Tesla's global corporate headquarters
in Palo Alto, California
|Industry||Automotive, Renewable Energy Storage Systems|
|Headquarters||Palo Alto, California, U.S.
|Revenue||US$3.198 billion (2014)|
|US$-186.7 million (2014)|
|US$-294.0 million (2014)|
|Total assets||US$7.547 billion (2015)|
|Total equity||US$1.284 billion (2015)|
|Owner||Elon Musk (22.25%)|
Number of employees
|12,000 (June 2015)|
|Footnotes / references
Tesla Motors, Inc. is an American automotive and energy storage company that designs, manufactures, and sells luxury electric cars, electric vehicle powertrain components, and battery products. Tesla Motors is a public company that trades on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the symbol TSLA. In the first quarter of 2013, Tesla posted profits for the first time in its history.
Tesla first gained widespread attention following their production of the Tesla Roadster, the first fully electric sports car. The company's second vehicle is the Model S, a fully electric luxury sedan, which was followed by the Model X, a crossover. Its next vehicle is the Model 3. Global Model S sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in December 2015, three and a half years after its introduction. The Model S was the world's best selling plug-in electric vehicle in 2015. As of December 2015[update], the Model S ranks as the world's second best selling plug-in car in history after the Nissan Leaf.
Tesla also markets electric powertrain components, including lithium-ion battery packs to automakers including Daimler and Toyota. CEO Elon Musk has said that he envisions Tesla Motors as an independent automaker, aimed at eventually offering electric cars at prices affordable to the average consumer. Pricing for the Tesla Model 3 is expected to start at US$35,000 before any government incentives, and deliveries are expected to begin by 2017. In 2015, Tesla announced Tesla Energy, a suite of batteries for homes (Powerwall), businesses, and utilities (Powerpack).
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Production
- 4 Corporate strategy
- 5 Technology
- 6 Competition
- 7 Car models
- 8 Battery products
- 9 Facilities
- 10 Partners
- 11 Lawsuits and Controversies
- 12 Product issues
- 13 Board of directors
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Tesla Motors is named after electrical engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Roadster uses an AC motor descended directly from Tesla's original 1882 design. The Tesla Roadster, the company's first vehicle, is the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV with a range greater than 200 miles (320 km) per charge. Between 2008 and March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31 countries. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011. Tesla unveiled the Tesla Model S all-electric sedan on March 26, 2009. In December 2012, Tesla employed almost 3,000 full-time employees. By January 2014, this number had grown to 6,000 employees.
Tesla Motors was incorporated in July 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning who financed the company until the Series A round of funding. Both men played active roles in the company's early development prior to Elon Musk's involvement. Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's board of directors as its chairman. Tesla's primary goal was to commercialize electric vehicles, starting with a premium sports car aimed at early adopters and then moving as rapidly as possible into more mainstream vehicles, including sedans and affordable compacts.
Musk took an active role within the company and oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level, but was not deeply involved in day-to-day business operations; Eberhard acknowledged that Musk was the person who insisted from the beginning on a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer body and he led design of components ranging from the power electronics module to the headlamps and other styling. In addition to his daily operational roles, Musk was the controlling investor in Tesla from the first financing round, funding the large majority of the Series A capital investment round of US$7.5 million with personal funds.
From the beginning, Musk consistently maintained that Tesla's long-term strategic goal was to create affordable mass market electric vehicles. Musk received the Global Green 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev, and he received the 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster.
Musk's Series A round included Compass Technology Partners and SDL Ventures, as well as many private investors. Musk later led Tesla Motors' Series B, US$13 million, investment round that added Valor Equity Partners to the funding team. Musk co-led the third, US$40 million round in May 2006 along with Technology Partners. Tesla's third round included investment from prominent entrepreneurs including Google co-founders Sergey Brin & Larry Page, former eBay President Jeff Skoll, Hyatt heir Nick Pritzker and added the VC firms Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Capricorn Management and The Bay Area Equity Fund managed by JPMorgan Chase. The fourth round in May 2007 added another US$45 million and brought the total investments to over US$105 million through private financing.
In December 2007, Ze'ev Drori became CEO and President. In January 2008, Tesla fired several key personnel who had been involved from the inception after a performance review by the new CEO. According to Musk, Tesla was forced to reduce the company workforce by about 10% to lower its burn rate, which was out of control in 2007. In May 2008, The Truth About Cars launched a "Tesla Death Watch", as Tesla needed another round of finance to survive. In October 2008, Musk succeeded Drori as CEO. Drori became vice-chairman, but then left the company in December. In December a fifth round added another US$40 million avoiding bankruptcy.
By January 2009, Tesla had raised US$187 million and delivered 147 cars. Musk had contributed US$70 million of his own money to the company. On May 19, 2009, Germany's Daimler AG, maker of Mercedes-Benz, acquired an equity stake of less than 10% of Tesla for a reported US$50 million. In July 2009, Daimler announced that Abu Dhabi's Aabar Investments bought 40% of Daimler's interest in Tesla.
In June 2009 Tesla was approved to receive US$465 million in interest-bearing loans from the United States Department of Energy. The funding, part of the US$8 billion Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program, supports engineering and production of the Model S sedan, as well as the development of commercial powertrain technology. The low-interest loans are not related to the "bailout" funds that GM and Chrysler received, nor are they related to the 2009 economic stimulus package. The loan program was created in 2007 during the George W. Bush administration. Tesla repaid the loan in May 2013. Tesla was the first car company to have fully repaid the government, while Ford, Nissan and Fisker had not.
The company announced in early August 2009 that it had achieved overall corporate profitability for the month of July 2009. The company said it earned approximately US$1 million on revenue of US$20 million. Profitability arose primarily from improved gross margin on the 2010 Roadster, the second iteration of Tesla's award-winning sports car. Tesla, which like all automakers records revenue when products are delivered, shipped a record 109 vehicles in July and reported a surge in new Roadster purchases. In September 2009, Tesla announced an US$82.5 million round to accelerate Tesla's retail expansion. Daimler participated in the round to maintain equity ownership from its initial investment.
Tesla Motors signed a production contract on July 11, 2005, with Group Lotus to produce "gliders" (complete cars minus powertrain). The contract ran through March 2011, but the two automakers extended the deal to keep the electric Roadster in production through December 2011 with a minimum number of 2,400 units, when production ended,[dated info] mostly because of tooling changes orchestrated by one of its suppliers. In June 2010, it was reported that Tesla sold a total of US$12.2 million zero emission vehicle credits to other automakers, including Honda, up to March 31, 2010.
