Tesla's headquarters in Palo Alto
|Tesla Motors, Inc. (2003–2017)|
|Founded||July 1, 2003|
Palo Alto, California,
|101,312 vehicles (2017)|
|Revenue||US$11.759 billion (2017)|
|US$-1.632 billion (2017)|
|US$−1.961 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$28.655 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$4.237 billion (2017)|
|Owner||Elon Musk (21.9%)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors, Inc.) is an American automotive and energy company based in Palo Alto, California. The company specializes in electric car manufacturing and, through its SolarCity subsidiary, solar panel manufacturing. It operates multiple production and assembly plants, notably Gigafactory 1 near Reno, Nevada, and its main vehicle manufacturing facility at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. As of June 2018, Tesla sells the Model S, Model X and Model 3 vehicles, Powerwall and Powerpack batteries, solar panels, solar roof tiles, and some related products.
Tesla was founded in July 2003, by engineers Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning, under the name Tesla Motors. The company's name was derived from physicist Nikola Tesla. In early Series A funding, Tesla Motors was joined by Elon Musk, J. B. Straubel and Ian Wright, all of whom are retrospectively allowed to call themselves co-founders of the company. Musk, who formerly served as chairman and is the current chief executive officer, said that he envisioned Tesla Motors as a technology company and independent automaker, aimed at eventually offering electric cars at prices affordable to the average consumer. Tesla Motors shortened its name to Tesla in February 2017.
- 1 History
- 2 Strategy
- 3 Sales
- 4 Technology
- 5 Vehicle models
- 6 Charging
- 7 Facilities
- 8 Partners
- 9 Lawsuits and controversies
- 9.1 Fisker Automotive
- 9.2 Founder dispute
- 9.3 Ecotricity
- 9.4 Top Gear review
- 9.5 New York Times test drive
- 9.6 Singapore tax surcharge
- 9.7 SEC investigations
- 9.8 SolarCity acquisition shareholder litigation
- 9.9 Autopilot 2 class-action lawsuit
- 9.10 Labor practices
- 9.11 Ludicrous limited power output
- 9.12 Software copyright infringement
- 9.13 Lawsuit alleging sabotage
- 9.14 Musk Twitter investigation
- 10 Product issues
- 11 Lobbying activity
- 12 Board of directors
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Original roadster and private funding
Tesla Motors was founded by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning on July 1, 2003. In the early days of the company, the two financed its operations before calling for outside funding. Following an early Series A round of funding, the company's board was joined by investors Elon Musk, J. B. Straubel and Ian Wright. A September 2009 lawsuit settling agreement between Eberhard and Tesla Motors allows all five to call themselves founders. The founders were influenced to start the company after GM recalled and destroyed its EV1 electric cars in 2003.
Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning conceived and founded the company, also funding the company until the Series A round. Musk led the Series A in February 2004, joining the board of directors as its chairman as well as in operational roles. Musk was then the controlling investor in Tesla, providing the large majority of the US$7.5 million round with personal funds. Co-founder Martin Eberhard was the original CEO of Tesla until he was asked to resign in August 2007 by the board of directors. Eberhard then took the title of "President of Technology" before ultimately leaving the company in January 2008 along with co-founder Marc Tarpenning, who served as the CFO and subsequently the Vice-President of Electrical Engineering of the company until 2008.  Eberhard later filed suit against the company allegedly that current CEO Elon Musk sought to "rewrite history".
Tesla signed a Roadster production contract on July 11, 2005, with Group Lotus to produce "gliders" (complete cars but without powertrain). The Roadster used an AC motor descended directly from Nikola Tesla's original 1882 design.
The Tesla Roadster (2008) was the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV with a range greater than 200 mi (320 km) per charge. Between 2008 and March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31 countries. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011.
Musk also led Tesla's Series B US$13 million investment round and co-led the third, US$40 million round in May 2006. Tesla's third round included investment from prominent entrepreneurs including Google co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page. The fourth round in May 2007 added another US$45 million.
In late 2007, Tesla brought on Michael Marks, and later Ze'ev Drori, to replace Eberhard as CEO. Drori temporarily returned the company to profitability, reducing the company's workforce by about 10%. In October 2008, Musk became CEO and laid off an additional 25% of Tesla's workforce. In December, a fifth round added another US$40 million, avoiding bankruptcy.
By January 2009, Tesla had raised US$187 million and delivered 147 cars. Musk himself had invested US$70 million. In May 2009, Daimler AG acquired an equity stake of less than 10% of Tesla for a reported US$50 million, again saving Tesla. Toyota provided a similar amount in 2010.
In June 2009, Tesla was approved to receive US$465 million in low-interest loans from the 2007 US$8 billion Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program by the United States Department of Energy. The funding came in 2010 and supported engineering and production of the Model S, as well as the development of commercial powertrain technology.
IPO, Model S, and Model X
On June 29, 2010, Tesla launched its initial public offering (IPO) on NASDAQ. 13,300,000 shares of common stock were issued to the public at a price of US$17.00 per share. The IPO raised US$226 million.
Tesla began shipping its Model S sedan in June 2012. In May 2013, Tesla raised $1.02 billion ($660m from bonds) partially to repay the DOE loans (early) after their first profitable quarter. In February 2014 the company sold $2 billion in bonds (to build GigaFactory 1). In August 2015 Tesla sold $738 million in stock (for the Model X) and in May 2016, $1.46 billion in stock ($1.26 billion for the Model 3). As of January 29, 2016, Musk owned about 28.9 million Tesla shares, or about 22% of the total.
Tesla's vehicles and operations are eligible for various forms of federal and state subsidy, which it was estimated in 2015 amounted to at least $30,000 for each vehicle sold, or cumulatively $4.9 billion.
Tesla stated that its automotive branch had a gross margin of 23.1% as of 2Q 2016, and has generally been above 20%. However, expenditures for expanding future production are bigger than product profit, resulting in a net loss.
|~20%||Elon Musk Foundation|
|10.2%||T. Rowe Price|
|Fidelity Investments OTC Portfolio mutual fund|
|~5%||Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia|
|The Vanguard Group|
|Capital Group Companies|
|0.48%||Government Pension Fund of Norway|
On August 1, 2016, Tesla agreed to acquire SolarCity Corp. for $2.6 billion in stock. SolarCity was then the largest installer of rooftop solar systems in the United States. More than 85% of unaffiliated Tesla and SolarCity shareholders voted to approve the acquisition, which closed on November 21, 2016.
After it acquired SolarCity, Tesla stopped using door to door sales tactics for solar systems; instead, it markets and sells its products at stores. It also does not provide a leasing option for solar panels, and consumers must purchase them.
Model 3 rollout
Model 3 was unveiled in March 2016. A week after the unveiling, global reservations totaled 325,000 units. As a result of the demand for Model 3, in May 2016, Tesla advanced its 500,000 annual unit build plan (for all models) by two years to 2018.
On February 1, 2017 the company changed its name from Tesla Motors to Tesla. In late March 2017, Tesla Inc. announced that Tencent Holdings Ltd., at the time China's "most valuable company," had purchased a 5% stake in Tesla for $1.8 billion. In 2017, Tesla briefly surpassed Ford Motor Company and General Motors in market capitalization for a couple of months, making it the most valuable American automaker. In June 2017, Tesla appeared for the first time in the Fortune 500 list.
In the week preceding the debut on July 7, 2017, of the Model 3 sedan, Tesla's stock-market value declined by more than $12 billion from a previous value of $63 billion. The loss was a result of a combination of factors that disappointed investors. Demand for Tesla's luxurious existing models, Model S and Model X, did not grow in the second quarter. Brian Johnson of Barclays said that customer deposits for the Model S and Model X fell by $50 million, potentially indicating that Tesla's introduction of the Model 3 could be adversely affecting their sales. Tesla predicted that luxury sales would reach 100,000 per year, below some analysts' expectations.
Investors expressed concern about Tesla's plans for execution and competitive risk, as Volvo Cars committed to introduce only electric and electric-assisted vehicles by 2019. Johnson claimed that "Tesla will face intense competition by the next decade."
Morningstar analyst David Whiston foresaw a revised, slower timetable for the Model 3 and a company acknowledgement of problems with building battery packs for its cars. In 2016 Musk predicted 100,000 Model 3 units would be sold in 2017, but that production may reach only 20,000 by December. Axel Schmidt, a managing director at consulting firm Accenture, said that Tesla's problems with Gigafactory 1 prove that increasing Model 3 production "remains a huge challenge". In October 2017, Tesla reported delivery of 220 Model 3s, acknowledging this was "less than anticipated due to production bottlenecks".
In early November 2017, Musk advised investors of a production delay that was primarily due to difficulties with the new battery that would allow Tesla to significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of the Model 3. The company was having difficulties with robots on the assembly line but the most serious issue was with one of the four zones in the battery manufacturing, caused by a "systems integration subcontractor", according to Musk. "We had to rewrite all of the software from scratch for the battery module", he reported. He assured investors that Tesla had "reallocated" top engineers to work on achieving a solution. By that time, Jon Wagner, director of battery engineering, had left the company. Also in November, Musk postponed the target date for manufacturing 5000 of the vehicles per week from December 2017 to "sometime in March" 2018; about which an analyst with Cowan and Company commented that "Elon Musk needs to stop over promising and under delivering". On November 21, 2017, Bloomberg stated that "over the past 12 months, the electric-car maker has been burning money at a clip of about $8,000 a minute (or $480,000 an hour)" preparing for Model 3.
In April 2018, Musk increased the 5000 per week number by 20%; forecasting Tesla could achieve 6,000 units per week by the end of June 2018. When asked when the company would reach a production level of 10,000 units per week, he declined to speculate.
For Q2 2018, Tesla reported delivery of 28,578 Model 3 vehicles, which exceeded combined Model S and X production (24,761), almost three times the amount of Model 3's than in Q1.
2018 consideration of taking Tesla private
In an August 7, 2018 tweet, major Tesla stockholder and Tesla CEO Elon Musk stated: "Am considering taking Tesla private at $420. Funding secured." On Tesla's blog Musk elaborated that Tesla's status as a public company subjects it to the quarterly earnings cycle that puts enormous pressure on the company to make decisions that may be right for a given quarter, but not necessarily right for the company's long-term growth. Additionally, as the most shorted stock in the history of the stock market, being a publicly traded company means that there are large numbers of investors who may have the incentive to attack the company. Musk released a considerably more detailed statement on the Tesla Blog the following week indicating that the proposal was by him in his personal capacity, and not as CEO of Tesla. Furthermore, he indicated that he had high confidence in the funding being secured based on discussions with the managing director of the Saudi sovereign wealth fund who had requested Musk consider taking Tesla private and indicated strong capital support for doing so. On August 24 Musk released a statement indicating that both he and the Tesla Board of Directors had made the decision for the company to remain traded on the public stock markets.
In September 2018, Musk was sued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission for the tweet claiming that funding had been secured for taking Tesla private. The lawsuit characterized the tweet as false, misleading, and damaging to investors, and sought to bar Musk from serving as CEO on publicly traded companies. Musk settled with the SEC two days later. The settlement terms required Musk to leave as chairman, and prohibited him from running for chairman again for three years. Additionally, he and Tesla Inc. were fined $20M each to reimburse investors whom were harmed by Musk's tweet.
In November 2018, Tesla vehicles outsold Mercedes-Benz in the United States market for the first time.
Production and sales
- Model S
- Model X
- Model 3
- Eberhard and Tarpenning incorporated Tesla, while Musk, Straubel and Wright joined in a Series A round later on. A lawsuit settlement agreed to by Eberhard and Tesla in September 2009 allows all five to call themselves founders.
- Sales are only counted as sold when delivered to end customer and all paperwork is correct
- Goods in transit are produced but not counted as sold until delivered
- Sales by model do not add up to total, these are preliminary figures reported by Tesla. Only total sales is final figures are reported by Tesla, as breakdown by model is not typically provided.
Tesla deliveries vary significantly by month due to regional issues such as ship availability and registration. Tesla does not follow the auto industry standard of monthly reporting. Some monthly sales are estimated by media.
Tesla aims to change the automotive industry by creating many innovative pieces that fit together; this strategy was called "complex coordination" by Tesla investor Peter Thiel. Its marketing, production, sales and technology strategies all are notably different from its competitors.
Tesla's automotive strategy is to emulate typical technological-product life cycles and initially target affluent buyers. It then moved into larger markets at lower price points. The battery and electric drivetrain technology for each model would be developed and paid for through the sales of earlier models. The Roadster was low-volume and priced at US$109,000. Model S and Model X targeted the broader luxury market. Model 3 is aimed at a higher-volume segment. This business strategy is common in the technology industry. According to a Musk blog post, "New technology in any field takes a few versions to optimize before reaching the mass market, and in this case it is competing with 150 years and trillions of dollars spent on gasoline cars."
Tesla's production strategy includes a high degree of vertical integration (80% in 2016), which includes component production and proprietary charging infrastructure. The company operates enormous factories to capture economies of scale. Tesla builds electric powertrain components for vehicles from other automakers, including the Smart ED2 ForTwo electric drive (the lowest-priced car from Daimler AG), the Toyota RAV4 EV, and Freightliner's Custom Chassis Electric Van. Vertical integration is rare in the automotive industry, where companies typically outsource 80% of components to suppliers, and focus on engine manufacturing and final assembly.
Tesla's technology strategy focuses on pure-electric propulsion technology, and transferring other approaches from the technology industry to transportation, such as online software updates. Tesla allows its technology patents to be used by anyone in good faith. Licensing agreements include provisions whereby the recipient agrees not to file patent suits against Tesla, or to copy its designs directly. Tesla retained control of its other intellectual property, such as trademarks and trade secrets to prevent direct copying of its technology.
Tesla Human Resources VP Arnnon Geshuri committed to bringing manufacturing jobs "back to California". In 2015, Geshuri led a hiring surge about which he said: "In the last 14 months we've had 1.5 million applications from around the world. People want to work here." Geshuri emphasizes hiring veterans, saying "Veterans are a great source of talent for Tesla, and we're going after it."
Tesla's global sales totaled close to 500,000 units by November 2018, representing about 20% of all the all-electric cars on the world's roads, according to Navigant Research. Its top selling car is the Model S, with global sales of 250,000 units between June 2012 and September 2018, followed by the Model X with 106,689 units sold between September 2015 and September 2018. Model 3 deliveries passed 100,000 units in October 2018. The now-retired Roadster sold about 2,450 units. In July 2017, Tesla said their vehicles had traveled 5 billion miles (8 billion km).
Foreseeing Germany as its second market after the U.S. (and the largest in Europe), in 2016 Tesla stated the Dutch (Dienst Wegverkeer) RDW-issued Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) should be accepted as a legal compliance document, with no need to seek specific national type of approvals in EU member states.
