Terrorism in the United Kingdom
Terrorism in the United Kingdom, according to the Home Office, poses a significant threat to the state. 1834 people were arrested in the United Kingdom from September 2001 to December 2009 in connection with terrorism, of which 422 were charged with terrorism-related offences and 237 were convicted.
The British government has designated 58 organisations as terrorist and banned them. 44 of these organisations were banned under the Terrorism Act of 2000. Two of these were also banned under the Terrorism Act of 2006 for "glorifying terrorism." Other than the far-right neo-Nazi National Action, the other fourteen organisations operate (for the most part) in Northern Ireland, and were banned under previous legislation.
International organisations the government has designated as terrorist and banned are:
- Revolutionary Organization 17 November
- Abdallah Azzam Brigades, including the Ziyad al Jarrah Battalions (AAB)
- Abu Nidal Organisation
- Abu Sayyaf
- Aden-Abyan Islamic Army
- Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
- Al Ghurabaa
- Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya
- Al Murabitun
- Al Qaeda
- Animal Liberation Front
- Ansar al-Islam
- Ansar Al Sharia Tunisia
- Ansar Bayt al Madis
- Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan (Vanguard for the protection of Muslims in Black Africa)
- Armed Islamic Group also known as GIA
- Asbat al-Ansar
- Babbar Khalsa
- Balochistan Liberation Army
- Egyptian Islamic Jihad
- Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen
- Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami
- Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin
- Imarat Kavkaz (IK) (also known as the Caucasus Emirate)
- Indian Mujahideen
- International Sikh Youth Federation
- Islamic Jihad Union
- Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
- Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
- Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna (formerly Jaish Ansar al-Sunna)
- Jamaat Ul-Furquan
- Jemaah Islamiyah
- Kateeba al Kawthar
- Khuddam ul-Islam
- Kurdistan Freedom Hawks
- Kurdistan Workers Party
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
- Libyan Islamic Fighting Group
- Minbar Ansar Deen
- Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group
- Palestinian Islamic Jihad
- People's Mujahedin of Iran
- Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine General Command
- Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front
- Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat
- The Saved Sect
- Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (also known as Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat)
- Tehrik Nefaz-e Shari'at Muhammadi
- Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan
- Teyre Azadiye Kurdistan
- Turkiye Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi
Irish Republican organisations
Irish organisations the British government has banned are:
- Continuity Irish Republican Army
- Cumann na mBan
- Fianna Éireann
- Irish National Liberation Army
- Irish People's Liberation Organisation
- Irish Republican Army
- Saor Éire
- Ulster Defence Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters
- Ulster Volunteer Force
- Loyalist Volunteer Force
- Orange Volunteers
- Red Hand Commandos
- Red Hand Defenders
Other British organisations
There have been many historically significant terrorist incidents within the United Kingdom, from the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 to the various attacks related to The Troubles of Northern Ireland. In recent history, the UK security services have focused on the threat posed by radical Islamic militant organisations within the UK, such as the cell responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings.
Profile of a British terrorist
A "restricted" 12 June 2008 MI5 analysis of "several hundred individuals known to be involved in, or closely associated with, violent extremist activity" concludes that British terrorists "are a diverse collection of individuals, fitting no single demographic profile, nor do they all follow a typical pathway to violent extremism".
Around half were born in the United Kingdom, the majority are British nationals and the remainder, with a few exceptions, are in the country legally. Most UK terrorists are male, but women are sometimes aware of their husbands', brothers' or sons' activities. While the majority are in their early to mid-20s when they become radicalised, a small but not insignificant minority first become involved in violent extremism at over the age of 30. Those over 30 are just as likely to have a wife and children as to be loners with no ties. MI5 says this challenges the idea that terrorists are young Muslim men driven by sexual frustration and lured to "martyrdom" by the promise of beautiful virgins waiting for them in paradise.
Those involved in British terrorism have educational achievement ranging from total lack of qualifications to degree-level education. However, they are almost all employed in low-grade jobs.
Far from being religious zealots, a large number of those involved in terrorism do not practise their faith regularly. Many lack religious literacy and could actually be regarded as religious novices. Very few have been brought up in strongly religious households, and there is a higher than average proportion of converts. Some are involved in drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes. The report claims a well-established religious identity actually protects against violent radicalisation, while the influence of clerics in radicalising British terrorists has reduced in recent years.
The Sun newspaper obtained a leaked memo from the British government, originally dating 17 January, in late January 2007 detailing a proposed plan to place X-ray cameras in lampposts to see through clothes and identify terrorists. The memo says Home Office officials believe "detection of weapons and explosives will become easier... The social acceptability of routine intrusive detection measures and the operational response required in the event of an alarm are likely to be limiting factors." The Home Office did not comment on the memo. On 29 August 2014, the British government raised the terrorist threat level to "severe," as Prime Minister David Cameron and Home Secretary Theresa May warned a terrorist attack was "highly likely," following the coming to prominence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. May admitted that although the threat level had been hiked to the second-highest possible, there was no intelligence warning of an imminent attack. Despite, this Cameron said, the nation was facing a "deeper and greater threat to our security than we have known before."
- Right-wing terrorism in the United Kingdom
- Terrorism in the European Union
- Prevention of Terrorism Act (Northern Ireland)
- Crime in the United Kingdom
- The Troubles
- Islamic terrorism in the United Kingdom
- State-sponsored terrorism#United Kingdom
- "List of proscribed terrorist groups" (PDF). Gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- Alan Travis. "No terror arrests in 100,000 police counter-terror searches, figures show | Law". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- Travis, Alan (2008-08-21). "MI5 report challenges views on terrorism in Britain Exclusive: Sophisticated analysis says there is no single pathway to violent extremism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
- "Home Office considers x-ray monitors on lampposts to fight terrorism - 29/Jan/2007". ComputerWeekly.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2008.
- "CAIN: Issues: Collusion - Chronology of Events in the Stevens Inquiries". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- Dr Martin Melaugh. "CAIN: Issues: Violence: Stevens Enquiry (3) Overview and Recommendations, 17 April 2003". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- "Report of the Independent International Panel on Alleged Collusion in Sectarian Killings in Northern Ireland" (PDF). Patfinucanecentre.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- "Village - Politics, Media and Current Affairs in Ireland - 'I'm lucky to be above the ground'". Web.archive.org. 2006-11-16. Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2016-01-28.