2010 initial public offering
On January 29, 2010, Tesla Motors filed Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, as a preliminary prospectus indicating its intention to file an initial public offering (IPO) underwritten by Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, J. P. Morgan, and Deutsche Bank Securities. On May 21, 2010, Tesla announced a "strategic partnership" with Toyota, which agreed to purchase US$50 million in Tesla common stock issued in a private placement to close immediately after the IPO. Executives at both companies said that they would cooperate on "the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support." Less than two months later, Toyota and Tesla confirmed that their first platform collaboration would be to build an electric version of the RAV4 EV.
On June 29, 2010, Tesla Motors launched its initial public offering on NASDAQ. 13,300,000 shares of common stock were issued to the public at a price of US$17.00 per share. The IPO raised US$226 million for the company. It was the first American car maker to go public since the Ford Motor Company had its IPO in 1956,[dated info] and by 2014 Tesla had market value half that of Ford. During November 2013, Tesla's stock fell more than 20 percent, following news of a third Model S fire. All of those Model S fires had developed several minutes after the cars had struck significant road debris at high speeds and all of the vehicles had provided warnings to the occupants of serious battery damage, advising that an immediate stop was required. All three owners ordered new Model Ss. In the following months Tesla developed a battery protection system as a no-cost retrofit to all Model Ss. No further regulatory action was taken, although there have been a few incidents since, most recently January 2016, with a charging Model S at a Norwegian Supercharger station. Despite the drop, Tesla was still the top performer on the Nasdaq 100 index in 2013. Tesla was seeking to sell 40,000 electric vehicles worldwide in 2014, adding China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Australia to the list of countries where it exports cars, but it later reduced its guidance on sales down to 33,000 units for 2014 in November 2014.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2015)|
In October 2015, Tesla Motor announced the company is negotiating with the Chinese government on producing cars domestically. Local production has the potential to reduce the sales prices of Tesla models by a third. However, foreign automakers are generally required to establish a joint venture with a Chinese company to produce cars domestically Elon Musk clarified that production will remain in the U.S. in the foreseeable future, but if there's sufficient local demand for the Tesla Model 3 in China, a factory could be built in the country as soon as a year after the launch of the new model. Production in Europe will also depend on the region's demand for the Model 3.
Tesla announced in November 2015 that during the third quarter of 2015 produced a record 13,091 vehicles, and also revised its target sales for 2015 to between 50,000 and 52,000 vehicles, including both of its models available for retail sales. The company expects to achieve an average production and deliveries of 1,600 to 1,800 vehicles per week for Model S and Model X combined during 2016.
|Quarter||Model S||Model X||Total|
Tesla's strategy has been to emulate typical technological-product life cycles and initially enter the automotive market with an expensive, high-end product targeted at affluent buyers. As the company, its products, and consumer acceptance matured, it is moving into larger, more competitive markets at lower price points.
Tesla has a three step strategy, where the battery and electric drivetrain technology for each new type would be developed and paid for through sales of the former types, starting with Tesla Roadster and moving on to the Tesla Model S, Model X and Model 3 vehicles. Step one was making the Tesla Roadster high price, low volume. The Model S is step two with mid price, mid volume. The third generation will be low price, high volume.
Aiming premium products at affluent "thought leaders" is a very well-known business strategy in Silicon Valley and the global technology industry, where prices for the first versions of, for example, cellular phones, laptop computers, and flat-screen televisions start high but drop with subsequent products as the technology matures and production volumes increase. According to a blog post by Musk, "New technology in any field takes a few versions to optimize before reaching the mass market, and in this case it is competing with 150 years and trillions of dollars spent on gasoline cars."
One of Tesla's stated goals is to increase the number and variety of electric vehicles (EV) available to mainstream consumers by:
- selling its own vehicles in company-owned showrooms and online;
- selling powertrain components to other automakers
- serving as a catalyst and positive example to other automakers
Tesla focuses on pure electric propulsion technology, even for larger vehicle segments and ranges beyond 200 miles. Musk won the 2010 Automotive Executive of the Year Innovator Award for hastening the development of electric vehicles throughout the global automotive industry.
Tesla would like to disrupt the automotive industry in a way that Tesla investor Peter Thiel (see PayPal Mafia) calls complex coordination, which means many innovative pieces fit together in just the right way and when assembled has tremendous advantages.
Arnnon Geshuri, the Vice President of Human Resources since November 2009, has committed to bringing manufacturing jobs "back to California". In 2015, Geshuri led a hiring spree for Tesla about which he said; "In the last 14 months we've had 1.5 million applications from around the world. People want to work here." Geshuri also is placing an emphasis on hiring military veterans in large numbers saying "Veterans are a great source of talent for Tesla, and we're going after it."
Business model and US automotive dealership disputes
|Map of direct automaker sales, regarding Tesla conditions|
Tesla operates stores or galleries—usually located in shopping malls—in 22 U.S. states and Washington DC. Customers cannot purchase vehicles from the stores, but must order them on the Tesla Motors website instead. The stores act as showrooms that allow people to learn more about Tesla Motors and its vehicles. The galleries are located in states with more restrictive dealership protection laws, which prevent discussing prices, finances, and test drives, as well as other restrictions.
Tesla's strategy of direct customer sales and owning its own stores and service centers is a significant departure from the standard dealership model currently dominating the U.S. vehicle marketplace. Tesla Motors is the only automaker that sells cars directly to consumers, with all other automakers using independently owned dealerships (partly due to an earlier conflict), although some automakers provide online configuration and/or financing. 48 states have laws that limit or ban manufacturers from selling vehicles directly to consumers, and even though Tesla Motors has no independent dealerships, dealership associations in multiple states have filed numerous lawsuits against Tesla Motors, trying to block the company from selling cars in some states. North Carolina and New Hampshire sided with Tesla Motors while Virginia and Texas have taken the opposite position.
This situation is unique to Tesla Motors' US operations. Other countries do not have such regulatory laws dealing with car dealers and manufacturers. The Federal Trade Commission suggests allowing direct manufacturer sales, which analysts believe would save consumers an average of 8% on their car purchase. The National Automobile Dealers Association states that franchises (such as offered by its members) offer better value for customers than direct sales.
In August 2015, Tesla launched a wholesale revamp of its stores worldwide as the company prepares to debut its Model X. The stores will include interactive displays focused on four major themes: safety, autopilot features, the company's charging network and the dual motors that power each axle.