In 2016 BYD Auto was the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer with 101,183 units sold, followed by Tesla with 76,243. However, Tesla revenues ranked ahead with US$6.35 billion, while BYD notched US$3.88 billion. Also in 2016, Tesla sold US$1 billion worth of cars in China, the world's largest market for electric vehicles, and in October of the following year it reached an agreement with the Chinese government to build a factory in Shanghai.
As of October 2016[update], Tesla operated about 260 galleries or retail locations in the United States. In June 2016, Tesla opened its first store-within-a-store: a small outpost within the Nordstrom's department store at The Grove shopping mall in Los Angeles. In 2017, Tesla opened retail locations in Dubai and South Korea.
In August 2015, Tesla launched a revamp of its stores to include interactive displays focused on safety, autopilot, charging network and motors. In 2017 Tesla had a US$52 million marketing budget and used a referral program and word of mouth to attract buyers.
US dealership disputes
Tesla operates stores and galleries—usually located in shopping malls—in many U.S. states. However, customers buy vehicles only from the Tesla website. The stores serve as showrooms that allow people to learn about the company and its vehicles. Some galleries are located in states with restrictive dealer protection laws that prohibit discussing price, financing, and test drives, as well as other restrictions.
Tesla's strategy of direct customer sales and owning stores and service centers is different from the standard dealership model in the global vehicle marketplace. Tesla is the only automaker that sells cars directly to consumers; all others use independently owned dealerships, although many provide online configuration and financing. 48 states have laws that limit or ban manufacturers from selling vehicles directly to consumers, and although Tesla has no independent dealerships, dealership associations in multiple states have filed lawsuits over Tesla's sales practices.
Countries other than U.S. do not protect dealers. The Federal Trade Commission recommends allowing direct manufacturer sales, which analysts believe would save consumers 8% on average.
Under a buyback program called the Resale Value Guarantee available in 37 U.S. states, a Tesla Model S sold before July 1, 2016 included the right to return it after three years with reimbursement of 43% to 50% of its initial price. This reimbursement matched the trade-in values of competitive German luxury cars of that age. In addition to maintaining the resale value, Tesla hoped to secure a supply of used cars to refurbish and re-sell with warranty. According to Automotive News, the profit margin on used car sales in the U.S. is about triple that on new cars, and Tesla's direct sales would allow it capture resale profits. Tesla ended the program in 2016, although they retained the Residual Value Guarantee on leased vehicles.
In May 2015, Tesla started selling refurbished Model S cars in the U.S. and within a month sold 1,600 cars. As of July 2017, over 80 used Model S and Model X cars were for sale, with either a four-year, 50,000-mile warranty or a two-year, 100,000-mile warranty for vehicles above 50,000 miles. As of September 2015, similar programs existed in Canada, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.
As a vertically-integrated manufacturer, Tesla has had to master multiple technology domains, including batteries, electric motors, sensors and artificial intelligence.
Unlike other automakers, Tesla does not use individual large battery cells, but thousands of small, cylindrical, lithium-ion commodity cells like those used in consumer electronics. It uses a version of these cells that is designed to be cheaper to manufacture and lighter than standard cells by removing some safety features. According to Tesla, these features are redundant because of the advanced thermal management system and an intumescent chemical in the battery to prevent fires. Panasonic is the sole supplier of the cells for Model S, Model X, and Model 3 and cooperates with Tesla in the Gigafactory 1's '21–70' cells.
In February 2016, Tesla battery costs were estimated at US$200 per kWh. Tesla indicated later in 2016 that their batteries cost less than $190/kWh. Still later that year Argonne Labs estimated $163/kWh at a production rate of 500,000 packs per year.
The batteries are placed under the vehicle floor. This saves interior and trunk space but increases risk of battery damage by debris or impact. The Model S has 0.25 in (6.4 mm) aluminum-alloy armor plate. CTO Straubel expected batteries to last 10–15 years, and discounts using electric cars to charge the grid (V2G) because the related battery wear outweighs economic benefit. He also prefers recycling over re-use for grid once they reach the end of their useful life for vehicles. Since 2008, Tesla has worked with ToxCo/Kinsbursky to recycle worn out RoHS batteries, which will be an integral part of GigaFactory.
Tesla makes two kinds of electric motors. A three-phase four-pole AC induction motor with a copper rotor (by which the Tesla logo is inspired) is used in the Model S and Model X, and permanent magnet motors are used in the Model 3 and Semi. Motors for the Model S and Model X are made at Tesla Factory, while motors for Model 3 are made at Gigafactory 1.
Tesla Autopilot provides semi-autonomous driver assist beginning in September 2014. Tesla replaced its sensors and software in 2016 (Hardware version 2, or "HW2"). As of 2017, Autopilot included adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, emergency braking, Autosteer (semi-automated steering), Autopark (parallel and perpendicular parking) and Summon (recalling the vehicle from a parking place). HW2 includes eight cameras and twelve ultrasonic sensors, in addition to forward-facing radar. HW2.5 was released in mid-2017 that upgraded HW2 with a second GPU and, for the Model 3 only, a driver-facing camera.
At the end of 2016, Tesla expected to demonstrate full autonomy by the end of 2017. In April 2017 Musk predicted that in around two years drivers would be able to sleep in their vehicle.
In November 2016, the company announced the Tesla glass technology group. The group produced the roof glass for the Tesla Model 3 and for use in SolarCity roof tiles announced in October 2016. The tiles contain an embedded solar collector, and are one-third lighter than standard roof tiles.
Model S deliveries began on June 22, 2012. The first delivery in Europe took place in August 2013. Deliveries in China began in April 2014. First deliveries of the right-hand-drive model destined for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong and Japan came in 2014. As of June 2018, the Model S has three base configurations: the 75D, 100D and P100D with EPA ranges of 259, 335, and 315 miles respectively.
With an estimated 50,931 units sold in 2016, the Model S ranked as the world's bestselling plug-in car for the second year in a row. As of September 2018[update], the Model S, with global sales of 250,000 units, ranks as the world's second best selling plug-in electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf (over 350,000).
The United States is the world's leading Model S market with an estimated 136,542 units sold through September 2018. Norway ranked as the Model S largest overseas market as of November 2016[update], with 11,802 new units registered. The Tesla Model S became the first electric car ever to top the monthly sales ranking in any country, when the electric car achieved the first place in the Norwegian new car sales list in September 2013.
In May 2010 Tesla purchased a stake in what would become the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, for US$42 million, and opened the facility in October 2010. For the European market, a final assembly plant and European Distribution Center are part of the Tesla facilities in Tilburg, Netherlands. Cars are built and tested in Fremont; then the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where they are reassembled.
Among other awards, the Model S won the 2013 "Motor Trend Car of the Year", the 2013 "World Green Car", Automobile Magazine's 2013 "Car of the Year", and Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award.
The Tesla Model X is a full-size crossover SUV with a lightweight aluminum body. Model X deliveries started in September 2015. It is offered in 5-, 6- and 7-passenger configurations. Notably, the passenger doors are articulating "falcon-wing" designs that open vertically.
Production was rescheduled several times, from 2013 to late 2014, to the second quarter of 2015, to the third quarter of 2015. In August 2015, user groups estimated around 30,000 X pre-orders, compared to 12,000 for the S.
Deliveries of the Model X Signature series began on September 29, 2015. Model X sales totaled 2,400 units during the first quarter of 2016, rising to 4,638 in the second quarter of 2016. Global deliveries totaled 25,312 units in 2016, and 46,535 in 2017.
In September 2016, the Model X ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in Norway. Previously, the Model S had been the top selling new car four times. Cumulative sales since inception totaled 106,689 units through September 2018. The United States is its main market with an estimated 57,327 units sold through September 2018.
The Model 3 (originally stylized as "☰") is Tesla's third-generation car. The car was originally intended to be called the Model E, but after a lawsuit from Ford that holds the trademark on "Model E", Musk announced on July 16, 2014 that the car would be called "Model 3" instead. The standard Model 3 delivers an EPA-rated all-electric range of 220 miles (350 km) and the long range model delivers 310 miles (500 km).
On March 31, 2016, Tesla unveiled the car. Potential customers began to reserve spots on March 31 with a refundable deposit. Tens of thousands were reported waiting to reserve their spot. As of April 7, 2016, one week after the unveiling, Tesla reported over 325,000 reservations, representing sales of over US$14 billion. As of July 2017[update], Tesla reported about 500,000 reservations. Bloomberg News claimed "the Model 3's unveiling was unique in the 100-year history of the mass-market automobile." Bloomberg compared it to the 1955 Citroën DS that took in 80,000 deposits over 10-days at the Paris Auto Show.
Tesla expected to invest between US$2 billion and US$2.5 billion in capital expenditures to support Model 3 production. Limited vehicle production began in July 2017. The first 30 units were delivered at a special event on July 28, 2017. Customer deliveries totaled 1,764 units in the U.S. in 2017. In June 2018 production reached 5,000 per week. Since January 2018, the Model 3 has remained the top-selling plug-in passenger car in the U.S. each month, with an estimated 78,132 units delivered through September 2018. During the first half of 2018, the Model 3 was also the top selling alternative powertrain vehicle in California with 12,674 units, followed by the Toyota Prius coventional hybrid (10,043).
In August 2018, the Model 3 surpassed the Nissan Leaf as world's best selling plug-in car during 2018, with a record of about 17,895 units delivered, a monthly sales record for plug-in cars previously held by the BAIC EC-Series. Global Model 3 sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2018.
Through a surprise reveal at the end of the event that introduced the Semi on November 16, 2017, Tesla unveiled the 2020 Roadster. Musk said that the new model will have a range of 620 mi (1,000 km) on the 200 kWh battery pack and will achieve 0–60 mph in 1.9 seconds; it also will achieve 0–100 mph in 4.2 seconds, and the top speed will be over 250 mph (400 km/h). The vehicle will have three electric motors allowing for all-wheel drive, and torque vectoring during cornering.
At the time, the base price was set at US$200,000 while the first 1,000 units, the Founder's series, would sell for US$250,000. Reservations required a deposit of US$50,000, and those who ordered the Founder's series paid the US$250,000 in full upon ordering. Those who made a reservation at the event were allowed a test drive with a driver in the prototype.
The vehicle's official announcement was at a November 16, 2017 press conference where two prototypes were shown. Musk confirmed that the range would be 500 miles and that the zero to 60 mph time would be 5 seconds versus 15 seconds for a similar truck with a diesel engine. The Semi will be powered by four electric motors of the type used in the Tesla Model 3 and will include an extensive set of hardware sensors to enable it to stay in its own lane, a safe distance away from other vehicles, and later, when software and regulatory conditions allow, provide autonomous operation on highways. Musk also announced that the company would be involved in installing a solar-powered global network of the Tesla Megacharger devices to make the Semi more attractive to potential long-haul customers. A 30-minute charge would provide 400 miles of range.
In October 2015, Musk described a future "Model Y" that would be a full-sized SUV aimed for families. Tesla had trademarked the name "Model Y" in 2013. In August 2017, Tesla announced that the Model Y would use the Model 3 platform.
In February 2018, Tesla announced that they would unveil Model Y production plans within the next 3–6 months and posted open positions for Model Y production and design. The job description on the Tesla website states: "The new Programs Engineering, Design Engineer is responsible for designing, developing, and delivering prototype level components and systems for the Tesla Model Y as well as future Tesla product programs." In May 2018, Musk said that the Model Y will be built on a platform that shares many components with the Model 3, and that the Model Y will be in production at the earliest in early 2020. Musk revealed that the Model Y will be unveiled in March 2019.
There will be future cars that will be even more affordable down the road . . . With fourth generation and smaller cars and what not, we'll ultimately be in a position where everyone can afford the car.— Elon Musk at the Future Transport Solutions conference in Oslo, April 21, 2016
On July 20, 2016, Musk detailed his new master plan for Tesla. It includes more affordable cars produced in higher volume, solar-power roofs, mid-size vehicles, SUVs and pickup trucks, as well as the refinement of autonomous vehicles and the creation of a sharing economy, in which cars can be active while the owner is not using them. A Tesla Minibus would be built on the Model X platform. In May 2017, Musk indicated that he might favor a 10–12-passenger version of the Model X over a dedicated minibus design.
At the company's annual shareholder meeting in June 2018, Musk revealed Tesla's intention to enter a new market segment, offering a compact hatchback in "less than five years". He provided no details, and dodged a question about also producing a subcompact. Musk also put to rest hopes for a Tesla motorcycle, saying "we’re not going to do motorcycles".
In April 2015, the company unveiled its Powerwall home and Powerpack industrial battery packs, and quickly received orders valued at US$800 million. The two models included a 7 kilowatt-hour (kWh) wall-mounted unit and 10 kWh unit. The company announced larger-scale configurations for industrial users in units of 100 kWh. The company planned to open source its patents for the entire range.
In September 2016, Tesla announced it had been chosen "through a competitive process" to supply Southern California Edison (SCE) with 20 MW power (and 80 MWh energy) of battery storage. In May, regulators ordered SCE to invest in utility-scale battery systems after natural gas provider Southern California Gas leaked 1.6 million pounds (730 t) of methane into the atmosphere when a well ruptured at its Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Storage Facility.
In February 2017, Musk announced plans to build three additional Gigafactories to increase its battery manufacturing.
After Puerto Rico faced a hurricane, Elon Musk offered to work with Puerto Rico's government in rebuilding its solar energy grid. In October 2017, Tesla brought 700 solar panels to the "Hospital del Niño," where the batteries helped bring care back to 3,000 patients who needed constant care.
In 2012, Tesla began building a network of 480-volt fast-charging Supercharger stations. As of December 2018[update], there are 1,375 Supercharger stations operated globally with 11,414 superchargers. The Supercharger is a proprietary direct current (DC) technology that provides up to 120 kW of power, a full charge in around 75 minutes. Tesla cars can recommend the fastest route for long-distance travel, incorporating possible charging delays.
All Tesla cars come standard with Supercharging hardware. Model S and X cars ordered after January 15, 2017 get 400 kWh of free Supercharging credits, which provides a range of roughly 1,600 kilometres or 1,000 miles per year. Cars purchased before that date get free supercharging.
In December 2016, after a complaint sent to Musk via Twitter about abuse, Tesla announced that it will start charging an "idle" fee for vehicles that continue to occupy charging stations after they are fully charged.
Destination charging location network
In 2014, Tesla discreetly launched the "Destination Charging Location" Network by providing chargers to hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, resorts and other full service stations to provide on-site vehicle charging at twice the power of a typical charging location. On April 25, 2016, Tesla launched European destination charging, with 150 locations and more to be added later. Chargers are installed free of charge by Tesla-certified contractors. All installed chargers appear in the in-car navigation system.
In addition to its corporate headquarters, the company operates multiple large factories for making vehicles and their components. The company operates showrooms and galleries around the world.
