explosive Device||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'|
|15 July 1983||Paris||France||8||55||Improvised Explosive Device||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'||
Airports & airlines: A bomb explodes inside a suitcase at the Turkish Airlines check-in desk in the south terminal of the Orly airport, sending flames through the crowd of passengers checking in for a flight to Istanbul. The bomb consisted of a half kilo of Semtex explosive connected to three portable gas bottles, which caused extensive burns on the victims. Three people were killed immediately in the blast and another five died in hospital. Four of the victims were French, two were Turkish, one was American, and one was Swedish.
Main article: Orly Airport attack
|27 July 1983||Lisbon||Portugal||7||2||Small arms fire, Hostage taking & Improvised explosive device||'Armenian Revolutionary Army'|
|5 August 1983||Avignon||France||7||-||Small arms fire||
Private citizens & property: At approximately 4:00 (UTC+1), two gunmen shoot to death seven people at a Sofitel Hotel in a popular holiday town. The victims include the French consul-general for Saarbrücken in West Germany, Lucien Andre. Three other hotel guests and three employees of Sofitel were also killed after apparently being rounded up and ushered into a hotel room.
|1 October 1983||Marseille||France||1||26||Improvised Explosive Device||'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'||
Private Citizens & Property: One man is killed and 26 people injured when multiple bombs destroyed the American, Soviet and Algerian pavilions at an international trade fair in Marseille. An Armenian guerrilla group took responsibility for the attack in a telephone call to the police. However then Interior Minister, Gaston Defferre, later stated that the far rightist Charles Martel Group had also taken responsibility for the blast.
|7 November 1983||Athens||Greece||1||1||Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'|
|15 November 1983||Athens||Greece||2||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'|
|31 December 1983||Marseille||France||5||58+||Improvised Explosive Device||'Carlos the Jackal'||
Transport: A bomb explodes in the two first-class cars of an AGV locomotive as it heads north toward Paris, from the Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles. Although the train was traveling at about 100 miles an hour, it does not derail. Rescue workers find 2 passengers dead and 20 wounded, 5 of them seriously.
|7 February 1984||Paris||France||2||1||Small arms fire||'Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad'|
|8 February 1984||Paris||France||1||-||Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'|
|28 March 1984||Athens||Greece||2||-||Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'|
|25 January 1985||Paris||France||1||-||Small arms fire||'Action Directe'|
|21 February 1985||Athens||Greece||2||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'|
|23 February 1985||Paris||France||1||15||Improvised Explosive Device||-||
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes at an entrance to the Paris branch of the British-owned department store Marks & Spencer as it opened for business, killing a man and wounding 15 other people. Telephone calls claiming responsibility were received from the Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance, an outlawed group seeking the independence of France's Caribbean territories; and from Direct Action, a left-wing extremist group that had announced its fusion with the Red Army Faction terrorists of Germany.
|3 March 1985||Paris||France||4||-||Small arms fire||-|
|12 April 1985||Madrid||Spain||18||82||Improvised Explosive Device||Islamic Jihad|
|26 November 1985||Athens||Greece||1||14||Car bomb||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'||
Government institutions: A car-bomb explosion next to a Greek riot police bus in Kaisariani, Athens, kills police officer Ioannis Georgakopoulos and injures 14 more. The 17N proclamation states that the attack was made to avenge the death of 15-year-old Michalis Kaltezas during clashes at the day of the rally commemorating the public uprising that led to the fall of the Greek military junta.
|20 March 1986||Paris||France||2||28||Improvised Explosive Device||'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'||
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes in a packed mall of luxury boutiques on the Champs-Élysées, killing 2 people and wounding 28. A second bomb, found on a subway train, was defused by police demolition experts before it could explode. A terrorist organization calling itself the Committee of Solidarity With Arab and Middle Eastern Political Prisoners asserted responsibility for the attack in a handwritten letter sent to the Beirut office of a Western news agency.
|5 April 1986||Berlin||West Berlin||3||229||Improvised explosive device||Libyan agents|
|25 April 1986||Lyon||France||1||-||Small arms fire||-|
|9 September 1986||Paris||France||1||18||Improvised Explosive Device||'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'|
|15 September 1986||Paris||France||1||51||Improvised Explosive Device||'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'||
Government institutions: A bomb explodes inside the Parisian police headquarters, killing one person and wounding 51 others, two seriously.