Texas currently has stringent dealership protection laws which make purchasing a vehicle from Tesla Motors in person, at a Tesla Gallery, difficult. Thus, all Texas orders are taken via the internet or over the phone. Texas requires all new cars to be purchased through third-party dealerships, effectively blocking Tesla from selling cars directly. A resident of Texas may still easily purchase a vehicle from Tesla Motors, but purchasing the vehicle is handled as an out-of-state transaction. This may result in the inability to include Texas state sales tax in the loan, and new owners cannot take advantage of the personal delivery of their new Tesla at their home or office, usually picking up their car at a Tesla Service Center in a neighboring state instead. New owners must then register the vehicle with the state and pay the sales tax when license tags are ordered. In 2015 Tesla had lobbied the Texas Legislature to modify Texas law to allow Tesla to sell directly to consumers and specifically allow Tesla employees to discuss "financing, leasing, or purchasing options" at the firm's existing stores in Austin, Dallas, and Houston. Texas was considering passing legislation to allow Tesla to operate in the state but legislation was not passed.
- New Jersey
On March 10, 2014, it was announced that New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission and Governor Chris Christie's administration would be holding a meeting to pass a new proposal into law. This new proposal, PRN 2013-138, was announced one day before it was to be put into law. Tesla Motors responded by saying that the proposal "seeks to impose stringent licensing rules that would, among other things, require all new motor vehicles to be sold through middlemen and block Tesla's direct sales model," and that "[Governor Christie's] Administration has decided to go outside the legislative process by expediting a rule proposal that would completely change the law in New Jersey." The meeting was for 2 pm the next day. The law was passed, and "Tesla will no longer [be able to] sell electric cars in New Jersey, effective April 1". Diarmuid O'Connell, Tesla Vice President of Business Development, said, "Worse, it has done so without any reasonable notice or even a public hearing." Forbes contributor Mark Rogosky said, "The state's new rules protect its auto dealers from having to compete with Tesla's direct sales model"; he goes on to point out that this is a direct contrast from what Christie said earlier, "We are for a free-market society that allows your effort and ingenuity to determine your success, not the cold, hard hand of the government." Kevin Roberts, a spokesman for the Christie administration, responded by saying "it was the [Tesla Motors] company, not the governor's office, that was attempting to bypass normal procedures.". In March 2015 the ban on Tesla Motor's operations in New Jersey was lifted, but with restrictions (maximum of 4 locations, and 1 service center).
On October 1, 2014, Michigan House Bill 5606, drafted "to keep automakers from forcing dealers to charge different documentation fees to different customers," was amended with a section stating that a manufacturer shall not "sell any new motor vehicle directly to a retail customer other than through its franchised dealers." The word "its" was removed, which assumed the manufacturer already had dealerships. Both houses passed the revised bill the next day, with only one nay vote from Tom McMillin in either house of the Michigan Legislature. Tesla argued that the original law would have allowed them to sell, because they didn't already have franchised dealers. On October 21, General Motors released a statement saying that governor Rick Snyder should sign the bill into law because "we believe that House Bill 5606 will help ensure that all automotive manufacturers follow the same rules to operate in the State of Michigan." The same day, Snyder signed the bill. Tesla responded to the GM statement by saying that "GM distorts the purpose of the franchise laws which are in place not to cement a monopoly for franchised dealers, but rather to prevent companies with existing franchises from unfairly competing against them." The law in Michigan goes so far as to ban a manufacturer from opening a service center for its cars, effectively banning Tesla Motors from opening even a service center.
In May 2015, the state of Maryland approved, through House Bill 235, direct Tesla sales to consumers beginning in October 2015, allowing 4 stores. The legislation was crafted specifically for Tesla.
Certified Pre-Owned program
Under a buyback program called Certified Pre-Owned (CPO) available in 37 states a Tesla Model S is sold with the right to return it to Tesla after three years for a reimbursement of between 43% and 50% of its initial price. This level of payment aims to match the trade-in value of a German luxury car of the same age. In addition to supporting a high resale value of its cars, Tesla Motors hopes to secure a steady supply of used cars. These cars will be refurbished and sold as second hand, immediately available from the Tesla stores with a certain warranty. According to Automotive News, the profit margin on used car sales in the USA is about triple that on new cars and since Tesla sells its cars directly to the end user, the prospect of selling the same car a second or third time to a new segment of the market can potentially be very profitable for Tesla. In May 2015 Tesla started selling their refurbished Model S in the USA and had by the end of that month sold 1600 cars to buyers younger, less wealthy and to a lesser extent from California than those who bought a new one. As of July 7, 2015 there were 269 pre-owned Tesla Model S available for purchase in the USA from Tesla with a four-year, 50,000-mile limited warranty. As of September 27, 2015 similar programs are available in Canada from three locations, and in these European countries: Austria (3 locations), Belgium (3 locations), Denmark (2 locations), France (3 locations), Germany (6 locations), Great Britain (3 locations), the Netherlands (4 locations), Norway (5 locations), Sweden (2 locations) and Switzerland (5 locations).
Tesla Motors builds electric powertrain components for vehicles from other automakers, including the lowest-priced car from Daimler, the Smart ForTwo electric drive, the Toyota RAV4 EV, and Freightliner's Custom Chassis Electric Van.
Unlike other automakers, Tesla does not use single-purpose, larger format cells. Tesla uses thousands of lithium-ion 18650 commodity cells. 18650 cells are small, cylindrical battery cells, which are usually found in laptops and other consumer electronics devices. Tesla Motors uses a version of these cells, designed to be cheaper to manufacture and to be lighter than the standard cells. The cost and weight savings were made by removing some safety features which, according to Tesla Motors, are redundant because of the advanced thermal management system and a protective intumescent chemical in the battery pack. This chemical is intended to prevent battery fires. Currently Panasonic, a Tesla Motors investor, is the sole supplier of the battery cells for the car company.
Tesla Motors may have the lowest rates for electric car batteries; the estimated battery costs for Tesla Motors is around US$200 per kWh. Currently, Tesla Motors charges US$10,000 more for the 85 kWh battery than the 60 kWh battery, or US$400 per kWh. At US$200 per kWh, the battery in the 60 kWh Model S would cost US$12,000, while the 85 kWh battery would cost US$17,000. The price increase is closer to US$8,000, as supercharging is included in the higher price. It is a US$2,000 option for the 60 kWh version.