Tesla was founded in San Carlos, California. Tesla's first retail stores were in Los Angeles, in Menlo Park, California and in Manhattan's Chelsea art district, followed by others in major US cities. In 2010, Tesla moved its corporate headquarters and opened a powertrain development facility in Palo Alto.
Tesla's first assembly plant occupies the former NUMMI plant in Fremont, California. It is known as the Tesla Factory. As of 2016, the plant was not highly automated—it was expected to produce some 80,000 cars with 6,000 workers compared to a "typical" plant that might produce 250,000 cars with 3,000 workers. The 370-acre (16,000,000 sq ft; 1,500,000 m2) site includes a 5,500,000-square-foot (510,000 m2) building complex.
In 2015, Tesla acquired Riviera Tool & Die (with 100 employees in Michigan), one of its suppliers of stamping items. In 2017, Tesla acquired Perbix Machine Company, a manufacturer of automated manufacturing equipment, that has been an equipment supplier for over three years.
Tesla occupies a second factory in Fremont. The building is more than 500,000 sq ft (46,500 m2). The location is next to a SolarCity facility, a few miles from the original Fremont plant.
The factory received substantial subsidies from local and state government.
In August 2018, Tesla had a whistleblower problem. Karl Hansen was a former member of the company's security team. He filed a tip with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In the tip, he alleged that Tesla suppressed an internal investigation into various criminal activities at the Nevada Gigafactory. Hansen said that the company refused to tell the DEA about several employees who were allegedly moving cocaine and crystal methamphetamine on behalf of a Mexican drug cartel. He also said that the company tried to get him to not report a $37 million theft of raw materials. Additionally, he said the company fired an employee who reported the theft for the reason that the employee was "not a Tesla team player."
The Gigafactory 2 is located in Buffalo, New York on the site of a former Republic Steel plant. It is operated by Tesla's SolarCity unit. The factory is a $750 million, 1.2 million square foot facility that directly employs 500 workers. Tesla partners with Panasonic to assemble photovoltaic panel modules, with plans to assemble full panels and solar roofs in 2018. Tesla received incentives to locate the factory in Buffalo through the Buffalo Billion program. As of August 2017[update], the factory added production of tiles for the Tesla Solar Roof. In January 2018, Tesla announced, after testing on employees' roofs, that it would begin installing the Tesla Solar Roof on commercial customers' homes "within the next few months".
Tesla's first "new design" store opened on November 16, 2012 in the Yorkdale Shopping Centre in Toronto, Ontario. As of May 2017[update], eight Tesla stores/galleries operated in Montreal, Quebec City, Calgary, Toronto and in Vancouver.
Tesla opened its first European store in June 2009 in London. Tesla's European headquarters are in Amsterdam. A 62,000 sq ft (5,800 m2) European service center operates in Tilburg, Netherlands along with a 77,650 m2 (835,800 sq ft) assembly facility that adds drivetrain, battery and software to the (imported) car body to reduce EU import tax, Musk confirmed in June 2014 and November 2016 its long-term plans to build a car and battery gigafactory in Europe, which several countries have campaigned to host.
In late 2016, Tesla acquired German engineering firm Grohmann Engineering in Prüm as a new division dedicated to helping Tesla increase the automation and effectiveness of its manufacturing process. After winding down existing contracts with other auto manufacturers, Grohmann works exclusively on Tesla projects.
In July 2018, it was reported that Tesla was exploring building its first major European factory in Germany or the Netherlands.
In July 2017, Tesla won a contract to install the world's biggest grid-scale battery in South Australia by promising installation within 100 days. The Hornsdale Power Reserve with total capacity of 100 megawatts was connected to the grid on December 1, 2017.
Unlike many traditional manufacturers, Tesla operates as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), manufacturing powertrain components for other automakers. Tesla has confirmed partnerships with Daimler and Toyota. It also works with Panasonic as a partner in battery and solar panel research and development. The company supplies battery packs for Freightliner Trucks' Custom Chassis electric van.
Starting in late 2007, Daimler AG and Tesla began working together. On May 19, 2009, Daimler bought a stake of less than 10% in Tesla for a reported US$50 million. As part of the collaboration, Herbert Kohler, Vice-President of E-Drive and Future Mobility at Daimler, took a Tesla board seat. On July 13, 2009, Daimler AG sold 40% of its May acquisition to Aabar Investments PJSC. Aabar is an Abu Dhabi government investment vehicle. In October 2014, Daimler sold its remaining holding.
Tesla builds electric-powertrain components for the Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell, an electric car with a range of 120 mi (200 km) and 214 ft⋅lbf (290 N⋅m) of torque. The 36 kWh battery contains approximately 4,000 lithium-ion cells. 500 cars would be built for trial in Europe beginning in September 2011.
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED
On May 20, 2010, Tesla and Toyota announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development, which included Toyota's US$50 million future conditional investment in Tesla and Tesla's US$42 million purchase of a portion of the former NUMMI factory. Tesla cooperated on the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support.
Toyota RAV4 EV
Tesla and Toyota announced in July 2010 an agreement to develop a second generation of the compact Toyota RAV4 EV. A second generation RAV4 EV demonstrator was unveiled at the October 2010 Los Angeles Auto Show. Toyota built 35 of these converted RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other powertrain components were supplied by Tesla. In August 2012, the production version RAV4 EV was unveiled; the battery pack, electronics and powertrain components are similar to those used in the Tesla Model S sedan launched in June 2012, and the Phase Zero vehicles used components from the Roadster.
The RAV4 EV had a limited production run which resulted in just under 3,000 vehicles being produced. The RAV4 EV hasn't been on the market since 2014 and there aren't any known plans to revive the model in the near term.
Freightliner electric van
On January 7, 2010, Tesla and battery cell maker Panasonic announced that they would together develop nickel-based lithium-ion battery cells for electric vehicles. Naoto Noguchi, President of Panasonic's Energy Company, said that the Japanese firm's cells would be used for Tesla's "current and next-generation EV battery pack." The partnership was part of Panasonic's US$1 billion investment over three years in facilities for lithium-ion cell research, development and production.
Beginning in 2010 Panasonic invested US$30 million for a multi-year collaboration on next generation cells designed specifically for electric vehicles.
In July 2014, Panasonic reached a basic agreement with Tesla to participate in Gigafactory 1.
Lawsuits and controversies
On April 14, 2008, Tesla sued Fisker Automotive, alleging that Henrik Fisker "stole design ideas and confidential information related to the design of hybrid and electric cars" and was using that information to develop the Fisker Karma. Tesla had hired Fisker Coachbuild to design the WhiteStar sedan, but rejected the design that Musk considered "substandard". On November 3, 2008, Fisker Automotive Inc. issued a press release indicating that an arbiter had issued an interim award finding in Fisker's favor on all claims.
The company founding was the subject of a lawsuit that was later dropped after an out-of-court settlement. On May 26, 2009, Eberhard filed suit against Tesla and Musk for slander, libel and breach of contract. Musk wrote a lengthy blog post that included original source documents, including emails between senior executives and other artifacts attempting to demonstrate that Eberhard was fired by Tesla's unanimous board of directors. A judge struck down Eberhard's claim that he was one of only two company founders. Tesla said in a statement that the ruling is "consistent with Tesla's belief in a team of founders, including the company's current CEO and Product Architect Elon Musk, and Chief Technology Officer JB Straubel, who were both fundamental to the creation of Tesla from inception." Eberhard withdrew the case and the parties reached a final settlement. One public provision said that the parties will consider Eberhard, Musk, Straubel, Tarpenning and Wright to be the five co-founders. Eberhard issued a statement about Musk's foundational role in the company: "As a co-founder of the company, Elon's contributions to Tesla have been extraordinary."
In early 2014, Tesla reportedly tried to break the exclusivity agreement their charging partner in the UK had for locations along the UK's highways and tried to "blacken Ecotricity's name with politicians and the media". Ecotricity replied by taking an injunction against them. The dispute was resolved out of court.
Top Gear review
Tesla unsuccessfully sued British television show Top Gear for its 2008 review of the Tesla Roadster (2008) in which Jeremy Clarkson could be seen driving one around the Top Gear test track, complaining about a range of only 55 mi (89 km) (a figure that was provided to Top Gear by Tesla itself), before showing workers pushing it into the garage, supposedly out of charge. Tesla filed a lawsuit against the BBC for libel and malicious falsehood, claiming that two cars were provided and that at any point, at least one was ready to drive. In addition, Tesla said that neither car ever dropped below 25% charge, and that the scene was staged. The High Court in London rejected Tesla's libel claim. The falsehood claims were later struck out. The Top Gear website posted a favorable review of the Model S in 2015 and featured the Model X favorably in 2016.
New York Times test drive
In early 2013, Tesla approached the New York Times to publish a story "Focused on future advancements in our Supercharger technology". In February 2013, the Times published an account on the newly installed Supercharger network on freeway between Boston and New York City. The author describes fundamental flaws in the Model S sedan, primarily that the range was severely lowered in the below-freezing temperatures of the American Northeast. At one point the vehicle died completely and needed to be towed to a charging station.
After the story was published, Tesla stock dipped 3%. Three days later, Musk responded with a series of tweets, calling the article "fake", and followed up with a lengthy blog post disputing several of the article's claims. He called it a "salacious story" and provided data, annotated screenshots and maps obtained from recording equipment installed in the press vehicle as evidence that the New York Times had fabricated much of the story.
[...] Instead of plugging in the car, he drove in circles for over half a mile in a tiny, 100-space parking lot. When the Model S valiantly refused to die, he eventually plugged it in.— Elon Musk, A Most Peculiar Test Drive – Tesla Blog
In a statement, the Times stood by the accuracy of the story, calling it "completely factual". Author John Broder quickly issued a rebuttal in which he clarified and rejected many of the accusations made by Musk.
[...] I drove around the Milford service plaza in the dark looking for the Supercharger, which is not prominently marked. I was not trying to drain the battery. (It was already on reserve power.) As soon as I found the Supercharger, I plugged the car in.— John Broder, That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn't — The New York Times
During further investigation by the media, Musk said "the Model S battery never ran out of energy at any time, including when Broder called the flatbed truck." Auto blog Jalopnik contacted Rogers Automotive & Towing, the towing company Broder used. Their records showed that "the car's battery pack was completely drained." In his follow-up blog post, Broder said "The car's display screen said the car was shutting down, and it did. The car did not have enough power to move, or even enough to release the electrically operated parking brake."
In the days that followed, NYT public editor Margaret Sullivan published an opinion piece titled "Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". She concludes "In the matter of the Tesla Model S and its now infamous test drive, there is still plenty to argue about and few conclusions that are unassailable." No legal action was pursued.
Singapore tax surcharge
In early March 2016, a report by Stuff magazine said that test performed by VICOM, Ltd on behalf of Singapore's Land Transport Authority had found a 2014 Tesla Model S to be consuming 444 Wh/km (0.715 kW⋅h/mi), which was greater than the 236 watt-hours per kilometre (0.38 kW⋅h/mi) reported by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the 181 watt-hours per kilometre (0.291 kW⋅h/mi) reported by Tesla. As a result, a carbon surcharge of S$15,000 (US$10,900 at March 2016 exchange rate) was imposed on the Model S, making Singapore the only country in the world to impose an environmental surcharge on a fully electric car. The Land Transport Authority justified this by stating that it had to "account for CO2 emissions during the electricity generation process" and therefore "a grid emission factor of 0.5g/watt-hour was also applied to the electric energy consumption", however Tesla countered that when the energy used to extract, refine, and distribute gasoline was taken into account, the Model S produces approximately one-third the CO2 of an equivalent gasoline-powered vehicle.
Later that month, the Land Transport Authority released a statement stating that they and the VICOM Emission Test Laboratory will be working with Tesla engineers to review the test, and a Tesla statement indicated that the discussions were "positive" and that they were confident of a quick resolution.
The July 11, 2016 Wall Street Journal reported that Tesla was being investigated by the U.S. SEC to see if the company should have disclosed a fatal crash involving its autopilot technology before the company sold more than US$2 billion worth of shares in May 2016. A separate SEC investigation closed "without further action" in October 2016 about Tesla's use of non-GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) reporting; Tesla switched to GAAP-reporting in October 2016.
In September and October 2016, seven Delaware lawsuits were filed by Tesla stockholders seeking to block the proposed SolarCity acquisition. In October 2016, the Court consolidated the actions and appointed a lead plaintiff. The plaintiffs alleged, among other things, that the Tesla board of directors breached their fiduciary duties in approving the acquisition and that certain individuals would be unjustly enriched by the acquisition. The acquisition was approved by Tesla and SolarCity's stockholders on November 17, 2016 and the merger closed on November 21, 2016.
Autopilot 2 class-action lawsuit
On April 19, 2017, Tesla owners filed a class-action lawsuit due to Tesla exaggerating the capabilities of its Autopilot 2 to consumers. The lawsuit claimed that "buyers of the affected vehicles have become beta testers of half-baked software that renders Tesla vehicles dangerous if engaged" Tesla attacked the lawsuit as a "disingenuous attempt to secure attorney's fees posing as a legitimate legal action".
On April 19, 2017, Tesla factory workers filed unfair labor practice charges with the National Labor Relations Board, alleging that Tesla uses "illegal surveillance, coercion, intimidation and prevention of worker communications [...] in an effort to prevent or otherwise hinder unionization of the Fremont factory."
According to CNBC, "the United Automobile Workers (UAW) union filed four separate charges with the National Labor Relations Board alleging that [Tesla] has illegally surveilled and coerced workers attempting to distribute information about the union drive." On February 10, 2017, three Tesla employees allegedly were passing out literature to initiate organizing union efforts. The literature pointed to working conditions, the company's confidentiality agreement and employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act. The UAW's charges allege that Tesla illegally told employees that they could not pass out any literature unless it was approved by the company.
In an attempt to unionize Tesla's Fremont plant, the UAW has paid organizers on the ground since 2016. The UAW is renting from a Fremont landlord, Sreenivasa Munukutla, who has been accused of wage and labor violations. The UAW continued to lease from Munukutla even as the Department of Labor investigation was ongoing.
The Fremont plant has been unionized in the past, both when owned by General Motors (GM), and later by the NUMMI partnership of GM and Toyota. While under UAW oversight, the plant closed once in 1982 (GM) and again in 2010 (NUMMI partnership) .
In May 2018, the United Auto Workers union filed a complaint with the National Labor Relations Board, seeking a federal investigation against Tesla for CEO Elon Musk's tweet apparently threatening worker stock options if they joined a union. Tesla responded that other car makers don't offer such stock options to union workers. Minnesota Congressman Keith Ellison chastised Musk for "threats" of unlawful retaliation and presented a list of questions on union activities and worker safety records, asking for a response by June 15.
Working conditions and injury policies
On May 14, 2017, Tesla said that Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR, a measure of employee safety) was higher for the previous years, and stated a TRIR of 4.6 for Q1 2017. On May 18, 2017 The Guardian published a story about working conditions at Tesla Factory, relayed by CNBC.