|17 September 1986||Paris||France||5||50+||Improvised Explosive Device||'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'|
|18 October 1986||Toulon||France||4||-||Car bomb||-|
|17 November 1986||Paris||France||1||-||Small arms fire||'Action Directe'|
|13 July 1983||Brussels||Belgium||1||-||Small arms fire||-|
|29 July 1983||Palermo||Italy||4||-||Car bomb||'Corleonesi mafia clan'|
|17 September 1983||Nivelles||Belgium||3||1||Small arms fire||Brabant massacres †|
|1 December 1983||Anderlues||Belgium||2||-||Small arms fire||Brabant massacres †||
Private citizens & property: Three heavily armed men committed an armed robbery of a jewelry store, killing two.
|1 May 1985||Brussels||Belgium||2||13||Car bomb||'Communist Combatant Cells'|
|27 September 1985||Overijse, Braine-l'Alleud||Belgium||8||2||Small arms fire||Brabant massacres †|
|9 November 1985||Aalst||Belgium||8||15||Small arms fire||Brabant massacres †|
|6 December 1985||Liège||Belgium||1||2||Improvised Explosive Device||
Government institution: A bomb explosion at a Belgian court building killed a man and wounded two other people. Officials reported other bombings at NATO fuel installations in Belgium and France on the same day.
|22 July 1985||Copenhagen||Denmark||1||27||Improvised Explosive Device||(Palestinian nationalists)||
Private citizens & property: A bomb detonates at the offices of Northwest Orient Airlines, a United States carrier.
|23 December 1984||20px San Benedetto Val di Sambro||Italy||17||267||Improvised explosive device||Mafia, Camorra, neo-fascists||
Transport: A bomb rips through a train packed with vacationers who were headed for ski resorts in the north, inside one of Europe's longest railway tunnels, killing an estimated 17 people and wounding more than 100.
Main article: Train 904 bombing
|13 January 1985||Rome||Italy||1||-||Small arms fire||'-'|
|2 April 1985||Pizzolungo||Italy||3||8||Improvised explosive device||'Corleonesi mafia clan'||
Government institutions: A bomb explodes at 8:50 CET as Judge Carlo Palermo's drives by. The bombing kills Barbara Rizzo Asta and her 8-year-old twin sons, Salvatore and Giuseppe, who were driving to school in a car that was apparently between the bomb and Judge Palermo's car. Judge Palermo, his driver and two other people in his car are wounded, as are four people traveling in the police car behind them. Two of the policemen were seriously wounded. The explosion also damaged houses nearby and shattered windows for blocks.
Main article: Pizzolungo bombing
|25 September 1985||Rome||Italy||1||14||Improvised explosive device||'Abu Nidal Organization'|
|27 December 1985||Rome||Italy||19||99||Grenade & Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'||
Airports & airlines: At 08:15 GMT, four gunmen walk to the shared ticket counter for Israel's El Al Airlines and Trans World Airlines at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport outside Rome, and fire assault rifles and threw grenades at the crowds waiting to check in. They killed 16 and wounded 99 before three of the attackers were killed, while the remaining one, Mohammed Sharam, was wounded and captured by the Italian police.
Main article: Rome and Vienna airport attacks
|19 June 1987||Barcelona||Spain||21||45||Car bomb||'ETA'|
|14 April 1988||Naples||Italy||5||15||Improvised explosive device||'Japanese Red Army'||
Government institutions: Five people are killed, including an American sailor, and 15 others, including several American sailors, are wounded by abomb blast in front of a United Service Organizations recreational club for American troops in Naples. Four of those killed had been standing on the street or sidewalk and appeared to have died instantly. The explosion took place at 20:00, when the street was crowded with pedestrians.
|1 May 1988||Roermond & Nieuw-Bergen||Netherlands||3||3||Improvised Explosive Device -- Small arms fire||'PIRA (Irish republicans)'||
Government institutions (United Kingdom): Three British soldiers, all members of the Royal Air Force, were killed and four others were wounded when the IRA launched separate attacks in the Netherlands. In the first attack an IRA unit opened fire on a car carrying British soldiers near Roermond, killing one and injuring three. In the second attack, two British soldiers were killed when they triggered a booby trap bomb attached to their car in Nieuw-Bergen.
|28 June 1988||Athens||Greece||1||-||Car bomb||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'|
|11 July 1988||Athens||Greece||11||98||Car bomb -- Grenade & Small arms fire||'Abu Nidal Organization'||
Private citizens & property: Three gunmen board the ship, City of Poros, as part of its normal intake of passengers at Aegina, and wait until the ship had left the port and is three miles into its journey before they attack, at approximately 20:30 (UTC+02:00). Using concealed automatic weapons and hand grenades, they opened fire on their fellow passengers, who scattered in panic, many jumping overboard, which inadvertently caused many casualties among people who became caught in the ship's propellers. Nine tourists are killed and up to 100 others are wounded. On the day of the attack, there were 471 people on board the ship.