In the Model S, Tesla Motors integrated the battery pack into the floor of the vehicle, unlike in the Roadster, which had the battery pack behind the seats. Because the battery is integrated into the floor of the Model S, no interior space is lost for batteries, unlike in other electric vehicles, which often lose trunk space or interior space to batteries. The location of the battery pack and the lower ride of the Model S does put the battery at a higher risk of being damaged by road debris or an impact. To protect the battery pack, the Model S has 0.25 in (6 mm) aluminum-alloy armor plate. The battery pack's location allows for quick battery swapping. A battery swap can take as little as 90 seconds in the Model S. Tesla's first battery swap station is located at Harris Ranch, California, and is operational as of December 22, 2014. Since 2008, Tesla has worked with ToxCo/Kinsbursky to recycle worn out RoHS batteries, which will be an integral part of GigaFactory.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk announced in a press release and conference call on June 12, 2014, that the company will allow its technology patents be used by anyone in good faith. Future agreements to be made are expected to include provisions whereby the recipients agree not to file patent suits against Tesla, or to copy their designs directly. Reasons expressed for this stance include attracting and motivating talented employees, as well as to accelerate the mass market advancement of electric cars for sustainable transport. "The unfortunate reality is, electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn't burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales," Musk said. Tesla will still hold other intellectual property, such as trademarks and trade secrets, which would prevent direct copying of its vehicles.
General Motors' then-Vice chairman Robert Lutz said in 2007 that the Tesla Roadster inspired him to push GM to develop the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid sedan. In an August 2009 edition of The New Yorker, Lutz was quoted as saying, "All the geniuses here at General Motors kept saying lithium-ion technology is 10 years away, and Toyota agreed with us—and boom, along comes Tesla. So I said, 'How come some tiny little California startup, run by guys who know nothing about the car business, can do this, and we can't?' That was the crowbar that helped break up the log jam."
Tesla Motors' first production vehicle, the Tesla Roadster, was an all-electric sports car. The Roadster was the first highway-capable all-electric vehicle in serial production for sale in the United States in the modern era. The Roadster was also the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and first mass production BEV to travel more than 200 miles (320 km) per charge.
Prototypes were introduced to the public in July 2006. The Tesla Roadster was featured on the cover of Time in December 2006 as the recipient of the magazine's "Best Inventions 2006—Transportation Invention" award. The first "Signature One Hundred" set of fully equipped Roadsters sold out in less than three weeks, the second hundred sold out by October 2007, and general production began on March 17, 2008. Since February 2008 two new models were introduced, one in July 2009, and another in July 2010.
In January 2010, Tesla began producing its first right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK and Ireland, then began selling them in mid-2010 in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia. Tesla produced the Roadster until early 2012, when its supply of Lotus Elise gliders ran out, as its contract with Lotus Cars for 2,500 gliders expired at the end of 2011. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011. Featuring new options and enhanced features, the 2012 Tesla Roadster was sold in limited numbers only in Europe, Asia and Australia. The next generation is expected to be introduced in 2019, based on a shortened version of the platform developed for the Tesla Model S. Tesla sold more than 2,400 Roadsters in 31 countries through September 2012. Most of the remaining Roadsters were sold during the fourth quarter of 2012.
The car had an average range of 245 miles (394 km) per charge according to Tesla. On October 27, 2009, the Roadster driven by Simon Hackett drove the entire 313-mile (504 km) segment of Australia's annual Global Green Challenge on a single charge, at an average speed of 25 mph (40 km/h). The Tesla Roadster can accelerate from zero to 60 mph (97 km/h) in under 4 seconds and has a top speed of 125 mph (201 km/h). The base price of the car is US$109,000 (€84,000 or £87,945). The Roadster Sport price started at US$128,500 in the United States and €112,000 (excluding VAT) in Europe. Deliveries began in July 2009. Motor Trend reported that the Roadster Sport recorded a 0–60 mph of 3.70 seconds and a quarter-mile test at 12.6 sec @ 102.6 mph (165.1 km/h), and stated "Tesla is the first maker to crack the EV legitimacy barrier in a century."
The Model S was announced in a press release on June 30, 2008. The sedan was originally code-named "Whitestar". Retail deliveries began in the U.S. on June 22, 2012. The first delivery of a Model S to a retail customer in Europe took place on August 7, 2013. Deliveries in China began on April 22, 2014. First deliveries of the right-hand-drive model destined for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong and Japan were delivered as scheduled in 2014. The Model S was to have three battery pack options for a range of up to 265 miles (426 km) per charge, but this was reduced to two, due to lack of demand for the shortest range vehicle. The United States Environmental Protection Agency range for the 85 kW·h battery pack model, the first trim launched in the United States market, is 265 mi (426 km), and 208 mi (335 km) for the model with the 60 kW·h battery.
A total of 2,650 Model S cars were sold in the North American market during 2012, mostly in the United States. Sales in Europe and North America totaled 22,477 units in 2013. During 2014 a total of 31,655 units were delivered worldwide, and 33,174 units were sold worldwide during the first three-quarters of 2015. The United States is the leading market with over 50,000 units sold by early July 2015. Norway is the Model S largest overseas market, with 8,697 new units registered through June 2015 As of September 2015[update], a total of 89,956 units had been sold worldwide since its introduction in June 2012. Global Model S sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in December 2015, three years and a half after its introduction.
The Tesla Model S was the top selling new car in Norway in September 2013, thus becoming the first electric car to top the sales ranking in any country. The Model S captured a market share of 5.1% of all new car sales that month. In December 2013, and with a 4.9% market share, the Model S topped one more time the best selling new car list in Norway. In March 2014 Tesla Model S became the best-ever selling car for over a period of one month in Norway, with 10.8% of all new cars registered in the country in March 2014 were Tesla Model S. The Model S ranked as the third top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. after the Chevrolet Volt and the Nissan Leaf in 2013 and 2014. Also in 2013, the Model S was the top selling car in the full-size luxury sedan category in the U.S., ahead of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (13,303), the top selling car in the category in 2012, and also surpassing the BMW 7 Series (10,932), Lexus LS (10,727), Audi A8 (6,300) and Porsche Panamera (5,421). The Model S ranked as the world's second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Nissan Leaf in 2014,
The Model S, with total global sales of 50,366 units, was the world's best selling plug-in electric vehicle in 2015, up from second best in 2014. The Model S also ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. in 2015. As of December 2015[update], the Model S, with a total of 107,148 units sold worldwide since its introduction, ranks as the world's second best selling plug-in car in history after the Nissan Leaf (200,000).