Former and current Tesla employees publicly expressed concerns about worker treatment. Between 2014 and 2017, ambulances went to Tesla's Fremont, California factory over 100 times to provide emergency services to workers exhibiting symptoms including fainting, dizziness, abnormal breathing and chest pains resulting from the physically demanding tasks associated with their positions. At the end of that period, Tesla Factory employed over 10,000 workers.
Working conditions are in part a result of the company's ambitious production figures. The 2018 goal is to manufacture 500,000 automobiles, a 495% increase from 2016.[relevant? ] Tesla has acknowledged that its recordable incident rate (TRIR), which measures work-related injuries and illnesses that have been reported to regulators, exceeded the industry average between 2013 and 2016. Exact data was not released by Tesla over that period, because the company says the data is not representative of the factory's current operations. In a statement, Tesla emphasized it is "building entirely new vehicles from the ground up, using entirely new technology, production, and manufacturing methods, and ramping them at high volume."
Musk strongly defended Tesla's safety record and argued that the company had made significant improvement. In 2017, however, when The Guardian reached out to 15 current and/or former workers, each contradicted Musk's viewpoint. Jonathan Galescu, a production technician for the company, said, “I’ve seen people pass out, hit the floor like a pancake and smash their face open. They just send us to work around him while he’s still laying on the floor.” In February 2017, Jose Moran, a Tesla worker, blogged about the company's practices of mandatory overtime, frequent worker injuries and low wages. Both workers are involved with the UAW's current organizing campaign.
Tesla's policies for dealing with injured employees were also criticized. In 2017, workers alleged that Tesla's policies got in the way of workers reporting injuries. At Tesla, workers who reported injuries were moved to lighter work and given access to supplemental insurance benefits. One injured worker reported that his pay went from $22 an hour to $10 an hour. To protect their incomes, many workers choose to work during their recovery from injury, in some cases inciting further damage and pain.
In 2017, Tesla added extra shifts and safety teams to improve conditions. According to the company, "the average amount of hours worked by production team members has dropped to about 42 hours per week, and the level of overtime decreased by more than 60 percent" after improvements were made. When CNBC requested comment about the issues, Tesla responded, “Tesla’s safety record is much better than the industry average, but it is not enough. Our goal is to have as close to zero injuries as humanly possible and to become the safest factory in the auto industry.”
On May 24, 2017, California Worksafe responded to Tesla's TRIR numbers, showing higher rates (8.8) than industry average (6.7) for 2015. OSHA reports that the incident rate at UAW-represented Ford plants has also exceeded the industry average in recent years. In some cases, UAW-represented plants' incident rates were three or four times higher than the industry average.
In April 2018, CIR's Reveal published an investigation concluding that Tesla under-counted worker injuries to make its safety record appear better. It included findings such as the factory floor not having have clearly marked pedestrian lanes and instead having lanes painted different shades of gray because Elon Musk does not like the color yellow. In addition, other safety signals (such as signs and warning beeps) were lowered in order to please Musk's esthetic preferences. Susan Rigmaiden, former environmental compliance manager, commented: “If someone said, ‘Elon doesn’t like something,’ you were concerned because you could lose your job.” Tesla called Reveal's investigation an "ideologically motivated attack by an extremist organization working directly with union supporters to create a calculated disinformation campaign against Tesla." Reveal responded by publishing the details of their investigation, which included interviews of more than three dozen current and former employees and managers as well as the review of hundreds of pages of documents. Additionally, many of the interviewed safety professionals had no involvement in a unionization effort. Tesla made no further response.
Illegal workers suit
The Mercury News in 2016 investigated the use of foreign construction workers to build Tesla's paint shop at Tesla Factory. A whistleblower federal lawsuit was filed, which was unsealed in the summer of 2017. The suit alleged that Tesla and other major automakers such as Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Volkswagen illegally used foreign construction workers to build their U.S. factories. Court documents and the journalistic investigation showed that at least 140 foreign workers worked on the factory expansion, some of whom had questionable work visas, for as little as five dollars per hour. The workers came mainly from Eastern Europe on “suspect visas hired through subcontractors.”
Ludicrous limited power output
Certain Tesla vehicles equipped with its Ludicrous performance mode had limited power output, as discovered by some Tesla owners in 2017. The power limits were connected to how frequently the drivers used Launch Mode; if a driver used it too much, the car's power output was restricted to prevent excessive wear and tear on components. Customers complained and the company removed the limiter.
Software copyright infringement
In May 2018, it was reported that Tesla had for five or six years been using other people's copyrighted software unlawfully, specifically engaging in GPL violations. The Software Freedom Conservancy reportedly alerted Tesla to the issue repeatedly, but only in 2018 did Tesla begin to remedy its non-compliance with the software's license terms.
Lawsuit alleging sabotage
On June 20, 2018, Tesla filed a civil lawsuit in Nevada against a former Tesla employee, who a few days before had been dismissed after allegedly confessing to hacking Tesla's Manufacturing Operating System and to transferring gigabytes of confidential, proprietary data to external, unknown entities. By June 27, Tesla had been granted subpoenas compelling several companies that may be storing data for the former employee, including Apple, Microsoft, Google, Facebook and Dropbox to surrender any such data. Also in late June, the ex-employee reacted by attempting to crowd-fund US$500,000 for his legal defense and counter-suit. As of mid-August, Tripp had retained legal counsel, and had either taken down, on advice of his lawyer, or been hacked, on each of his social media accounts.
Musk Twitter investigation
In September 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice began investigating Tesla based on a tweet sent out by Elon Musk. In the tweet, Musk stated that he was considering taking the company private, and that he had "funding secured" to complete the deal. DOJ investigators requested company documents in September related to Musk's announcement, and the company complied with the requests. The Securities and Exchange Commission launched its own investigation into Tesla and Musk as well. Musk's announcement came as a surprise to shareholders, and consequently the company's stock price rose by almost 11 percent; 17 days later, Musk said the proposal was dead. The volatile stock price movement resulted in multiple shareholder lawsuits.
According to multiple sources, Musk will step down as chairman within 45 days and will be replaced by an independent chairman; he will remain the CEO of the company. He and Tesla also agreed to pay $20 million each in fines that will be distributed to "harmed investors".
On April 20, 2017, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 53,000 (~70%) of the 76,000 vehicles it sold in 2016 due to faulty parking brakes that could become stuck and "prevent the vehicles from moving."
On March 29, 2018, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 123,000 Model S cars built before April 2016 due to corrosion-susceptible power steering bolts that could fail and require the driver to use "increased force" to control the vehicle.
Crashes and fires
On October 1, 2013, a Model S caught fire after the vehicle hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington. Tesla confirmed the fire began in the battery pack and was caused by the "direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 modules within the Model S battery pack." On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle. Tesla said that it would conduct its own investigation, and as a result of these incidents, announced its decision to extend its current vehicle warranty to cover fire damage.
On January 4, 2014, a Tesla Model S in Norway caught fire while charging at one of Tesla's supercharger stations and was completely destroyed. No one was injured.
On March 28, 2014, NHTSA announced that it had closed the investigation into whether the Model S was prone to catch fire, after the automaker said it would provide more protection to its battery packs. All Model S cars manufactured after March 6 have the .25-inch (6.4 mm) aluminum shield over the battery pack replaced with a new three-layer shield.
A Model S driver died in a collision with a tractor-trailer on May 7, 2016, in Williston, Florida, while the vehicle was in autopilot mode. The driver is believed to be the first person to have died in a Tesla vehicle in autopilot mode. The NHTSA investigated the accident and concluded: "A safety-related defect trend has not been identified at this time and further examination of this issue does not appear to be warranted."
On May 8, 2018, two 18-year olds died in a fire in Fort Lauderdale, Florida that ensued after crashing a Tesla Model S into a wall. The car was limited to a top speed of 85 mph. The cause has not been identified yet.
Maintenance costs, crash rates, and insurance costs
On June 4, 2017, the American Automobile Association raised insurance rates for Tesla owners following a report from the Highway Loss Data Institute. The report concluded that the Model S crashes 46% more often and is 50% more expensive to repair than comparable vehicles. Similarly, the Model X was concluded to crash 41% more often and to be 89% more expensive to repair than similar vehicles. As a result, AAA raised insurance rates on Tesla cars by 30%. Tesla said that the analysis is "severely flawed and not reflective of reality", however, Tesla failed to provide any contradictory numbers. Shortly thereafter, Russ Rader, the spokesman for the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, confirmed the AAA's analysis and that "Teslas get into a lot of crashes and are costly to repair afterward". Tesla has not made further statements on this topic.
Tesla has been criticized for repeatedly overpromising and underdelivering. Delivery dates for new vehicles and new vehicle features slipped on the Roadster, the Model S and the Model X. Advanced technologies like the prospect of a large network of solar-powered supercharger stations (first installed 2012; only two were solar-powered as of late 2014) also lagged projections.
In early October 2017, Musk had predicted that Model 3 production would be up to 5,000 units per week by December. A month later, he revised that target to "sometime in March" 2018 due in part to difficulties with robots on the assembly line, but primarily due to problems with the battery module. An analyst with Cowan and Company, a public relations firm, made this comment: "Elon Musk needs to stop over promising and under delivering".
On September 24, 2018, Musk revealed on Twitter that Tesla will be building its own car carriers as the company is facing challenges due to logistics. Tesla is running into an acute shortage of car carrier trailers leading to a delay in the delivery. In mid-November, with end-of-year buyer tax credits expiring in a little more than six weeks, Musk announced that the company was aggressively ramping up delivery capabilities with trucking contracts and even outright purchase of some trucking firms to deliver as many cars as possible before the deadline.
In August 2015, two researchers said they were able to take control of a Tesla Model S by hacking into the car's entertainment system. The hack required the researchers to physically access the car. Tesla issued a security update for the Model S the day after the exploit was announced.
In September 2016, researchers at Tencent's Keen Security Lab demonstrated a remote attack on a Tesla Model S and controlled the vehicle in both Parking and Driving Mode without physical access. They were able to compromise the automotive networking bus (CAN bus) when the vehicle's web browser was used while the vehicle was connected to a malicious Wi-Fi hotspot. This was the first case of a remote control exploit demonstrated on a Tesla. The vulnerability was disclosed to Tesla under their bug bounty program and patched within 10 days, before the exploit was made public. Tencent hacked the doors of a Model X in 2017.
In January 2018, security researchers informed Tesla that an Amazon Web Services account of theirs could be accessed directly from the Internet and that the account had been exploited for cryptocurrency mining. Tesla reacted by securing the compromised system and by rewarding the security researchers financially via their bug bounty program and stated that the compromise did not violate customer privacy, nor vehicle safety or security.
Tesla offers service at their service centers, or if a center is not available, mobile technicians can perform most inspections and repairs. It is recommended to have any Tesla car inspected every 12,500 miles or once a year, whichever comes first. The first units for each new model revealed design and manufacturing flaws, including the Model S and the Model X. As the Tesla vehicle fleet grew, limited service centers resulted in waiting periods for some owners. Auto experts view the service delays as insignificant, as owners are more accepting of the challenges of servicing a new type of car.
At the June 2018 shareholder meeting, Elon Musk confirmed that Tesla will soon start to open its first body shops in the top ten U.S. metro areas, stocking some body parts, potentially allowing for same-day service.
In June 2017, Tesla made a "last-minute push near the end of the Albany legislative session to expand its sales force in New York." However, Tesla and the legislature got pushback from the auto dealers. A New York State Legislature bill (A.8248/S.6600) would allow Tesla to operate 20 sales locations in the state, up from its current 5. The dealers attacked the bill, arguing that it would hurt their business because Tesla does not sell through dealers. According to the New York Law Journal, "Tesla . . . has its own in-house lobbyists, according to disclosures filed with the state's lobbying entity."
Board of directors
- Elon Musk, Chairman, CEO and Product Architect of Tesla; founder, CEO and CTO of SpaceX; Chairman of SolarCity
- Brad W. Buss, Former CFO of SolarCity; former CFO of Cypress Semiconductor Corp
- Ira Ehrenpreis, General Partner, Technology Partners
- Antonio J. Gracias, CEO and Chairman of the Investment Committee at Valor Equity Partners
- Steve Jurvetson, Managing Director, Draper Fisher Jurvetson
- Kimbal Musk, Co-founder of The Kitchen
- Robyn Denholm, Chair and COO of Telstra
- James Murdoch, CEO of 21st Century Fox
- Linda Johnson Rice, CEO and Chairman of Johnson Publishing Company
A group of investors asked Tesla in a 2017 public letter to add two new independent directors to its board “who do not have any ties with chief executive Elon Musk”. The investors wrote that “five of six current non-executive directors have professional or personal ties to Mr. Musk that could put at risk their ability to exercise independent judgement.” The letter called for a more independent board that could put a check on groupthink. At first Musk responded on Twitter, writing that the investors "should buy Ford stock" because "their governance is amazing.” Two days later, he promised he would add two independent board members.
- Battery electric vehicle
- List of automobile manufacturers of the United States
- List of electric cars currently available
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- Plug-in electric vehicles in California
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States
- "The Making Of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, And The Birth Of The Roadster". businessinsider.com. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Lamonica, Martin (September 21, 2009). "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNET. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- "tsla-def14a_20180606.htm". www.sec.gov. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- Musk, Elon (October 14, 2018). "Thanks for recognizing the great work of the Tesla team! 45,000 people now". Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- "US SEC: Form 10-K Tesla, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- "Designs and manufactures electric sports cars". Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- "Tesla". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-11-25.
- "Elon Musk on Twitter". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Burns, Matt (October 8, 2014). "A Brief History of Tesla". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
Tesla was founded not by Elon Musk, but rather by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in July 2003. The two bootstrapped the fledgling auto company until Elon Musk led the company's US$7.5 million Series A financing round in February 2004.