Earlier on the day of the attack, the pier that the City of Poros usually berthed at in Piraeus was rocked by the detonation of a large car bomb. The only fatalities were the two occupants of the vehicle.
Main article: City of Poros (ship)
|19 December 1988||Cagnes sur Mer||France||1||12||Improvised Explosive Device||
Private Citizens & Property: At 3:00 (UTC+1), two homemade bombs explode at a crowded hostel for mostly North African immigrant workers, killing a Romanian national and wounding at least 12 others. The first blast destroyed a number of vehicles on the street, and following this a second blast, under the main stairwell of the building, destroyed the corridor into which many residents had come to check the first blast.
|27 September 1989||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'|
|4 January 1991||20px San Lazzaro di Savena||Italy||3||2||Small arms fire|
|19 April 1991||Patras||Greece||7||7||Improvised Explosive Device||(Palestinian nationalists)||
Private citizens & property: A parcel bomb explodes in the offices of a courier service, killing seven people and wounding seven others in the western port city of Patras. Six of the dead were employees and the other a customer. The bombed building also housed offices of an American concern, United Parcel International, and is near the British Consulate.
|29 May 1991||Vic||Spain||9||44||car bomb||ETA||1991 Vic|
|16 March 1992||Copenhagen||Denmark||1||-||Improvised Explosive Device||Neo-nazism|
|23 May 1992||Capaci||Italy||5||-||Car bomb||'Corleonesi mafia clan'||
Government institutions: A half-ton of explosives is placed in a culvert under the motorway between Palermo International Airport and the city of Palermo. The device is detonated as the car of magistrate Giovanni Falcone is passing over the section of motorway, killing Falcone, his wife and 3 members of a police escort.
See also: Giovanni Falcone
|14 July 1992||Athens||Greece||1||5||Rocket propelled grenade fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'||
: The Greek Minister of Finance, Ioannis Paleokrassas, narrowly escapes assassination when terrorists launch a 3.5 inch RPG round at his armored limousine in broad daylight. The attack, near the center of Athens, kills a bystander and injures 5 other people, including Minister Paleokrassas. The Minister had been driving out of his office accompanied by his wife and daughter.
|19 July 1992||Palermo||Italy||6||10||Car bomb||-|
|27 May 1993||Florence||Italy||6||26||Improvised explosive device||'Corleonesi mafia clan'||
Private citizens & property: A Fiat Fiorino full of explosives, parked near the Torre dei Pulci on a street behind the Uffizi gallery, explodes killing 6 people and wounding 26, and destroying or damaging dozens of works in the gallery's art collection. Three works—one by the 17th-century Dutch painter Gerrit van Honthorst and two by the Italian Bartolomeo Manfredi—were destroyed. Thirty others, including "The Death of Adonis," by Sebastiano del Piombo, were badly damaged.
Main article: Via dei Georgofili Massacre
|28 July 1993||Milan||Italy||5||6+||Improvised explosive device||'Corleonesi mafia clan'||
Government institutions: A bomb explodes at about 23:15 CET, as firefighters arrived to put out a fire in a car near Piazza Cavour. Investigators said the fire apparently had been set to draw the firefighters to the explosion. Three firefighters, a traffic policeman and a passer-by are killed.
|24 January 1994||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'||
Government institutions: The former chairman of Greece's largest state-owned bank, Michalis Vranopoulos, is shot to death on an Athens street. He had been testifying in a judicial investigation into the bank's potentially fraudulent sale of a majority stake in a cement company.
|5 October 1994||Paris||France||4||6||Small arms fire -- Hostage taking||-||
Government institutions: Three police officers and a taxi driver are killed, and six other people—including two more officers—are wounded in separate shoot outs with two masked gunmen in Paris. The pair broke into a Paris police station to steal fire arms, then took a taxi driver hostage and forced him to drive them to the Bois de Vincennes park on the outskirts of Paris, where the final shoot out took place.