Tesla manufactures the Model S in Fremont, California, in an assembly plant formerly operated by NUMMI, a defunct joint venture of Toyota and General Motors, now called Tesla Factory. Tesla purchased a stake in the site in May 2010 for US$42 million, and opened the facility in October 2010. For the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes the Model S from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Tesla chose Tilburg because of its location near the port of Rotterdam, where Models S components arrive from the U.S. The center also serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. Cars are built and tested in Fremont. Then, the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where the cars are reassembled.
Among other awards, the Model S won the 2013 "Motor Trend Car of the Year", the 2013 "World Green Car", Automobile Magazine's 2013 "Car of the Year", and Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award. In June 2015, three years after the Model S introduction and with almost 75,000 Model S sedans delivered worldwide, Tesla announced that Model S owners have accumulated over 1 billion electric miles (1.6 billion km) traveled. The Tesla Model S is the first plug-in electric vehicle fleet to reach the 1 billion electric miles milestone. In October 2014 General Motors reported that Volt owners had accumulated a total of 629 million all-electric miles (over 1 billion kilometers) traveled; while Nissan reported in December 2014 that Leaf owners had traveled 625 million miles (1 billion kilometers).
In October 2014, Tesla announced the 85D and P85D dual-motor all-wheel drive variants of the Model S. The high-end P85D can accelerate from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 3.2 seconds and has a top speed of 155 miles per hour (249 km/h), compared to the Model P85's 130 miles per hour (210 km/h). The Model S 85D can cruise at 65 mph (105 km/h) for 295 miles (475 km) on a single charge, 10 miles more than the Model S 85. The control system shifts power between the motors, so each is always operating at its most efficient point.
In November 2014 Tesla Motors announced the completion of upgrades to its Fremont, California factory. The factory shut down for two weeks in late summer to complete modifications to handle the addition of the all-wheel drive Dual Motor Model S. The upgrades will help the company raise production by 50 percent in 2015.
In April 2015 Tesla Motors announced a new 70D to replace the 60. The 70D includes the Supercharger option and is rated at 240 miles (386 km) on a charge. In July 2015, they announced the 90 kW-h model, with the 90, 90D, and P90D, concomitant with the new battery, a higher performance motor would be available, with Ludicrous Mode, making the top-of-the-line variant have 762 hp and a 1.1G acceleration rate.
In the first nine months of 2015, Tesla Model S sales of 10,600 in Western Europe exceeded the outgoing BMW 7 Series with 2,650 and the soon to be replaced Audi A8 limousine with 4,700. The Model S was only 800 sales short of the Mercedes S class.
Beginning with vehicles manufactured in late September 2014, all new Model S come equipped with a camera mounted at the top of the windshield, forward looking radar in the lower grill, and ultrasonic sonar sensors in the front and rear bumpers—providing a 360-degree buffer zone around the car. This equipment allows Model S to detect road signs, lane markings, obstacles, and other vehicles. In addition to adaptive cruise control and lane departure warning, this system will enable semi-autonomous drive and parking capabilities. These features have been implemented, and have been activated via over-the-air software updates as of October 15, 2015. The technology has been developed in partnership with the Israeli company Mobileye.
In December 2015, Tesla announced that it will remove some of its self-driving features to discourage customers from engaging in risky stunts. The Firmware 7.1 Autopilot update will include restrictions that will only allow the Autopilot system and its Autosteer feature to engage when the Model S is travelling below the posted speed limit. Cruise control will still operate at any speed.
More than a thousand people attended the 2012 unveiling, at which Musk said the car would enter production in 2013. In February 2013 Tesla announced that production had been rescheduled to begin by late 2014 in order to focus "on a commitment to bring profitability to the company in 2013" and to achieve their production target of 20,000 Model S cars in 2013. The company began taking reservations for the vehicle in 2013 and said that deliveries would begin in 2014.
In November 2013, Tesla confirmed the company expected to deliver the Model X in small numbers by end of 2014, with high volume production planned for the second quarter of 2015. However, Tesla announced in February 2014 that in order to focus on overseas roll outs of the Model S during 2014, the company expected to have production design Model X prototypes in late 2014, and begin high-volume deliveries for retail customers in the second quarter of 2015. In November 2014 Tesla delayed one more time the start of deliveries to retail customers, and announced the company expected Model X deliveries to begin in the third quarter of 2015. In August 2015, user groups estimated around 30,000 X pre-orders, compared to 12,000 for the S.
Retail deliveries of the Model X Signature series began on September 29, 2015. Pricing for the premium special version of the Model X varies between US$132,000 and US$144,000.
The Model 3 (stylized as "☰") was previously called the Model E, and was codenamed Tesla BlueStar in the original business plan; its current name was announced on Twitter on July 16, 2014. Tesla expects to unveil it in 2016. The all-electric car will have a range of 200 miles (320 km), with first deliveries expected to begin by late 2017, and full production in 2018. However, according to Elon Musk, full production to fulfill expected demand could take up to 2020. Tesla is aiming for a US$35,000 starting price before any government incentives.
According to design chief Franz von Holzhausen, the Model 3 will "be an Audi A4, BMW 3-series, Mercedes-Benz C-Class type of vehicle that will offer everything: range, affordability, and performance with a starting price of US$30,000" that is targeted toward the mass-market. While technology from Tesla's Model S will be incorporated into the Model 3, it will be 20% smaller than the Model S and have its own unique design. Although the Model S is generally a standard looking car, the third generation vehicle will have a more distinctive style.
The company plans for the Model 3 are part of Tesla's three step strategy to start at high price and move progressively towards lower cost, where the battery and electric drivetrain technology would be developed and paid for through sales of the Tesla Roadster and Tesla Model S vehicles. Whereas the Roadster used carbon fiber and the Model S uses aluminum for the body, the Model 3 is expected to use steel (for cost reasons). Musk has said that Tesla will need to sell 500,000 cars per year (mostly Model 3) to stay profitable. According to Tesla's CTO, JB Straubel, in October 2015 most Tesla engineers were working on the 3 rather than S or X.
In September 2015, Tesla announced that the Model 3 would be unveiled in March 2016 with a US$35,000 price tag. In January 2016, Musk stated that the first official pictures of the car will be revealed at the end of March 2016, but full details will only be revealed a lot closer to production time.
Future vehicles may further advance autonomous driving features. In 2014, Tesla Motors CEO, Elon Musk offered the following prognosis for autonomous driving technology: The ability for drivers to let their cars do the driving could be ready in a six-year time frame, but it will take several more years for governments to work out the industry guidelines for wide embrace of the innovation. Tesla has registered for trademark the "Model Y" for a future model.