- "The Making Of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, And The Birth Of The Roadster". Business Insider. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) No. 124". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010. [self-published source]
- "Elon Musk Envisions Tesla Electric Car as Low as $20K: Cleantech News". Gigaom.com. September 17, 2008. Archived from the original on March 12, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- "Germany Wakes Up to Tesla". Bloomberg News Gadfly. September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- "Supply agreement for products and services based on Lotus Elise technology". OneCLE. July 11, 2005. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- Michaels, Daniel (January 14, 2010). "Long-Dead Inventor Nikola Tesla Is Electrifying Hip Techies". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Tesla Motors Moving Quickly to Commercialization of an Electric Car". GreenCar Magazine. July 9, 2009. Archived from the original on July 12, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- David Shepardson (May 9, 2012). "Tesla to deliver first Model S electric by June". The Detroit News. Retrieved May 10, 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Chris Woodyard (August 3, 2011). "Tesla boasts about electric car deliveries, plans for sedan". USA Today. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Garthwaite, Josie (May 6, 2011). "Tesla Prepares for a Gap as Roadster Winds Down". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- Dillow, Clay (June 23, 2011). "Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months". Popsci.com. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "2012 Form 10-K, Tesla Motors, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 7, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "Working for Tesla Motors – Engineering TV". Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Lambert, Fred (November 25, 2016). "Tesla has now over 30,000 employees (25K in US) after SolarCity/other acquisitions". Electrek. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Martin Eberhard (August 7, 2007). "Martin Eberhard of Tesla Motors speaks to the Motor Press Guild" (Flash video). Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "Former Flextronics CEO Michael Marks takes over at Tesla Motors - VentureOutsource.com". ventureoutsource.com. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Baer, Drake (November 11, 2014). "The Making Of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, And The Birth Of The Roadster". Business Insider. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Ohnsman, Alan (January 19, 2009). "Detroit Auto No-Shows Put Startups Fisker, Tesla in Spotlight". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on March 4, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
- Reed, John (July 24, 2009). "A New Start: FT:Elon Musk's ground-breaking electric car". Xinkaishi.typepad.com. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Vance, Ashley (May 14, 2015). "Elon Musk's Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla". Bloomberg News Business. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Crunchbase Tesla Motors". Crunchbase.com. November 18, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
- Arrington, Michael (May 19, 2009). "Tesla Worth More Than Half A Billion Dollars After Daimler Investment". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Davis, Joshua (September 27, 2010). "How Elon Musk Turned Tesla Into the Car Company of the Future". Wired. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.
- Baker, David R. (May 31, 2016). "Elon Musk: Tesla was founded on 2 false ideas, and survived anyway". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
- "Tesla gets long-awaited government loan". The Business Journals. Pacific Business news. June 24, 2009. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Tesla Announces Pricing of Initial Public Offering".
- Scholer, Kristen; Spears, Lee (June 29, 2010). "Tesla Posts Second-Biggest Rally for 2010 U.S. IPO". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on June 30, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- Boudreau, John (June 22, 2012). "In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Cole, Jay (May 22, 2013). "Tesla Repays Entire DoE Loan, Taxpayers MAKE $12 Million on the Deal". Inside EVs. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- "UPDATE 1-Tesla Motors raises more than $1 billion from debt, equity". May 17, 2013 – via Reuters.
- Mead, Charles. "Tesla Raises $2 Billion With Convertible Debt to Finance Factory".
- Hull, Dana. "Tesla Stock Sale Raises $738 Million as Banks Buy Option Shares".
- Lambert, Fred (June 16, 2016). "Tesla applied for a $106 million tax break on $1.26 billion expansion of Fremont Factory for the Model 3". Electrek. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Claudia Assis; Jeremy C. Owens (January 30, 2016). "Elon Musk exercises Tesla options, pays $50 million tax bill with own cash". MarketWatch. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Chris Ziegler (January 29, 2016). "Elon Musk bought $100 million more worth of Tesla this week". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Tesla Signature series Model X to begin delivery September 29". CNBC. Reuters. September 3, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- Jeff Cobb (December 15, 2015). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved December 16, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Kerpen, Phil (January 26, 2015). "Tesla and Its Subsidies". National Review. US. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Hirsch, Jerry. "Elon Musk's growing empire is fueled by $4.9 billion in government subsidies". latimes.com. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- "Tesla Motors Gross Profit Margin (Quarterly) (TSLA)". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on November 26, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Ferris, Robert; Wang, Christine (August 3, 2016). "Tesla misses Wall Street targets, but logs gains in vehicle production". Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Hull, Dana; Melin, Anders (March 7, 2018). "Big Tesla Shareholders Back Musk's $2.6 Billion Pay Package". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
[Elon] Musk, 46, owns about 20 percent of Tesla. … Baillie Gifford, … about 7.6 percent … T. Rowe Price holds about 6.4 percent. … Fidelity Investments … Tencent Holdings Ltd. and Vanguard Group Inc. – three major Tesla shareholders
- Hunnicutt, Trevor (August 16, 2018). "Major Tesla shareholders trimmed stakes last quarter: filings". Reuters. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
T. Rowe Price Group Inc funds, once the No. 2 Tesla shareholder after Musk, cut their holdings by nearly a quarter to 11.9 million shares … Fidelity Investments, another top-10 shareholder, said in an earlier filing it cut its Tesla stake by 21 percent during the quarter
- Lin, Ed (10 October 2018). "Now Only Elon Musk Owns More Tesla Stock Than T. Rowe Price". Barron's Capital. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
T. Rowe Price Group … 17.4 million shares … 10.2% stake … T. Rowe Price is now the second-largest Tesla shareholder, … Musk owns 33.7 million Tesla shares, a stake of 19.8% … Bailey Gifford, … 13.2 million shares, a 7.7% stake
- Kim, Tae (August 7, 2018). "Tesla shares rise on report Saudi Arabia sovereign wealth fund has $2 billion stake". CNBC. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
Saudi's Public Investment Fund bought a 3 percent to 5 percent stake
- "Update on Taking Tesla Private". Tesla, Inc. August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
the Saudi fund bought almost 5% of Tesla stock through the public markets
- Moyer, Liz (August 7, 2018). "Shareholder with $572 million of Tesla shares says he's good with car maker going private". CNBC. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
Baron Capital has 1.6 million shares of Tesla
- "Norway's wealth fund opposed Tesla chief's stock option plan". Reuters. March 22, 2018. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
Norwegian fund, which at the start of 2018 owned 0.48 percent
- Bade, Gavin (August 1, 2016). "Tesla agrees to $2.6B price tag for SolarCity merger". Utility DIVE. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- "Tesla's Acquisition of SolarCity Receives Shareholder Approval". Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Early Christmas Present For Elon Musk As Shareholders Bless Tesla-SolarCity Merger". Forbes. November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- "Tesla – Current Report". Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Miner, Dan (August 16, 2018). "Report: Tesla no longer committed to buying all solar modules made by Panasonic in Buffalo". Buffalo Business Journal. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Hull, Dana (April 7, 2016). "Tesla Says It Received More Than 325,000 Model 3 Reservations". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
- Baker, David R. (April 1, 2016). "Tesla Model 3 reservations top 232,000". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Goliya, Kshitiz; Sage, Alexandria (May 4, 2016). "Tesla puts pedal to the metal, 500,000 cars planned in 2018". Reuters. US. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Tesla Motors (May 4, 2016). "Tesla shareholders letter:Tesla First Quarter 2016 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Tesla Motors Is Officially Changing Its Name". February 1, 2017.
- O'Kane, Sean (February 1, 2017). "Tesla Motors changes company name to just Tesla". The Verge. US. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Higgins, Tim; Steele, Anne (March 29, 2017). "Tesla Gets Backing of Chinese Internet Giant Tencent". The Wall Street Journal. New York City. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris (June 7, 2017). "Tesla joins the Fortune 500". money.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris (July 7, 2017). "Tesla loses most valuable U.S. car company title after stock slide". CNN.com. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "Tesla's value drops $12 billion ahead of Model 3 rollout". The Economic Times. July 8, 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Ferris, Robert (May 4, 2017). "Tesla shares drop as investors worry Model 3 will be too good". CNBC. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Geely's Volvo to go all electric with new models from 2019". CNBC. July 5, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Boudette, Neal E. (July 6, 2017). "Tesla Loses No. 1 Spot in Market Value Among U.S. Automakers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Tesla Q3 2017 Vehicle Deliveries and Production (NASDAQ:TSLA)". ir.Tesla.com.
- Holley, Peter (November 3, 2017). "Analysis – Sleepless nights, broken robots and mounting pressure: Musk offers rare glimpse inside Tesla's 'production hell'". Retrieved November 6, 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.
- Ferris, Robert (November 1, 2017). "Tesla Model 3 production was slow because a supplier 'really dropped the ball' said Elon Musk". CNBC.com. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "Elon Musk Says This Is Tesla's 'Biggest Problem'". Fortune.com. November 1, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "Tesla's head of battery engineering exits". November 6, 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Tesla must stop overpromising, could need more finance: analysts". November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Tesla's Burning Through Nearly Half a Million Dollars Every Hour". Bloomberg. November 21, 2017.
It’s blowing through more than $1 billion a quarter thanks to massive investment in making the Model 3
- Isidore, Chris. "Tesla will start working 24/7 to crank out Model 3s". CNN Money. CNN. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- "Tesla Q2 2018 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". ir.Tesla.com.
- @elonmusk (August 7, 2018). "Am considering taking Tesla private at $420. Funding secured" (Tweet). Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Twitter.
- Shaban, Hamza (August 14, 2018). "Tesla forms special committee to consider going private". Washington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
- Rood, David A. (August 20, 2018). "Is Tesla's Bid to Privatize a Clever Move to Put off Insolvency?". The National Law Review. Foley & Lardner LLP. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
- Update on Taking Tesla Private, Tesla Blog, Elon Musk, August 13, 2018, accessed August 21, 2018.
- Boudette, Neal E. (August 24, 2018). "Tesla Will Not Go Private, Elon Musk Says, Capping Month of Turmoil". New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Staying Public, Tesla Blog, Elon Musk, August 24, 2018, accessed August 25, 2018.
- Goldstein, Matthew (September 27, 2018). "S.E.C. Sues Tesla's Elon Musk for Fraud and Seeks to Bar Him From Running a Public Company". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- O'Kane, Sean; Lopatto, Elizabeth (September 27, 2018). "Elon Musk sued by SEC for securities fraud". www.theverge.com. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Musk out as Tesla chair over fraud case". BBC News. September 29, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- Wattles, Jackie. "Elon Musk agrees to pay $20 million and quit as Tesla chairman in deal with SEC". CNNMoney. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "A victory for Elon Musk: Tesla outsells Mercedes-Benz in US for first time ever". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "_Update_Letter_2017-3Q.pdf Tesla Third Quarter 2017 Update". Tesla. November 1, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- Kane, Mark (October 4, 2017). "Tesla Has Delivered More Than 250,000 EVs, ~55% In The U.S." InsideEVs.com. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- "Tesla confirms having produced its 300,000th electric car". Electrek. February 14, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018.At the end of the 4Q 2017, Tesla had delivered over 286,000 cars since its inception.
- Tesla Motors (May 6, 2015). "Tesla Motors – First Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 4, 2016. A total of 10,045 Model S cars were delivered globaly during the first quarter of 2015.
- Tesla Motors (August 5, 2015). "Tesla Motors – Second Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 4, 2016. A total of 11,532 Model S cars were delivered globally during the second quarter of 2015.
- Tesla Motors (August 4, 2016). "Tesla Motors – Third Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF) (Press release). Palo Alto, California: Tesla Motors. Retrieved November 3, 2015. Tesla global electric car sales totaled 11,603 units during the third quarter of 2015, including six Tesla Model X units.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2015 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. February 10, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- "Tesla Second Quarter 2016 Update" (PDF) (Press release). Palo Alto: Tesla Motors. August 3, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016. During the second quarter of 2016 Tesla Motors delivered 14,402 new vehicles consisting of 9,764 Model S and 4,638 Model X. Production during 2Q 2016 totaled 18,345 vehicles.
- "Tesla Q2 2016 Vehicle Production and Deliveries" (Press release). Palo Alto: Tesla Motors. July 3, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Tesla Third Quarter 2016 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Palo Alto. October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Tesla Q4 2016 Production and Deliveries". Tesla Motors. Palo Alto. January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2016 Update" (PDF). Tesla Inc. Palo Alto. February 22, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017. Production totaled 24,882 vehicles in 4Q 2016 and vehicle deliveries totaled 22,252 units. No breakdown by model was provided.
- "Tesla Q1 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Tesla Motors (Press release). Palo Alto: Market Wired. April 2, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
Tesla (NASDAQ: TSLA) delivered just over 25,000 vehicles in Q1, of which approx 13,450 were Model S and approx 11,550 were Model X.
- "UPDATE – Tesla Q2 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Tesla. July 7, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- "Tesla Second Quarter 2017 Update (Letter to shareholders)" (PDF). Tesla. August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
We delivered 22,026 Model S and Model X vehicles in Q2, for a total of 47,077 in the first half of the year.
- "Tesla Q3 2017 Vehicle Deliveries and Production". Tesla. October 2, 2017.
- "Tesla Q4 2017 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Tesla. January 3, 2018.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2017 Update" (PDF). Tesla (Press release). Palo Alto: Tesla. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
In Q4, we delivered 28,425 Model S and Model X vehicles and 1,542 Model 3 vehicles, totaling 29,967 deliveries.
- "Tesla First Quarter 2018 Update" (PDF). Tesla. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- "Tesla Second Quarter 2018 Delivery". Tesla. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Donnelley, RR (1 August 2018). Automotive Products. Tesla Second Quarter 2018 Update (Report). p. 2. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
We produced 53,339 vehicles in Q2 and delivered 22,319 Model S and Model X vehicles and 18,449 Model 3 vehicles, totaling 40,768 deliveries.
- "Tesla Third Quarter 2018 Delivery". Tesla. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "Tesla Third Quarter 2018 Update". Palo Alto: Tesla. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
- "Tesla CEO Elon Musk: Here's Why We Don't Report Monthly Sales Figures". 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
- "Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard". 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
- Masters, Blake; Cauble, Matt (October 7, 2014). "Peter Thiel – Lecture 5: Business Strategy and Monopoly Theory". genius.com. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- Robert Scardino (July 17, 2009). "MSNBC Calls EV Drivers 'Lunatic Fringe'". AllCarsElectric.com. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- Welch, David (July 30, 2007). "Tesla: A Carmaker With Silicon Valley Spark". BloombergBusinessweek. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Vaughan, Adam (October 25, 2013). "12 interesting things we learned from Tesla's Elon Musk this week". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "Abu Dhabi Joins Feds as Tesla Backer". NBC Bay Area. July 14, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Soap Opera". Tesla Motors. June 22, 2009. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
"Tesla Motors, Inc." consisted of Eberhard, Tarpenning and Wright, plus an unfunded business plan, and they were looking for an initial round of funding to create a more advanced prototype than the AC Propulsion Tzero. While there was a basic corporation in place, Tesla hadn't even registered or obtained the trademark to its name and had no formal offices or assets. To save legal fees, we just copied the SpaceX articles of incorporation and bylaws for Tesla and I invested $6.35M (98%) of the initial closing of $6.5M in Series A funding. Eberhard invested $75k (approximately 1%).