|2 February 1995||Oberwart||Austria||4||-||Improvised explosive device||'Bavarian Liberation Army' (Neo-nazism)|
|25 July 1995||Paris||France||8||150||Improvised explosive device||'GIA
Transport: Eight people are killed and 150 wounded in an explosion of a gas canister packed with nails and bolts on a Paris regional train at the Gare de Saint-Michel-Notre-Dame rail station. The bombing was claimed by the Armed Islamic Group as reprisals for French support for Algeria's army-backed government.
|3 December 1996||Paris||France||3||85||Improvised explosive device||'GIA
Transport: A blast at 18:03 CET rips open the doors of a train on the southbound track of the Port Royal station of the regional express network on the Left Bank, scattering the wounded—totaling over 85—over the platform. Three people succumb to injuries caused by the bomb made from a 28-pound camping gas canister filled with nails.
|28 May 1997||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'||
Business: Greek shipping tycoon, Constantine Peratikos, is shot to death in broad daylight on an Athens street. The group issued a manifesto claiming that Peratikos was targeted because he allegedly misused a large government bailout and threatened to close down his shipyard, which would have forced the layoff of 2,000 employees.
|20 May 1999||Rome||Italy||1||-||Small arms fire||New Red Brigades|
|28 May 1999||Malexander||Sweden||2||1||Small arms fire||Neo-nazism||
Malexander murders Neo-Nazis Tony Olsson, Jackie Arklöv and Adreas Axelsson robbed a bank "to finance the Neo-nazi revolution" and encountered police officers Olov Burén and Robert Karlström on a small road outside the village Malexander. The two police officers were injuered in the ensuing firefight and were executed point blank by Jackie Arklöv.
|28 June 1999||Stockholm||Sweden||-||2||Car Bomb||Neo-nazism||
A journalist examining the connections about funding of right wing extremism by white power music-labels for Swedish tabloid Aftonbladet had a bomb placed under his car which detonated when him and his son had entered the car.
The son was lightly injured and the journalist was handicapped for life.
|17 November 1999||Athens||Greece||1||-||Improvised Explosive Device||'Revolutionary Nuclei'|
|19 April 2000||Plévin||France||1||-||Improvised explosive device||-|
|8 June 2000||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'17N (Marxist guerrillas)'||
Diplomatic (British): At approximately 7:48 (UTC+2) two gunmen on a motorcycle shoot Brig. Stephen Saunders, the military attache at the British Embassy in Athens, while he was driving alone on a busy suburban street to work at the British Embassy. The gunmen escaped in traffic. Brigadier Saunders died at a hospital.
|19 March 2002||20px Bologna||Italy||1||-||Small arms fire||New Red Brigades|
|11 October 2002||Vantaa||Finland||7||166||Suicide bombing||Petri Gerdt||
Private citizens & property: A 19-year-old chemistry student detonates a bomb in the Myyrmanni shopping center. The bombing, which took place in Vantaa late on a Friday afternoon, is caused by a homemade explosive composed of metal shards, shotgun pellets and ammonium nitrate.
Main article: Myyrmanni bombing
|3 March 2003||Castiglion Fiorentino||Italy||2||-||Small arms fire||New Red Brigades||
Two Red Brigades followers, Mario Galesi and Nadia Desdemona Lioce, started a firefight with a police patrol on a train at Castiglion Fiorentino station, near Arezzo. Galesi and Emanuele Petri (one of the policemen) were killed, Lioce was arrested.
|11 March 2004||Madrid||Spain||191||2050||Improvised Explosive Device||'Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade part of Al-Qaida'||
Transport: Madrid. 191 people were killed and over 600 others were wounded when ten bombs detonated in Madrid on the train line. At least one of these bombs detonated at El Pozo, a small commuter station in Madrid. It is impossible to disaggregate the casualties from any of the blast sites because of poor reporting. The bombs were detonated by cell phones and were left in backpacks. At first the Spanish government blamed the separatist group, the Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA) for the attacks, but later the Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade claimed responsibility on behalf of Al Qaeda. By the end of March 2004, authorities had arrested over twenty people in connection with the attack. The suspects hailed from Morocco, Pakistan, Syria and Spain. In their claim of responsibility, the Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade says that Spain was targeted because of their cooperation with the US in the war in Iraq. In response to the attacks, the ruling Spanish party was defeated in elections mainly because they lied about those attacks (which took place four days after the incident) and the new Prime Minister vowed to remove Spanish troops from combat in Iraq. On April 3, as the police were closing in on four suspects, including Serjame ben Abdelmajid Fakhet, who they believe was the ringleader in this incident, the suspects blew themselves up in their apartment in Madrid. This blast also killed a police officer. One suspect managed to escape the apartment explosion, as he was taking out the trash at the time of the raid. Abdelmajid Bouchar escaped to Serbia, where he hid out until he was captured in August 2005.