Other vehicle types have been presaged. In June 2009, Tesla announced plans for electric minivans, crossover SUVs and electric fleet vans for municipal governments. In 2010, Tesla articulated ideas in addition to the Model X crossover: a utility van and cabriolet were discussed that, if built, would be based on the second generation platform shared with the Model S. Other than the third generation platform to be first used by the Model 3, the possibility of a truck was under discussion in 2012. In July 2015, it was announced that a successor to the Roadster would debut in 2019. In October 2015, Elon Musk revealed a future 'Model Y' that would be a Model 3/Model X-like cheaper crossover utility vehicle with falcon-wing doors.
In April 2015, the company unveiled its Powerwall home and industrial battery packs, and quickly received orders to a total value of US$800 million. The two models included a 7 kilowatt-hour wall-mounted unit and 10 kWh unit that cost less than the going rate for large-scale batteries for summer delivery. The company also announced larger-scale battery blocks for industrial users in units of 100 kWh. The company planned to open source its patents for the entire range. First battery customers include Green Mountain Power, which plans to resell them to customers that already have solar power.
Some 62 megawatt-hours (MWh) of batteries and other energy-storage devices were installed in 2014 at 180 properties, at a value of about US$128 million, up 40% from the previous year, with sales expected to more than triple, to 220 MWh in 2015. In California, state rebates cover up to 60% of the battery price. Batteries that are connected to solar panels are also eligible for federal tax credits equal to 30% of the price.
Tesla Motors' headquarters are located in Palo Alto, California. As of August 2013[update], Tesla operates over 50 company-owned showrooms worldwide. In July 2010, Tesla hired former Apple and Gap Executive George Blankenship as Vice President of Design and Store Development to build Tesla's retail strategy. He left the company in November 2013.
Tesla was founded in San Carlos, California. In 2007, Tesla opened an office in Rochester Hills, Michigan. The office was later closed due to mounting losses at the time, most of the remaining employees went back to California while some moved into a smaller office in Auburn Hills. Tesla opened its first retail store in Los Angeles, on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood, in April 2008 and a second in Menlo Park, California, in July 2008. The company opened a display showroom in New York City's Chelsea art district in July 2009. It also opened a Seattle, Washington store in July 2009. Tesla subsequently opened stores in Washington, D.C.; New York City; Chicago; Dania Beach, Florida; Boulder, Colorado; Orange County, California; San Jose, California and Denver, Colorado. In 2010 Tesla moved its corporate headquarters and opened a powertrain development facility at 3500 Deer Creek Road, in the Stanford Research Park in Palo Alto. Tesla financed the project in part through US$100 million in federal low-interest loans. The new facility occupies 369,000 sq ft (34,300 m2) on a 23-acre (9.3 ha) parcel previously occupied by Agilent Technologies. About 350 employees were expected to be based at the Stanford site initially, potentially increasing to 650.
In August 2014 the company announced it would establish (in conjunction with Panasonic) a "gigafactory" battery manufacturing plant in the Southwest or Western United States by 2020. The US$5 billion plant would employ 6,500 people, and reduce Tesla's battery costs by 30 percent. On September 4, 2014, Tesla announced that Nevada would be the site for the battery factory; as of September 10, the Nevada legislature was debating US$1.3 billion of incentives for the factory. Two days later, state lawmakers unanimously approved the plan. The factory, near Reno, Nevada was slated to start up in 2016 or 2017.
Tesla built its Model S assembly plant in California with a fully ramped-up annual output of 20,000 sedans. Tesla partnered with Toyota[clarification needed] to produce the Model S at the former NUMMI plant in Fremont, California, which opened on October 27, 2010 and was renamed the Tesla Factory.
In June 2015, Tesla signed a lease to occupy a manufacturing building at 901 Page Avenue. The location is very close to its existing car plant in Fremont. The building is more than 500,000 sq ft (46,500 m2) and was formerly used by Solyndra.
In 2012, Tesla Motors began building a network of 480-volt fast-charging Supercharger stations to facilitate longer distance journeys in the Model S. As of 9 July 2015[update] there were 462 stations operating globally. As of 11 May 2015[update] there were 203 stations in North America, 150 in Europe, and 76 in the Asia/Pacific region. As of June 2015[update], Hong Kong has the highest density of Tesla superchargers in the world, with eight stations comprising a total of 36 supercharger stalls, allowing most Model S owners to have a supercharger within 20 minutes' drive.
The initial network was planned to be available in high-traffic corridors across North America, followed by networks in Europe and Asia in the second half of 2013. The first Supercharger corridor in the U.S. opened with free access in October 2012. This corridor included six stations placed along routes connecting San Francisco, Lake Tahoe, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas. A second corridor was opened in December 2012 along the Northeast megalopolis, connecting Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston; it includes three stations located in highway rest areas, one in Delaware and two adjacent ones in Connecticut.
The Supercharger is a proprietary direct current (DC) fast-charging station that provides up to 135 kW of power, depending upon location, giving the 85 kWh Model S an additional 170 miles (270 km) of range in about 30 minutes and a full charge in around 75 minutes. The electricity used by the Supercharger in the West Coast corridor comes from a solar carport system[clarification needed] provided by SolarCity. Eventually, all Supercharger stations are to be supplied by solar power. The network is exclusive to Model S and Model X sedans. Supercharging hardware is standard on Model S vehicles equipped with a 70 kWh battery or greater and optional (with a one-time payment of US$2,000) on Model S vehicles equipped with a 60 kWh battery. The Roadster is not equipped to charge from the Superchargers, but according to the automaker, all future Tesla models will be. According to Musk, "...we expect all of the United States to be covered by the end of next year ". He also said that Tesla owners' use of the network would be free forever.
The number of supercharger stations grew dramatically in 2013 and 2014—to 280 by the end of 2014 this number grew further through 2015 totaling 439 superchagers in May—but the 2012 promise of net-energy-positive solar-powered supercharger stations has not been met. Only two of the supercharger stations built by December 2014 are solar powered.
In early 2015, a supercharger in Køge, Denmark became the first European supercharger to be upgraded with a 'solar canopy' (a carport with solar cells on the roof). According to the person responsible for Tesla's superchargers in the Nordic countries, Christian Marcus, the Køge supercharger has 300 m2 solar cells with a projected annual production of about 40 MWh and is or will be equipped with its own battery bank for temporary storage of excess production. Unlike other European supercharger stations, Tesla Motors has bought the land on which the Køge supercharger stands.