- "Tesla is now ~80% vertically integrated, says Goldman Sachs after a Tesla Factory visit". Electrek. February 26, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
- McAssey, Pat (October 13, 2016). "Volkswagen CEO 'Annoyed Beyond Measure' That DHL Made Electric Van". NESN Fuel. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (February 26, 2016). "Tesla is now ~80% vertically integrated, says Goldman Sachs after a Tesla Factory visit". electrek.co. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles". afdc.energy.gov. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- Maria Gallucci (June 13, 2014). "Tesla Motors Opens Patents: Elon Musk's Electric Cars Now Part Of 'Open Source Movement'". HybridCars.com. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. June 4, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Richard Read. "Terrified of Tesla, NADA Launches Campaign To Tout Benefits of Franchise Dealerships". The Car Connection. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Borroz, Tony (February 19, 2010). "Tesla CEO Honored for 'Enlightened Vision'". Wired. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Musk, Elon (June 12, 2014), "All Our Patent Are Belong To You", Tesla Motors, retrieved June 13, 2014
- Eric Blattberg (June 14, 2014). "Here's what Tesla's 'good faith' patent stance actually means". VentureBeat. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Jeff John Roberts (June 14, 2014). "What Elon Musk did – and did not – do when he "opened" Tesla's patents". GigaOm. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Hull, Dana (January 17, 2012). "Tesla gears up to hire manufacturing workers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- Hull, Dana (July 3, 2014). "2014: Tesla Motors on a mission to hire American veterans". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- Hull, Dana (December 8, 2015). "Tesla Hopes Hiring 1,656 People Will Make It Profitable". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "CBS Evening News". CBS. September 1, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- Hull, Dana (November 11, 2014). "Veterans tour Tesla's Fremont factory". SiliconBeat. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Isodore, Chris (2018-11-13). "Next up: Tesla vs the world". CNN. Retrieved 2018-11-15. By November 2018, Tesla has sold nearly 500,000 cars worldwide, which accounts for about 20% of all the battery-only electric vehicles on the road today, according to an estimate from Navigant Research.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 22, 2018). "Tesla Quietly Sold 200,000th Model S Last Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved January 22, 2018. "Tesla sold its 200,000 Model S in the fourth quarter of 2017, in October or early November, becoming the second plug-in car to cross this sales threshold after the Nissan Leaf (300,000 units by early 2017). As of December 2017[update], Tesla reported global sales of 212,874 Model S cars."
- Cobb, Jeff (January 26, 2017). "Tesla Model S Is World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Halvorson, Bengt (2018-11-08). "Finalist for Green Car Reports Best Car To Buy 2019: Tesla Model 3". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
- "SEC Form 10-K for Fiscal Year Ended Dec 31, 2012, Commission File Number: 001-34756, Tesla Motors, Inc". SEC. February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
As of December 31, 2012, we had delivered approximately 2,450 Tesla Roadsters to customers in over 30 countries.
- Lambert, Fred (July 12, 2017). "Tesla's global fleet reaches over 5 billion electric miles driven ahead of Model 3 launch". Electrek. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Nienaber, Michael; Wagner, Rene (July 8, 2016). "Germany denies investigating Tesla over software updates". Reuters. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016.
- Sharan, Zachary (February 4, 2017). "Tesla Model S & Nissan LEAF Clocked As World's Best-Selling Electric Cars In 2016". CleanTechnica. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (March 14, 2017). "Tesla, BYD Jockey for Electric Car World Domination". Green Tech Media. Retrieved March 15, 2017. Revenue figures from Bloomberg New Energy Finance.
- Morris, David Z. (October 22, 2017). "Tesla Reaches Deal to Build Factory in China: It sold $1 billion worth of cars there in 2016". Fortune.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- Brent Snavely, Auto dealers chief warns of Tesla direct sales model, Detroit Free Press (October 7, 2016) (republished by USA today).
- Isidore, Chris (July 15, 2016). "Tesla opens a store inside Nordstrom". CNN Money.
- Thompson, Cadie (May 4, 2017). "Tesla Plans to Open More Retail Locations Ahead of Model 3 Launch". Business Insider – via Inc.
- Hull, Dana (August 21, 2015). "Thanks for Buying a $100,000 Tesla. Want a Tote Bag With That?". Bloomberg News Business. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- "Annual IRS report of Tesla, Inc. on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016". ir.tesla.com. March 1, 2017. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- "How Tesla's Referral Program Generates More Than 40x ROI". Inc.com. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- "Tesla Accused of Operating Illegal Showrooms in 4 States". The Car Connection. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Harry Stevens (January 15, 2013). "Court Affirms Tesla's Right to Operate Company-Owned Stores". Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Rogowsky, Mark (December 4, 2013). "Ohio To Tesla: We're Ignoring Our Whiny Car Dealers For Now, Come Sell Here". Forbes. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Borchers, Callum (November 20, 2013). "Tesla battles auto dealers on direct sales to consumers". Boston Globe.
- John Voelcker. "Tesla Loses Legal Battles To Texas, North Carolina Dealers". Green Car Reports. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Model S Design Studio". Tesla Motors. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Dan Gearino. "Auto dealers in Ohio seek to stop Tesla's way of direct selling". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- O'Toole, James (July 2, 2013). "Tesla direct-sales petition hits 100,000 signatures". CNN. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Christina Rogers (October 7, 2013). "GM Opens the Door to Online New-Car Sales – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Richard Read. "GM Follows Tesla's Lead, Plans To Sell Directly To Online Shoppers". The Car Connection. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Bengt Halvorson. "Scion Lets You (Almost) Buy A Car at Home, Take Delivery at Dealership". The Car Connection. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Voelcker, John (October 25, 2012). "Auto Dealers' Fight Against Tesla Stores: Elon Musk Weighs In". Green Car Reports. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- David Noland. "How Texas's Absurd Anti-Tesla Laws Turn Car Buying into A Joke". Jalopnik. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Chapman, Steve (June 20, 2013). "Car buyers get hijacked". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Direct-to-consumer auto sales: It's not just about Tesla". Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Richard Read. "Can The FTC Persuade Michigan & Other States To Open Their Doors To Tesla?". The Car Connection. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Lane, Charles (March 12, 2014). "Tesla takes on car dealerships in a fight to the death". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Economic Effects of State Bans on Direct Manufacturer Sales to Car Buyers" Economic Analysis Group Competition Advocacy, May 2009.
- Nelson, Gabe (October 6, 2014). "Tesla's trump card? Used cars". Automotive News. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Wenck, Kevin (July 27, 2016). "Tesla: Residual Value Guarantees (On Leased Vehicles) Did Not End In July". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Lambert, Fred (July 13, 2016). "Tesla discontinues 'Resale Value Guarantee' program for new vehicles to focus on low interest rates". Electrek. US. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Joseph, Noah (May 4, 2015). "Tesla starts selling used Model S EVs online". Autoblog.com. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Caldwell, Jessica (July 28, 2015). "Who Is the Used Tesla Model S Buyer?". Edmunds.com. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors". Tesla Motors. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Szymkowski, Sean (June 16, 2017). "Tesla changes warranty, cuts used Model S prices, to lure Model 3 buyers". Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Lambert, Fred (June 12, 2017). "Tesla's new batches of used cars are selling ludicrously fast". Electrek. US. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors Canada". Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Österreich" (in German). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Model S d'occasion ; Tesla Motors Belgique" (in French). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Brugt Model S ; Tesla Motors Danmark" (in Danish). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Model S d'occasion ; Tesla Motors France" (in French). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Deutschland" (in German). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors UK". Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Tweedehands Model S ; Tesla Motors Nederland" (in Dutch). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Brukt Model S ; Tesla Motors Norge" (in Norwegian). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Begagnade Model S ; Tesla Motors Sverige" (in Swedish). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Schweiz" (in German). Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Fisher, Thomas (June 11, 2013). "What Goes into A Tesla Model S Battery—And What It May Cost". Green Car Reports. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Weintraub, Seth (July 28, 2016). "Tesla Gigafactory tour roundup and tidbits: 'This is the coolest factory in the world'". Electrek. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "Tesla Model 3 Pricing, Tesla Battery Price Down To $190/kWh". CleanTechnica. April 27, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- Wesoff, Eric (March 15, 2015). "How Soon Can Tesla Get Battery Cell Costs Below $100 per Kilowatt-Hour?". Greentech Media.
- Lambert, Fred (December 14, 2016). "Tesla's hacked Battery Management System exposes the real usable capacity of its battery packs". Electrek. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Noland, David (November 13, 2013). "How Tesla May Beef Up Its Model S Battery Protection System". Green Car Reports. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Tesla CTO: Tesla Batteries Expected To Last 10–15 Years At A Minimum". CleanTechnica. September 6, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- "Why Vehicle-To-Grid & Used EV Battery Storage Isn't Logical". CleanTechnica. August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Jacques, Carole (November 22, 2016). "Recycling, not Reuse, Is the Better Choice for Batteries from Retired Electric Vehicles". Lux Research. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "Mythbusters Part 3: Recycling our Non-Toxic Battery Packs". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015.
- Katie Spence (February 9, 2014). "Will Battery Recycling Help Tesla Motors' Massive Shortcoming?". fool.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014.
- "The Electric Vehicle Battery 'Can And Should Be Recycled'". CleanTechnica.
- "Model S Specifications". Tesla. Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Lawler, Richard (October 9, 2014). "Riding shotgun in Tesla's fastest car ever". Engadget. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Tesla D is, as expected, an AWD Model S but new autopilot features surprise". Green.autoblog.com. October 9, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Autopilot: Full Self-Driving Hardware on All Cars". Tesla Motors. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (August 9, 2017). "Tesla has a new Autopilot '2.5' hardware suite with more computing power for autonomous driving". Electrek. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Lambert, Fred (October 20, 2016). "Tesla's software timeline for 'Enhanced Autopilot' transition means 'Full Self-Driving Capability' as early as next year". Electrek. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
At "2 to 3 months from now", Tesla expects .. the new software validation for the Autopilot features
- Golson, Jordan; Bohn, Dieter (October 19, 2016). "All new Tesla cars now have hardware for 'full self-driving capabilities'". The Verge. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- "Elon Musk on Boring Company, Semi-Truck, Mars – TED Talk [transcript]". Electrek. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
Chris: The time when someone will be able to buy one of your cars and literally just take the hands of the wheel and go to sleep and wake up and find that they've arrived. How far away is that? To do that safely? Elon: That's about two years.
- Muoio, Danielle (November 1, 2016). "Elon Musk: Tesla is developing a special kind of glass for its Model 3". Yahoo News. Business Insider. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
- "Elon Musk says Tesla will begin selling solar roof tiles". USA Today. May 10, 2017.
- Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and (March 24, 2017). "Find a car – Years: 2016–2017 – Vehicle Type: Electric". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Krok, Andrew (July 29, 2017). "By the numbers: Tesla Model 3 vs. Chevrolet Bolt EV". CNET. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Ingram, Antony (August 7, 2013). "First 2013 Tesla Model S Delivered Outside North America—In Oslo". Green Car Reports. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Makinen, Julie (April 22, 2014). "Tesla delivers its first electric cars in China; delays upset some". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- Trop, Jaclyn (February 19, 2014). "Loss Tapers at Tesla as Its Sales Still Climb". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Order a Tesla Model S". Retrieved June 30, 2018.
- "Nissan strengthens Formula E partnership with stake in e.dams" (Press release). Yokohama: Nissan. 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- "Monthly Plug-in Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. May 3, 2018. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- Young, Angelo (August 14, 2014). "Tesla in Norway: 436 Model S Sedans Are Being Delivered Monthly In Tesla's Largest Overseas Market". HybridCars.com. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Frydenlund, Ståle (January 2, 2014). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on July 19, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2016. Model S sales in Norway during 2013 totaled 1,986 units.
- Frydenlund, Brett; Haugneland, Peter (January 6, 2016). "Nesten 26.000 nye elbiler i fjor" [Nearly 26,000 new electric cars last year]. Norsk Elbilforening (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2016. Model S sales in Norway totaled 4,040 units in 2014, and 4,039 units in 2015.
- "Bilsalget i oktober" [Car sales in October] (in Norwegian). Norwegian Road Federation (OFV). November 1, 2016. Archived from the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016. Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway: Tesla Model S registrations totaled 1,740 new units during the first ten months of 2016.
- "Norges mest solgte bil i september er en elbil" [Norway's best selling car in September is an electric vehicle]. Grønn bil (in Norwegian). October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Gasnier, Mat (October 2, 2013). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (October 1, 2013). "Tesla Model S Was Best-Selling Car in Norway For September". Green Car Reports. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Lindsay Riddell (May 20, 2010). "Tesla to buy NUMMI plant, build cars with Toyota". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Ricketts, Camille (May 27, 2010). "Tesla paid $42M for NUMMI but doesn't have deal to build cars with Toyota". VentureBeat. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- "Tesla Wants NUMMI Operational By 2012". KVTU.com. May 21, 2010. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Tesla unveils world's first mass-produced highway-capable EV" (Press release). Tesla Motors. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Willebrands, Michiel (August 22, 2013). "Tesla opent assemblagecentrum in Tilburg" [Tesla opens assembly center in Tilburg]. AutoWeek Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- "Model S Motor Trend Car of the Year Award 2013". Motor Trend. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car [press release]". International Business Times. PR Newswire. March 28, 2013. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Zenlea, David (November 1, 2012). "2013 Automobile of the Year: Tesla Model S". Automobile. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- "Best Inventions of the Year 2012—$22,000–$750,000—The Tesla Model S". Time. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Model X Specifications". www.tesla.com.
- Cole, Jay Cole (March 9, 2013). "Tesla Delays Model X Production To "Late" 2014". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- Cobb, Jeff (February 19, 2014). "Tesla Posts Strong Q4 Earnings; Projects More Growth This Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- Sebastian Blanco (November 5, 2014). "Tesla Model X delayed, again, but Musk says Model S demand remains high". Autoblog Green. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- Pritchard, Camilla (August 20, 2015). "Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Model X Pre-Orders Cross 30,000 Units". Business Finance News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015.
The table formed by TMC reveals that the electric vehicle (EV) company has received 30,027 Model X reservations worldwide. – The sedan was able to receive only 12,000 pre-orders ahead of its launch.
- Cobb, Jeff (October 11, 2016). "Almost Half The Cars Bought In Norway Last Month Were Electrified". HybridCars.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Fred Magne Skillebæk (October 11, 2016). "Bilsalget september 2016 – Full fart forover!" [Car sales in September 2016 – Full speed ahead!]. Dinside.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "Tesla Model 3: Latest news, rumours, prices and specs". Auto Express. UK. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- "Tesla Model 3: Elon Musk unveils the Model 3 to huge fanfare". Los Angeles Times. March 31, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- "Model 3 Reservation Deposit". www.tesla.com. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- "Tesla Model 3: tens of thousands reportedly reserving the $35,000 car without having seen it". Electrek.