Main article: 2004 Madrid train bombings
|8 October 2004||Paris||France||-||10||Improvised Explosive Device||Armed French Islamic Front||
Bomb attack against the Indonesian Embassy in Paris by Algerian Islamist militants.
|7 July 2005||London||United Kingdom||56||700||Suicide bombing||'Al-Qaeda'|
|6 December 2007||Paris||France||1||4||Improvised explosive device||-||
Private Citizens & Property: A parcel bomb explodes at a legal office in central Paris killing a secretary and seriously injuring a lawyer. Several other people were lightly hurt in the unclaimed blast shortly before 13:00 CET on the fourth floor of a building in the capital's fashionable eighth arrondissement or district.
|30 April 2009||Apeldoorn||Netherlands||7||12||Vehicle||'Karst Tates'||
Government institutions: A man aims his car into a crowd of civilians attending a festival for the royal family; seven people are killed—including the driver—and 12 people are injured. The target of the attack is a bus carrying the Queen and her family, but the car is stopped several metres from the bus. The driver is identified as Karst Tates, 38, and is said to have acted alone. The motive for the attack is unknown.
|17 June 2009||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'Sect of Revolutionaries'||
Government institutions: Several gunmen shoot a 41-year-old anti-terrorism officer several times at close range. The officer died in his car as the assailants fled on motorcycles in the densely populated Patissia area of Athens.
|28 March 2010||Athens||Greece||1||2||Improvised Explosive Device||
Private citizens & property: A bomb explodes outside an institute for training public officials in the Patissia area of the Greek capital Athens, killing a 15-year-old boy. The boy's 10-year-old sister was seriously injured and their mother, 45, was slightly hurt. Police said the family, all Afghans, were apparently just walking past the building when the bomb, contained in a bag, exploded.
|24 June 2010||Athens||Greece||1||-||Improvised Explosive Device||
Government institutions: A powerful bomb sent in a package to the minister of public order explodes near his office, killing his 52-year-old assistant, who opened the package. The minister, Michalis Chrysochoidis, who is in charge of the police and counter-terrorism, was not in his office at the time.
|19 July 2010||Athens||Greece||1||-||Small arms fire||'Sect of Revolutionaries'||
Journalists & Media: At 5:25 (UTC+2), in the Llioupoli area of Athens unidentified gunmen armed with nine millimeter pistols shot and killed an investigative journalist, Sokratis Giolias, outside his residence. He was shot 15 times by three gunmen dressed as security personnel reporting someone had stolen his car. The authorities said the 37-year-old Giolias was killed by at least three assailants firing a pair of nine-millimetre handguns—the same weapons which the Revolutionary Sect group had used to kill an anti-terrorist officer in 2009.
Main article: Assassination of Sokratis Giolias
|11 December 2010||Stockholm||Sweden||1||2||Suicide bombing||Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly||
Private citizens & property: At around 17:00 (CET), a suicide bomber detonates an improvised explosive device in one of two related attacks in the Drottningatan area of Stockholm. The resulting blast kills the bomber and wounds two civilians. Shortly before a car bomb exploded with no casualties.
Main article: 2010 Stockholm bombings
|2 March 2011||Frankfurt||Germany||2||2||Small arms fire||Arid Uka||
The 2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting occurred on 2 March 2011 at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. The shooter, Arid Uka, was arrested and charged with killing two United States airmen and seriously wounding two others. He was sentenced to life in prison on 10 February 2012.
Main article: [[:2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting]]
|13 December 2011||Liège||Belgium||7||125||Small arms fire, Grenade||Nordine Amrani||
General Public: On 13 December 2011, a murder–suicide attack took place in the city of Liège in the Wallonia region of Belgium. The attacker, 33-year-old Nordine Amrani, threw grenades and fired an FN FAL rifle at civilians on Saint-Lambert Square. The attack killed six and left 125 others injured; seven of whom suffered serious injuries. Amrani then committed suicide by shooting himself with a revolver. Earlier that day, he had also murdered a woman in his house. He had a grudge against society.