By 2015, the European supercharger network is planned to allow a Model S to drive from the North Cape in Norway to Istanbul or Lisbon. As of February 2016, the supercharger closest to Istanbul is the one in Senj (Croatia).
Tesla designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping. This feature facilitated the assembly process at the factory, as well as future distributed battery swaps for cars during their operational life.
In June 2013, Tesla announced a long-term goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its existing supercharger stations. Musk demonstrated a 90-second battery swap operation. Each swapping station was projected to cost approximately US$500,000. Early plans called for each station to initially have about 50 batteries available and not require reservations. The service was to be offered for the price of about 15 US gallons (57 l; 12 imp gal) of gasoline at the current local rate, around US$60 to US$80 at June 2013 prices. Owners can pick up their original battery pack fully charged on the return trip for the same price as the pack swap. Tesla also indicated it would offer the option to keep the pack received in the swap for the difference in price if the battery received is newer. Alternately, Tesla would return the original pack to the owner's location for a transport fee. As of 17 December 2014[update], 18 months after the initial announcement, no battery swapping stations have yet opened to the public, although October 2014 pronouncements by the company were that the first public battery swap station was scheduled to become operational in December 2014, located somewhere between San Francisco and Los Angeles. On 19 December 2014, Tesla announced that they would initially build only a single battery-swapping station, and that they would institute a "Battery Swap Pilot Program" there to "assess demand." Only invited Model S owners may participate in the pilot battery swaps. "Tesla will evaluate relative demand from customers ... to assess whether it merits the engineering resources and investment necessary for that upgrade."
Tesla opened its first "new design" store in Canada on November 16, 2012 in the Yorkdale Shopping Centre in Toronto, Ontario. The store features interactive displays and design studios which allow customers to customize the Model S and view the results on an 85-inch wall. As of August 2015[update], there are eight Tesla stores/galleries in Canada: one in Montreal, one in Waterloo, one in Ottawa, one in Quebec City, two in Toronto, and two in Vancouver.
Tesla opened its first store in Europe in June 2009 in London's Knightsbridge district, followed by Munich in September. The London store relocated to the Westfield London Shopping Centre in October 2013. Tesla has 24 "galleries" and stores around Europe by the start of 2014. Tesla's European headquarters are in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The Roadster's chassis was assembled by Lotus Cars in Hethel, Norfolk, England. The 62,000 sq ft (5,800 m2) European distribution center and final assembly facility was established in 2013 in Tilburg in the Netherlands. Tesla's CEO confirmed in June its long-term plans to build a plant in Europe. Slovakia is a contender, with the carmaker already involved in talks with the Slovak Agency for Development of Investments and Trade (SARIO).
Tesla opened its first Japanese showroom in Aoyama on November 2010. Another showroom was subsequently opened in Osaka. Roadsters sold in Japan were either in left- or right-hand drive configurations, although Model S vehicles will only be available in right-hand drive configurations by 2014. According to Kevin Yu, the director of Tesla Motors Asia Pacific, Roadsters in Japan sell at an average price of between ¥12.8 million (about US$103,702) and ¥20 million (about US$162,035).
Tesla Motors established a Hong Kong branch and showroom in 2011. Roadsters were previously sold in Hong Kong for HK$1.2 million. The Hong Kong showroom consists of a "Design Studio" where prospective buyers can design their vehicle on a large touchscreen. The official Hong Kong service center opened in September 2011.
A Tesla branch existed in Singapore from July 2010 to February 2011, but the company ceased its operations in the country due to a lack of tax exemptions. Without tax breaks, the Roadster retailed between S$400,000 and S$500,000 rather than the much lower price of S$250,000.
Tesla's Chinese website was launched on December 16, 2013 to sell the Model S and Model X and set a February 2014 date for the distribution of both vehicles in China. The launch followed the opening of a Tesla showroom in Beijing in November 2013.
Tesla Motors opened a showroom in Sydney in 2010. A Roadster was driven by Country Manager Jay McCormack along the entire eastern seaboard covering a distance of more than 2,500 miles (4,000 km), the longest distance traveled by an electric vehicle in Australia at the time.
Tesla Motors Australia opened its first Melbourne Store in Chadstone Shopping Centre in December 2014. A Signature Model S was driven by Shiny Things founder Mat Peterson from his home in Sydney to the Marriott Hotel in Melbourne, covering a distance of 436 miles (702 km), the longest documented distance traveled by a Model S at the time in Australia.
Unlike many traditional manufacturers, Tesla operates as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), manufacturing powertrain components for other automakers. Tesla has confirmed partnerships with Daimler and Toyota. Tesla also works closely with Panasonic as a partner in battery research and development. The company also supplies battery packs for Freightliner Trucks' Custom Chassis electric van.
Starting in late 2007, Daimler AG and Tesla began working together. The two companies were expected to collaborate further, including on the Tesla Model S sedan. On May 19, 2009, Daimler acquired an equity stake of less than 10% in Tesla for a reported US$50 million. As part of the collaboration, Herbert Kohler, Vice President E-Drive and Future Mobility at Daimler, took a seat on Tesla's board of directors. On July 13, 2009, Daimler AG sold 40% of their May acquisition to Aabar Investments PJSC. Aabar is an investment company controlled by the International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC), which is wholly owned by the Government of Abu Dhabi. In March 2009, Aabar purchased a 9% stake in Daimler for €1,95 billion. In October 2014, Daimler sold their remaining holding.
Tesla, in collaboration with Mercedes-Benz, is building electric powertrain components for the Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell, an electric car with a range of 200 km (124 mi) and 290 N·m (214 ft·lbf) of torque. The 36 kWh battery pack would contain approximately 4,000 individual lithium-ion cells. Daimler was not expected to lease the electric version outside of Europe. The Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell was unveiled at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. Only 500 cars would be built for trial purposes in Europe beginning in September 2011.
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED
On May 20, 2010, Tesla and Toyota announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development, which included Toyota's US$50 million future conditional investment in Tesla and Tesla's US$42 million purchase of a portion of the former NUMMI factory. Tesla cooperated on the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering support. It was announced that an electric version of the Toyota RAV4 would be mass-produced in 2012 at Toyota's Woodstock, Ontario plant.
Toyota RAV4 EV
|This section is outdated. (November 2014)|
Tesla Motors and Toyota announced in July 2010 an agreement to develop a second generation of the compact Toyota RAV4 EV. At the time, Toyota planned to introduce the model into the market by 2012. A second generation RAV4 EV demonstrator was unveiled at the October 2010 Los Angeles Auto Show. Toyota built 35 of these converted RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other powertrain components were supplied by Tesla Motors. In August 2012, the production version RAV4 EV was unveiled; the battery pack, electronics and powertrain components are similar to those used in the Tesla Model S sedan launched in June 2012, and the Phase Zero vehicles used components from the Tesla Roadster.