- Hull, Dana (April 7, 2016). "Tesla Says It Received More Than 325,000 Model 3 Reservations". Bloomberg. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
- Sommer, Lauren (April 18, 2016). "A Rare Look Inside The 'Gigafactory' Tesla Hopes Will Revolutionize Energy Use". NPR. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "Tesla Hands Over First Model 3 Electric Cars to Early Buyers". US: NBC News. July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Randall, Tom (April 21, 2016). "Ten Charts That Will Make You Rethink Tesla's Model 3". Bloomberg News. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "Tesla reaches Model 3 production milestone and record 7,000-car week total production, says Elon Musk". Electrek. July 1, 2018. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (August 2018). "California Green Vehicle Report (YTD June 2018)" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2018-10-24. See section: "Electric and Plug In Vehicle Segments Move Higher in 2018" - registrations through December March 2018 since 2014.
- Jose, Pontes (September 28, 2018). "Global Top 20 August 2018 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- “Tesla Roadster.” Tesla, Inc, www.tesla.com/roadster.
- Gibbs, Samuel (November 17, 2017). "Tesla Roadster: nine things we know about the 'smackdown to gasoline cars'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Ballaban, Michael (July 17, 2015). "The Tesla Model S Just Got Upgraded to LUDICROUS SPEED". Jalopnik. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Lambert, Fred (May 3, 2017). "Tesla Semi is using 'a bunch' of Model 3 electric motors, says Elon Musk". Electrek. US.
- Mitchell, Russ (November 14, 2017). "Tesla's entry into truck-making presents a whole new challenge for Elon Musk". LA Times. US. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Davies, Alex (November 16, 2017). "Elon Musk Reveals Tesla's Electric Semitruck". Wired. US. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Sage, Alexandria (November 17, 2017). "Loblaw, Walmart to test out Tesla's all-electric Semi in Canada". CBC News. Canada. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Smith, Jennifer (November 17, 2017). "Tesla's Electric Semi Truck Gets Orders From Wal-Mart and J.B. Hunt". WSJ. US. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Warren, Tamara (October 6, 2015). "Elon Musk just teased the Model Y in a tweet (which he immediately deleted)". The Verge. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- "Model Y". TradeMarkia. August 25, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- "Tesla Model Y will have "substantial carryover" from Model 3, next-gen platform to come later". Teslarati.com.
- "Tesla Model Y production plans to be unveiled in 3–6 months, capital investment starting this year, says Elon Musk". Electrek. February 7, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- "Tesla starts posting jobs for new Model Y program ahead of the launch". Electrek. March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- "Elon Musk says Tesla Model Y will be a 'manufacturing revolution'". The Verge. May 3, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "Tesla Model Y launch date revealed by Elon Musk – be there the Ides of March | Trusted Reviews". Trusted Reviews. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Valle, Marius (April 21, 2016). "Elon Musk: – Derfor har ikke Tesla satset på hydrogenbiler" [Elon Musk: Why Tesla did not opt for hydrogen cars]. Teknisk Ukeblad. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
The plan with Model 3 has been to make a car that half of us can afford. The next car should be one everyone can afford, according to Musk.
- "Elon Musk: Tesla Plotting Gen 4 Model That Everyone Can Afford". Inside EVs. April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Randall, Tom (March 30, 2016). "Elon Musk wanted to name his Model 3 Model E so Tesla's brands would spell SEX. This and other secrets about his newest car". Financial Post. US. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Muoio, Danielle (November 8, 2016). "Tesla car secrets you may not have known". Business Insider. US. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Ferris, Robert (July 20, 2016). "Musk Sees Tesla's Future: Trucks, Transit and Solar in a Push to Sustainability". CNBC. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (July 29, 2016). "Tesla will leverage the Model X chassis to build its 'Minibus', says Elon Musk". Electrek. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (May 4, 2017). "Elon Musk is not so sure about Tesla's electric and autonomous minibus program anymore". Electrek. 9to5. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Beckwith, Jimi (June 6, 2018). "Tesla compact hatchback to launch within five years". Autocar. UK. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Anderson, Brad (June 9, 2018). "Tesla Could Launch A New Compact EV In Less Than Five Years". Carscoops. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Gastelu, Gary (June 6, 2018). "Elon Musk was almost killed on a motorcycle, so Tesla will never build them". Fox News. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- Berzon, Alexandra; Sweet, Cassandra (May 1, 2015). "Tesla CEO Elon Musk Unveils Line of Home and Industrial Battery Packs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (May 1, 2015). "Tesla's New Home Battery Could Be The iPad of Energy Storage". HuffPost. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Castelvecchi, Davide (May 4, 2015). "Will Tesla's Battery for Homes Change the Energy Market?". Scientific American. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Randall, Tom (May 8, 2015). "Tesla's Battery Grabbed $800 Million in Its First Week". US. Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Shahan, Zachary (February 15, 2015). "Tesla Gigafactory Now on Schedule For 2016, Not 2017". Solar Love. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- Geuss, Megan (September 16, 2016). "SoCal utility will buy 80MWh of battery storage from Tesla after methane leak". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Bhuiyan, Johana (February 22, 2017). "Tesla may be building three more Gigafactories". Recode. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- "Tesla Restores Power for Children's Hospital in Puerto Rico". LATINA. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "Supercharger | Tesla Motors". www.tesla.com. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- "Tesla Motors". Tesla Motors. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- "An Update to Our Supercharging Program press release". Tesla, Inc. November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Improving Supercharger Availability". www.tesla.com. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- "Tesla starts fining people who abuse Supercharger stations". VentureBeat. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- "Destination Charging". US: Tesla Motors. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Hull, Dana (August 24, 2014). "Tesla rolls out "Destination Charging" program at hotels, restaurants and resorts". Silicon Beat. US. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Lavrinc, Damon (August 28, 2014). "Tesla Rolls Out 'Destination Charging' At Resorts And Restaurants". Jalopnik. US. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- "Tesla Introduces Destination Charging in Europe". April 25, 2016.
- "Destination Charging". www.tesla.com. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Stewart, James B. (August 23, 2013). "Wondering if Tesla Can Get There From Here". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Dudley, Brier (May 21, 2009). "Business & Technology: Tesla announces showroom in Seattle". The Seattle Times. NW source. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Marshall, Matt (June 2, 2016). "2006: San Carlos start-up Tesla seeks sexier electric car". Mercury News. San Jose, California. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Tesla Store Los Angeles". Tesla Motors.
- "press releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. July 22, 2008. Archived from the original on May 28, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Tesla moving headquarters and powertrain operations to Palo Alto ". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. June 23, 2009. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Yoney, Domenick (April 27, 2009). "Tesla Motors buying Long Beach Boeing building?". Autoblog Green. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Opens Tesla Factory – Home of the Model S" (press release). Tesla Motors. October 27, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Burrows, Peter (October 11, 2016). "Elon Musk's House of Gigacards". Technology Review. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- PUI-WING TAM (October 21, 2010). "Idle Fremont Plant Gears Up for Tesla". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
Parts of the Fremont facility will be mothballed since Tesla is only using a fraction of the space. "When Nummi said it would close, the land was dead," says Fremont Mayor Bob Wasserman. When Tesla announced its Nummi deal in May, he says, "the land became alive" again
- "Tesla acquires Michigan-based auto supplier". Detroit News. May 7, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- "First look inside new Tesla plant in West Michigan". WOODTV.com.
- "Tesla doubles down on automation, acquires Perbix maker of automated manufacturing equipment". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- Avalos, George (June 11, 2015). "Tesla lease in Fremont helps city's economy rebound". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Lambert, Fred (January 4, 2017). "Tesla Gigafactory: new aerial pictures of the expansion at the battery factory – January 2017". electrek.co. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Tesla Unveils Model 3". Tesla. March 31, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- Johnston, Adam (January 8, 2016). "Tesla Starts Off 2016 By Producing & Delivering Powerwall". CleanTechnica. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- Randall, Tom (January 4, 2017). "Tesla Flips the Switch on the Gigafactory". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Lambert, Fred (January 3, 2018). "Tesla increases hiring effort at Gigafactory 1 to reach goal of 35 GWh of battery production". electrek.co. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- Damon, Anjeanette (September 16, 2014). "Inside Nevada's $1.25 billion Tesla tax deal". Reno Gazette Journal. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
the company must invest a minimum of $3.5 billion in manufacturing equipment and real property in the state. Five other states charge no sales tax at all and 34 states, including Arizona and Texas, don't charges sales tax on manufacturing equipment.
- Vega, Nicolas (August 17, 2018). "Ex-employee: Tesla concealed drug trafficking at its factory". New York Post. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- "- The Washington Post". Washington Post.
- "6 things to watch as Panasonic gears up to start production". August 31, 2017.
- Robinson, David (October 17, 2016). "Tesla, Panasonic to collaborate on photovoltaic cell production at SolarCity in Buffalo". The Buffalo News. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Christmann, Samantha (December 27, 2016). "Panasonic will invest in Tesla's South Buffalo solar plant". The Buffalo News. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Ayre, James (September 7, 2017). "Solar Roof Tile Production At Tesla's Buffalo "Gigafactory" Now Up & Running". Clean Technica.
- Eckhouse, Brian (January 9, 2018). "Tesla's New York Gigafactory Kicks Off Solar Roof Production". Bloomberg. US. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- "Tesla Motors Find Us". Tesla Motors. March 20, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Leeds, Samson (June 28, 2009). "Tesla opens Flagship Euro Store in London". Top Car Zone. Sablog zone. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
- "Green Autoblog". Green.autoblog.com. September 10, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Contact". Tesla Motors. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Kane, Mark. "Tesla's New Tilburg Factory Now Open". InsideEVs. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
re-assembled after leaving Tesla's Fremont factory in California in order to meet domestic manufacturing/regulatory standards and to avoid extra EU taxation/import tariff rules. The ‘final assembly‘ process reportedly takes about 2–3 hours per vehicle, but saves about ~10% worth of fees added to the EVs' pricing.
- "Photo: Tilburg assembly line". insideevs.com. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- "TESLA huurder NewLogic II Tilburg – Outside photos of Tesla Tilburg". October 18, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Klayman, Ben (June 12, 2014). "Tesla CEO says electric carmaker plans European plant: report". Reuters. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
- Lambert, Fred (November 8, 2016). "Tesla plans to choose location for 'Gigafactory 2' in Europe next year, will produce both batteries and cars". electrek.co. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (January 8, 2017). "The race to get 'Tesla Gigafactory 2' heats up, French Minister visits Fremont factory". Electrek. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- Tredway, Gareth (November 8, 2016). "Tesla buys automated manufacturing specialist Grohmann". Automotive Logistics. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Linden, Fritz-Peter (April 6, 2017). "Demnächst nur noch ein einziger Kunde für Tesla Grohmann in Prüm" [Next, only a single customer for Tesla Grohmann in Prüm] (in German). Volksfreund.de. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
We need all capacities in Prüm to drive the production of the Model 3 in large numbers. "a fast and smooth transfer of current customers to other suppliers" is being carried out.
- Kokkinidis, Tasos (February 17, 2018). "Meet the Greeks that Lured Elon Musk's Tesla to Athens". Greek Reporter. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Smith, Helena (June 2, 2018). "Elon Musk to open Tesla R&D plant in Greece". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Boston, William (July 30, 2018). "Tesla Explores Building Major Factory in Europe". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Chester Dawson & Yoshio Takahashi (November 15, 2010). "Tesla Plans Japan Push". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Tesla Motors Opens Showroom and Service Center in Netherlands (TSLA)". The Stock Market Watch. September 28, 2011. Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Shu, Catherine (December 16, 2013). "Tesla Launches Chinese Site As It Prepares To Sell Its Electric Cars in China". TechCrunch. Aol Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Lesage, Joe (March 17, 2017). "Tesla Opening Two Showrooms In South Korea This Week". Hybrid Cars. US. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- "Tesla to build factory in Shanghai". BBC News. July 11, 2018. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Terry Martin (March 18, 2010). "Tesla set to launch Roadster EV in Australia this year". Go Auto. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Tesla Roadster Approved for Australian Roads [press release]". Business Wire. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Maric, Paul (April 30, 2015). "Tesla to open new showroom and service centre in Richmond". Car Advice. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- "Tesla wins giant battery contract in Australia, has 100-day deadline". Reuters. July 7, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- "Tesla Motors to Provide Batteries for Freightliner Custom Chassis Electric Van". Motor Trend. WOT. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Godske, Bjørn (May 21, 2010). "Toyota buys $50mio stake in Tesla". Ing.dk. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. May 19, 2009. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Atkins, Thomas (July 13, 2009). "UAE'S Aabar buys 40 pct of Daimler's Tesla stake". Reuters. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Aabar Daimler Press Release, 2009" (PDF). aabar.com.[dead link]
- Mike Ramsey. "Daimler sells Tesla stake for $780 Million". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Jeffrey N. Ross (October 4, 2012). "Mercedes B-Class headed to America... but only as an EV?". Autoblog.com. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- "Mercedes-Benz Electric Car by Tesla Test Drive –Video Tesla Mercedes-Benz A Class". The Daily Green. September 3, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- "Mercedes-Benz Introduces the Battery-Powered A-Class E-CELL; Production Run of 500". Green Car Congress. September 15, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Masson, Laurent J (March 29, 2011). "Quick Drive: Electric Mercedes A-Class E-Cell". Plugin Cars. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Mercedes-Benz B Class Electric Coming To U.S.: Report (Compliance Car Watch)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (September 16, 2015). "Report: Next-Generation Smart ForTwo Electric Drive Will Feature Renault-Made Motors". Transport Evolved. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Tierney, Christine (May 20, 2010). "Toyota invests in Tesla to help reopen Calif. plant". The Detroit News. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Tajitsu, Naomi (June 5, 2017). "Toyota dumps all its shares in Tesla as their tie-up ends". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (July 16, 2010). "Breaking: Tesla and Toyota to develop RAV4 EV, hope to launch in 2012 — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Toyota unveils RAV4 EV demonstration vehicle; targeting fully-engineered version in 2012 for market". Green Car Congress. November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- Tellem, Tori (November 17, 2010). "2012 Toyota RAV4-EV: Take Two". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "Toyota RAV4 EV key for meeting California ZEV requirements; Tesla powertrain uses Model S components". Green Car Congress. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Garrett, Jerry (August 3, 2012). "Toyota and Tesla Trot Out the RAV4 EV". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "Toyota Wraps Up Production of RAV4 EV". PluginCars.com. September 29, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- "Don't look for a Toyota RAV4 EV successor anytime soon". Roadshow. April 3, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Gupta, Poornima (January 7, 2010). "Tesla, Panasonic partner on electric car batteries". Reuters. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "Tesla & Panasonic Make It Official, Buddy Up for Batteries: Cleantech News". Gigaom.com. January 7, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- "Panasonic invests $30m in Tesla". New Statesman. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Panasonic, Tesla agree to partnership for US car battery plant". Nikkei Inc. July 29, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "Tesla and Panasonic Will Begin Manufacturing Solar Cells and Modules in Buffalo, NY". www.tesla.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (August 24, 2015). "Tesla Wants To Take Stress Out of Vacationing with an Electric Car". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Tesla Partners With Liberty Mutual for Customized Insurance Plan". Bloomberg.com. October 13, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Korzeniewski, Jeremy (April 15, 2008). "Tesla files suit against Fisker Automotive". Autoblog.com. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Migliore, Greg (April 16, 2008). "Tesla sues Fisker, alleges theft of trade secrets". AutoWeek. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
- LaMonica, Martin (November 4, 2008). "Tesla Motors loses trade secrets case against Fisker". CNET News. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
- Eberhard v. Musk, Case No.: CIV-484400 (Superior Court of the State of California County of San Mateo July 29, 2009) ("From defendand's filing: "During a conversation with Musk in 2003, JB Straubel ("Straubel"), who later became Tesla's Chief Technology Officer, learned of Musk's interest in the development of an all-electric automobile. Following this conversation, he introduced Musk to Tom Gage and Al Ciccone at AC Propulsion, a company that had built an all-electric concept sports car call the Tzero. Musk was enthusiastic and encouraged Gage and Ciccone to put the Tzero concept into production. Though Musk was unable to persuade AC Propulsion to mass produce the Tzero, Gage offered to give Musk's contact information to two groups who did have such an interest, one of which included Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning ("Tarpenning"), and Ian Wright ("Wright").").