Main article: 2011 Liège attack
|15 March 2012||Montauban||France||2||1||Small arms fire||Mohammed Merah||
Government institutions: At around 14:00 CET, two uniformed soldiers were killed and a third was seriously injured outside a shopping centre in Montauban, while withdrawing money from a cash machine. They were all from the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment (17e Régiment du génie parachutiste), whose barracks are close to the town. Corporal Abel Chennouf, 24, and Private Mohamed Legouad, 23, both of North African origin, were killed. Corporal Loïc Liber, 28, from Guadeloupe, was left in a coma.
Main article: Toulouse and Montauban shootings
|19 March 2012||Toulouse||France||4||1||Small arms fire||Mohammed Merah||
Religious figures & institutions: At about 8:00 CET, a man drove up to the Ozar Hatorah school on a motorcycle. He dismounted, and immediately opened fire toward the schoolyard. Four people died: 30-year-old Rabbi Jonathan (Yonatan) Sandler; his two oldest (out of three) children Aryeh, aged 6, and Gabriel, aged 3; and the head teacher's daughter, eight-year-old Miriam Monsonego, the girl shot in the head. Bryan Bijaoui, a 17-year-old Jewish boy, was gravely injured.
Main article: Toulouse and Montauban shootings
|19 May 2012||Brindisi||Italy||1||5||Improvised explosive device||Giovanni Vantaggiato|
|18 July 2012||Burgas||Bulgaria||7||30||Suicide bombing||Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad||
Transport: A suicide bomber detonates an explosive device on a bus carrying 42 Israeli tourists nearby Burgas Airport. The explosion killed the Bulgarian bus driver and five Israelis. Investigators found forged documents, used by the perpetrators of the attack, that had been obtained by a man with ties to Hezbollah.
Main article: 2012 Burgas bus bombing
|22 May 2013||London||United Kingdom||1||-||Small arms fire||Islamists||
A British soldier, Lee Rigby, was murdered in an attack in Woolwich by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale, two Islamist extremists armed with a handgun and a number of bladed implements. Both men were sentenced to life imprisonment, with Adebolajo given a whole life order and Adebowale ordered to serve at least 45 years.
Main article: Murder of Lee Rigby
|24 May 2014||Brussels||Belgium||4||-||Small arms fire||Islamic State||
-- Religious figures & institutions: On 24 May 2014, a gunman opened fire at the Jewish Museum of Belgium in Brussels, Belgium, killing four people. Three died at the scene; a fourth was taken to hospital and died on 6 June. The attack is being investigated as terrorism by Belgian authorities.
Main article: Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
|20 December 2014||Tours||France||-||3||Stabbing||Bertrand Nzohabonayo||
A man yelling "Allahu Akbar" attacked a police office in Joué-lès-Tours with a knife. He was killed and 3 police officers were injured.
Main article: 2014 Tours police station stabbing
|7 January 2015||Paris||France||20||22||Small arms fire||Al-Qaeda in Yemen||
-- Religious figures & institutions: On the morning of 7 January 2015, at about 11:30 local time, two Islamist terrorists armed with assault rifles and other weapons forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. They fired up to 50 shots, initially killing 11 people and injuring 11 others, and shouted "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "God is [the] greatest") during their attack.
Main article: Charlie Hebdo shooting
|14 February 2015||Copenhagen||Denmark||3||5||Small arms fire||Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein||
-- Religious figures & institutions: A shooting spree occurred in Copenhagen, Denmark, starting on the afternoon of 14 February 2015.
The first shooting took place at 15:33 CET at the Krudttønden cultural centre during a public seminar called "Art, Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression". The event was to commemorate the 26th anniversary of the fatwa issued by Ayatollah Khomeini calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie. A gunman killed one civilian, and wounded three police officers. Swedish artist Lars Vilks was in attendance, and it is thought Vilks was the main target as a result of the controversy over his drawings of Muhammad. The French ambassador to Denmark, François Zimeray, was also in attendance.
Main article: 2015 Copenhagen shootings
|26 June 2015||Saint-Quentin-Fallavier||France||1||2||Beheading||Yassine Salhi||
Yassine Salhi, a French Muslim of North African descent, decapitated his employer Hervé Cornara and drove his van into gas cylinders at a gas factory in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier near Lyon, France, which caused an explosion that injured two other people.
Main article: Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack
|21 August 2015||Pas-de-Calais||France||-||4||Small arms fire, Stabbing||Ayoub El Khazzani||
On 21 August 2015, a shooting and stabbing took place on board a Thalys train in France on its way from Amsterdam to Paris. The train had just crossed the border from Belgium into France and was traveling in Oignies (department of Pas-de-Calais) when the perpetrator opened fire in a train carriage before being subdued by passengers, one of whom he stabbed.
Main article: 2015 Thalys train attack
|17 September 2015||Berlin||Germany||-||1||Stabbing||Rafik Mohamad Yousef||
Rafik Yousef was tried and convicted for plotting to assassinate the Prime Minister of Iraq during his visit to Germany in 2004, attacked a German police officer with a knife in Berlin and was shoot by the police.
Main article: Rafik Yousef
|13 November 2015||Paris||France||137||368||Small arms fire, Explosives||Islamic State|
|5 December 2015||London||United Kingdom||-||3||Stabbing||Muhaydin Mire||
3 left injured after stabbing in London Underground.
At approximately 7 p.m. in the Leytonstone underground tube station, a man shouted "this is for Syria", before proceeding to stab and injure three people, one seriously. By 7.15 p.m. the man had been tasered and restrained by officers, and was taken into custody. The station remained closed until 3 a.m. the following morning. The Metropolitan Police formally announced the attack was being treated as a terrorist attack, which caused a stir among the public following last month's attacks in Paris.
|1 January 2016||Valence, Drôme||France||-||2||Vehicle||Islamist|
|7 January 2016||Paris||France||-||1||Stabbing||Tarek Belgacem||
A jihadist wearing a fake explosive belt attacked police officers in the Goutte d'Or district in Paris with a meat cleaver, while shouting "Allahu Akbar". He was shot dead and one policeman receiving injuries. The ISIS flag and a clearly written claim in Arabic, were found on the attacker.
Main article: January 2016 Paris police station attack
|26 February 2016||Hanover||Germany||-||1||Stabbing||Safia S.||
A 15-year-old girl stabbed and severly injured a policemen after she was stopped for a search. The earlier tried to join the Islamic State but was stopped by her mother. 
|22 March 2016||Brussels, Zaventem||Belgium||35||330||Suicide bombing||Islamic State||
At approximately 8 a.m. in the Zaventem two explosions went off in the departures hall of Brussels Airport. One of these was close to the American Airlines counter. The explosions left 13 dead and 81 wounded. At 9 a.m., another explosion went off at the Maelbeek metro station, killing at least another 20 and leaving 190 more victims wounded. Brussels went to complete lockdown and the highest possible state of terror threat alert.
Main article: 2016 Brussels bombings
|16 April 2016||Essen||Germany||-||3||Explosives||Islamists|
|13 June 2016||Paris||France||2||-||Stabbing||Larossi Abballa||
At approximately 8.30 p.m. Larossi Abballa stabbed a 42-year-old police commander to death. Larossi then held the commander's wife and the couple’s three-year-old son hostage and killed the wife later. Larossi was killed when the police stormed the house.
Main article: 2016 Magnanville stabbing
|14 July 2016||Nice||France||85||308||Vehicle||Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel|
|18 July 2016||Würzburg||Germany||-||5||Stabbing||Riaz Khan Ahmadzai||
A 17-year-old Afghan refugee injured several people in a regional train with an ax.
Main article: 2016 Würzburg train attack
|24 July 2016||Ansbach||Germany||-||15||Suicide bombing||Mohammad Daleel|
|26 July 2016||Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray||France||3||3||Beheading, Stabbing||Islamic State||
Two Islamic State terrorists storm a Normandy Catholic church during a Tuesday morning Mass, slitting the throat of an 86 year-old priest and taking several churchgoers hostage. French Police conducted a counter terrorism operation on the church, killing both of the terrorists, and rescuing the hostages.
Main article: 2016 Normandy church attack
- Key: Motivation
- Islamic terrorism in Europe
- Left-wing terrorism in Europe
- Terrorism in the United States
- List of terrorist incidents in Denmark
- List of terrorist incidents in France
- List of terrorist incidents in Great Britain
- List of non-state terrorist incidents
- List of Islamist terrorist attacks
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- "Bomb kills 1 in Belgium". Star-News. 1 May 1985. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
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