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (June 14, 2009). "Tesla Lawsuit: The Incredible Importance of Being a Founder". Earth2tech. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Martin Eberhard lawsuit (PDF), San Mateo County, CA[dead link]
- "Superior Court of California". County of San Mateo. July 17, 2009. Archived from the original on August 4, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Judge Strikes Claim on Who Can Be Declared a Founder of Tesla Motors [press release]". Business Wire. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (August 19, 2009). "Eberhard Says 'Uncle' in Tesla Lawsuit". Wired. Autopia. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNET. September 21, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- Rufford, Nick (March 18, 2015). "Dale Vince v Elon Musk: Electric car tsars at war over motorway charging stations". The Sunday Times. UK. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Vaughan, Adam (May 23, 2014). "Tesla Motors accused of bullying to grab key car charging sites in the UK". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- Green, Chris (June 12, 2014). "Misdirected email sparks electric car war between Tesla and Ecotricity". The Independent. UK. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- Bennett, Peter (June 17, 2015). "Tesla and Ecotricity reach out of court settlement over Electric Highways dispute". Next Energy News. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Vaughan, Adam (March 30, 2011). "Tesla sues Top Gear over 'faked' electric car race". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Tesla sues Top Gear for libel, New Stig unavailable for comment (update: BBC responds)". Engadget. March 30, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Wilman, Andy (April 2, 2011). "Tesla vs Top Gear: Andy Wilman on our current legal action". Top Gear. Transmission. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- "BBC denies rigging Top Gear Tesla Roadster car race". Newsbeat. BBC. March 30, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Vaughan, Adam (March 30, 2011). "Tesla sues Top Gear over 'faked' electric car race". The Guardian. Environment. London. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- "Tesla losing Top Gear court challenge". The Independent. October 21, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- Plunkett, John (February 23, 2012). "Top Gear libel case over Tesla electric sports car struck out". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Philip, Sam (May 11, 2015). "First drive: Tesla Model S P85D". BBC Top Gear. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "TGTV s23: Rory Reid in the Tesla Model X". Top Gear. November 3, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- "A Most Peculiar Test Drive – Tesla Blog". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Broder, John M. (February 8, 2013). "Stalled Out on Tesla's Electric Highway – The New York Times". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Farrell, Maureen (February 11, 2013). "Tesla stock dips on poor Model S review". US: CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Welch, Chris (February 11, 2013). "Tesla CEO Elon Musk accuses New York Times of lying about Model S range anxiety". The Verge. US: Vox Media. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Broder, John M. (February 14, 2013). "That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn't — The New York Times". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "Towing Company: The NYT Tesla Model S Was Dead When It Was On The Flatbed". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Sullivan, Margaret (February 18, 2013). "Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "Be prepared for these roadblocks if you want to drive a Tesla in Singapore | Stuff". www.stuff.tv. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "LTA on Tesla: CO2 emissions for electric cars start at power grid". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Gas Mileage of 2014 Tesla Model S". www.fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Here's how clean a Model S is in Singapore (and elsewhere)". Tesla Motors. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- hermes (March 4, 2016). "Electric car Tesla slapped with $15,000 tax surcharge". The Straits Times. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "LTA on Tesla: CO2 emissions for electric cars start at power grid". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Singapore's LTA says the Tesla Model S it tested was a used car, hence its low efficiency". Tech in Asia. March 10, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Kiss, Jemima (July 11, 2016). "Tesla under investigation by SEC after fatal crash involving autopilot – report". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Shumsky, Tatyana (November 29, 2016). "SEC Criticizes Tesla Over 'Tailored' Accounting". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
The SEC has judged the matter resolved without further action, according to an Oct. 12 letter the regulator sent to the company.
- "Lawsuits are piling up against Tesla (TSLA) over the SolarCity (SCTY) merger, Tesla says 'without merit'". Electrek. October 10, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "Tesla Shareholders approve SolarCity merger". CNN Money. November 17, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Kakuk, Michael A. (April 21, 2017). "Tesla Class Action Lawsuit Says Autopilot Feature is Dangerously Defective". Top Class Actions. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Calfas, Jennifer (April 20, 2017). "Tesla Owners Filed a Lawsuit Saying the New Autopilot Is 'Demonstrably Dangerous'". Fortune. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Muoio, Danielle (April 20, 2017). "Tesla owners have filed a class-action lawsuit alleging Autopilot 2 is 'demonstrably dangerous'". Business Insider. Australia. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Dayen, David (April 19, 2017). "Tesla Workers File Charges With National Labor Board as Battle With Elon Musk Intensifies". Capital and Main. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Field, Kyle (April 20, 2017). "Tesla factory workers intensify unionization efforts, file charges with National Labor Board". Teslarati.com. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- O'Donovan, Caroline (April 25, 2017). "Workers involved in union activities say Tesla is illegally intimidating them". CNBC. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- "Union Leases From Landlord Known for Labor Violations". InsideSources. September 15, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- "The End Of The Line For GM-Toyota Joint Venture". NPR.org. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- Maynard, Micheline. "Building Teslas At The GM Plant That Refused To Die". Forbes. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Wiessner, Daniel (May 26, 2018). "UAW accuses Musk of threatening Tesla workers over unionization". Reuters. US. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Eidelson, Josh (May 24, 2018). "Musk Stock-Option Tweet Violated U.S. Labor Law, UAW Alleges". Bloomberg. US. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Sumagaysay, Levi (June 1, 2018). "Elon Musk and unions: Congressman asks Tesla CEO to stop 'threats'". The Mercury News. US. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Lambert, Fred (March 7, 2016). "Tesla and SpaceX standout in tech employee survey for the most stressful and lowest paying jobs, but also most meaningful". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- "OSHA Recordable Incident Rate" (PDF). NMMCC.com. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "Creating the Safest Car Factory in the World". www.tesla.com. May 14, 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Wong, Julia Carrie (May 18, 2017). "Tesla factory workers reveal pain, injury and stress: 'Everything feels like the future but us'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Ferris, Robert (May 18, 2017). "Tesla workers are passing out on the factory floor, according to a report". CNBC. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Manufacturing "Old Timers" Offer Tesla's Elon Musk Some Sage Advice". IndustryWeek. August 1, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "NLRB Issues Complaint Against Tesla | UAW". UAW. August 31, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "Tesla Worker Jose Moran wants successful, profitable company with better conditions | UAW". UAW. February 10, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "Tesla responds: Here are "the facts" on our workplace conditions". The Mercury News. May 18, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "Analysis of Tesla Injury Rates: 2014 to 2017" , May 24, 2017
- "OSHA, Michigan OSHA, United Auto, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers (UAW)/Ford Motor Company/ACH-LLC (#97) | Annual Evaluations – Appendix A – (Plant Injury and Illness Rate Tables) – 2012 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration". www.osha.gov. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
- Evans, Will; Perry, Alyssa Jeong (April 16, 2018). "Tesla says its factory is safer. But it left injuries off the books". Reveal. US. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Weissman, Cale Guthrie (April 17, 2018). "Tesla calls journalism nonprofit an "extremist organization" after negative story". Fast Company. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Hansen, Louis (September 18, 2017). "Suit: Tesla, other automakers used illegal foreign workers to build plants". The Mercury News. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Edelstein, Stephen. "Tesla Removes Ludicrous Mode Restrictions After Owner Complaints". The Drive. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Tesla inches toward GPL compliance in low gear: Source code forcibly ejected into public".
- Cranz, Alex. "It Only Took Six Years, But Tesla Is No Longer Screwing Up Basic Software Licenses".
- "The Software Freedom Conservancy on Tesla's GPL compliance [LWN.net]". lwn.net.
- Alvarez, Simon (June 20, 2018). "Tesla files lawsuit against ex-employee for sabotage, misreporting to media". teslarati.com. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Krishna, Swapna (June 28, 2018). "Tesla wants former employee's data from Dropbox and Facebook". engadget.com. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Alvarez, Simon (June 29, 2018). "Ex-Tesla employee accused of sabotage is crowdfunding $500k to support legal battle". teslarati.com. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Tesla “whistleblower’s” lawyer opens up about Martin Tripp’s sudden Twitter departure, Teslarati, August 16, 2018.
- Harwell, Drew; Barrett, Devlin (September 18, 2018). "Tesla facing Justice Department investigation over Elon Musk tweets – The Boston Globe". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- "Elon Musk to step down as chair of Tesla Board". CBS News. September 29, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "Elon Musk forced to step down as chairman of Tesla, remains CEO". The Verge. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (April 11, 2016). "Tesla Recalls 2,700 Model X Cars for Seat Problem". Fortune. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Lee, Timothy B. (June 10, 2016). "Tesla's real problem isn't that its cars are expensive. It's that they're unreliable". Vox. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Lee, Timothy B. (April 20, 2017). "Tesla is recalling most of the cars it sold in 2016". Vox. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Wang, Christine (March 29, 2018). "Tesla voluntarily recalls 123,000 Model S cars over faulty steering component". CNBC. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Jensen, Christopher (October 2, 2013). "Tesla Says Car Fire Started in Battery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- Trop, Jaclyn (November 7, 2013). "Another Fire Raises Questions for Tesla". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (November 19, 2013). "Tesla Fires: NHTSA Will Probe, Warranty To Cover Fire Damage, Ride-Height Tweak". Green Car Reports. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Lendino, Jamie (January 4, 2016). "Tesla Model S catches fire at supercharger station in Norway". ExtremeTech. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Ivory, Danielle (March 28, 2014). "Federal Safety Agency Ends Its Investigation of Tesla Fires". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- George, Patrick (March 28, 2014). "The Tesla Model S: Now With Road Debris-Crushing Titanium!". Jalopnik. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Vlasic, Bill; Boudette, Neal E. (June 30, 2016). "Self-Driving Tesla Was Involved in Fatal Crash, U.S. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- "Preliminary Report, Highway HWY16FH018". NTSB. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Steware, Jack (January 20, 2017). "After Probing Tesla's Deadly Crash, Feds Say Yay to Self-Driving". Wired. US. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Trischitta, Linda; Lyons, David; Alanez, Tonya; Roustan, Wayne K. (May 10, 2018). "Federal agency will investigate Tesla crash that killed two young students". Sun-Sentinel. US. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Solomon, Lois K. (May 13, 2018). "Tesla in fatal crash was altered to limit its top speed, victim's aunt says". Sun-Sentinel. US. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Glon, Ronan (June 4, 2017). "AAA raising insurance rates for Tesla owners". Left Lane News. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Burke, Katie (June 4, 2017). "Tesla owners should pay more for insurance, AAA says". Automotive News. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Felton, Ryan (June 5, 2017). "AAA Raises Insurance Rates On Tesla Vehicles Because Repairs Are So Costly". Jalopnik. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Lavrinc, Damon (December 17, 2014). "What Will Tesla And Elon Musk Over Promise Next?". Jalopnik. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- Holley, Peter (October 2, 2017). "'We understand what needs to be fixed,' Tesla says after missing Model 3 production goals". Retrieved November 5, 2017 – via Washington Post.
- "Tesla must stop overpromising, could need more finance: analysts". November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Tesla is making its own car carriers". Reuters. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- "Tesla acquires trucking companies to squeeze in more deliveries before Dec. 31". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
- Masunaga, Samantha (August 6, 2015). "Researchers hack a Tesla Model S, bring car to stop,". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Mahaffey, Kevin (August 6, 2015). "The new assembly line: 3 best practices for building (secure) connected cars". Lookout. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
- O'Connor, Fred (August 7, 2015). "Tesla patches Model S after researchers hack car's software". Wired. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- "Car Hacking Research: Remote Attack Tesla Motors". Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (September 20, 2016). "First Tesla Model S remotely controlled by hackers, Tesla already pushed a fix". Electrek. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "This Tesla Investor's Tech Team Just Hacked the Model X – Again". Fortune. July 28, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Hackett, Robert (February 20, 2018). "Tesla Hackers Hijacked Amazon Cloud Account to Mine Cryptocurrency". fortune.com. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
- Lambert, Fred (February 20, 2018). "Tesla's cloud was 'hijacked' by hackers to mine cryptocurrencies". electrek.co. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
- "Service plans". Tesla Motors. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- "Consumer Reports Car Reliability Survey 2016". Consumer Reports. October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
When a car model is brand new or "completely redesigned," that can mean new parts, new systems—and new problems.
- Dow, Jameson (October 26, 2016). "Tesla says it reduced Model X issues by 92% amid criticism from Consumer Reports". Electrek. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Tesla Motors Service Delays Have Little Or No Effect On The Brand". The Country Caller. November 17, 2016. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
Despite such poor servicing of vehicles, Blue Book's Karl Brauer believes that there has not been a big effect on the Tesla brand as early owners are not completely dependent on their Model S sedans and Model X SUVs. Dunne Automotive President, Michael Dunne, believes that the owners are well aware of such issues before buying a Tesla car as they know "they are part of this experience of the first breakthrough electric vehicles."
- Tatarevic, Bozi (October 15, 2015). "Tesla Doesn't Want You to Work on Its Cars". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (June 6, 2018). "Tesla to open its own body shops by the end of the month, could offer same day repair, says Elon Musk". Electrek. US. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Inside Tesla's Lobbying Push to Expand NY Sales". New York Law Journal. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Board of Directors". Tesla, Inc. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
- CNBC (April 12, 2017). "Tesla investors urge board changes to prevent dysfunction". CNBC. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Elon Musk spars with investors who want independent Tesla board". USA Today. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Musk Promises 2 New Directors for Tesla Amid Shareholder Criticism". Fox Business. April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Vance, Ashlee (May 19, 2015). Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-230126-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tesla, Inc..|