Freightliner Electric Van
On January 7, 2010, Tesla and battery cell maker Panasonic announced that they would together develop nickel-based lithium-ion battery cells for electric vehicles. Naoto Noguchi, President of Panasonic's Energy Company, said that the Japanese firm's cells will be used for Tesla's "current and next-generation EV battery pack." The partnership was part of Panasonic's US$1 billion investment over three years in facilities for lithium-ion cell research, development and production. Tesla disclosed that the new cell resulting from its collaboration with Panasonic will allow Tesla to continue using cells from multiple suppliers.
In April 2010, Noguchi presented Tesla Chief Technology Officer J. B. Straubel with the first production cells manufactured at the new facility in Suminoe, Japan. The Suminoe factory produced 3.1Ah battery cells, the highest energy density cells in the market. The facility produces more than 300 million cells per year. On November 5, 2010, Panasonic invested US$30 million for a multi-year collaboration on next generation cells designed specifically for electric vehicles.
In July 2014, it was announced that Panasonic has reached a basic agreement with Tesla Motors to participate in the Gigafactory, the huge battery plant that the American electric vehicle manufacturer is building in Nevada.
Lawsuits and Controversies
On April 14, 2008, Tesla Motors sued Fisker Automotive, alleging that Henrik Fisker "stole design ideas and confidential information related to the design of hybrid and electric cars" and was using that information to develop the Fisker Karma, which was announced at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008. Tesla had hired Fisker Coachbuild to design the WhiteStar sedan but dropped the design that Musk considered "substandard". On November 3, 2008, Fisker Automotive Inc. issued a press release indicating that an arbiter had issued an interim award finding in Fisker's favor on all claims. Tesla said the ruling was binding and that it would not pursue the case.
The founding of the company was the subject of a lawsuit that was later dropped after an out-of-court settlement. On May 26, 2009, Eberhard filed suit in San Mateo County, California, against Tesla and Musk for slander, libel and breach of contract. Musk wrote a lengthy blog post that included original source documents, including emails between senior executives and other artifacts demonstrating that Eberhard was unanimously fired by Tesla's board of directors. On July 29, 2009, a judge in San Mateo County, California, Superior Court struck down a claim by former CEO Eberhard, who asked to be declared one of only two company founders. Tesla said in a statement that the ruling is "consistent with Tesla's belief in a team of founders, including the company's current CEO and Product Architect Elon Musk, and Chief Technology Officer JB Straubel, who were both fundamental to the creation of Tesla from inception." In early August, Eberhard withdrew the case, and the parties reached a final settlement on September 21. One public provision stated that the parties will consider Eberhard, Musk, Straubel, Tarpenning, and Wright to be the five co-founders. Eberhard also issued a statement about Musk's foundational role in the company: "As a co-founder of the company, Elon's contributions to Tesla have been extraordinary."
Tesla unsuccessfully sued British television show Top Gear for their review of the Roadster in a 2008 episode in which Jeremy Clarkson could be seen driving one around the Top Gear test track, complaining about a range of only 55 miles (89 km), before showing workers pushing it into the garage, supposedly out of charge. Tesla filed a lawsuit against the BBC for libel and malicious falsehood, claiming that two cars were provided and that at any point, at least one was ready to drive. In addition, Tesla claimed that neither car ever dropped below 25% charge, and that the scene was staged. On October 19, 2011, the High Court in London rejected Tesla's libel claim. The falsehood claims were also struck out by February 2012, with Justice Tugendhat describing Tesla's malicious falsehood claim as "so 'gravely deficient' it too could not be allowed to proceed." The Top Gear website posted a favorable review of the Model S in 2015.
In early 2014, Tesla reportedly tried to break the exclusivity agreement their charging partner in the UK had for locations along the UK's highways; Ecotricity replied by taking an injunction against them. The dispute was resolved by an out of court settlement.
In early 2013, Tesla approached the New York Times to publish a story "Focused on future advancements in our Supercharger technology." In February 2013, the Times published an account on the newly installed Supercharger network on the I-95 highway between Boston and New York City. In it, the author describes fundamental flaws in the Model S sedan, primarily that the range was severely lowered in the below freezing temperatures of the American Northeast, and at one point the vehicle died completely and needed to be towed to a charging station.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk responded immediately, calling the article "fake," and followed up with a lengthy blog post disputing several of the claims of the original feature. He called it a "salacious story" and provided data, annotated screenshots, and maps obtained from recording equipment installed in the press vehicle as evidence that the New York Times fabricated much of the story.
[...] Instead of plugging in the car, he drove in circles for over half a mile in a tiny, 100-space parking lot. When the Model S valiantly refused to die, he eventually plugged it in.— Elon Musk, A Most Peculiar Test Drive — Tesla Blog
The author of the original piece John Broder quickly issued a rebuttal in which he clarified and refuted many of the accusations made by Musk.
[...] I drove around the Milford service plaza in the dark looking for the Supercharger, which is not prominently marked. I was not trying to drain the battery. (It was already on reserve power.) As soon as I found the Supercharger, I plugged the car in.— John Broder, That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn’t — The New York Times
Further investigation was made by the media. Musk claimed "the Model S battery never ran out of energy at any time, including when Broder called the flatbed truck." Auto blog Jalopnik contacted Rogers Automotive & Towing, the towing company Broder used. Their records showed that "the car's battery pack was completely drained." In his follow-up blog post, Broder stated "The car's display screen said the car was shutting down, and it did. The car did not have enough power to move, or even enough to release the electrically operated parking brake."
In the days that followed, NYT public editor Margaret Sullivan published an opinion piece titled "Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". She concludes "In the matter of the Tesla Model S and its now infamous test drive, there is still plenty to argue about and few conclusions that are unassailable." No legal action was pursued by either entity.
Web site and Twitter account compromised
On 25 April 2015 the website of Tesla Motors was compromised and defaced. At about the same time also Tesla's Twitter account was momentarily compromised, both in an apparent "unsophisticated prank".
In May 2009, Tesla issued a safety recall for 345 Roadsters manufactured before April 22, 2009. Tesla sent technicians to customers' homes to tighten the rear, inner hub flange bolts. Using wording from the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, Tesla told customers that without this adjustment, the driver could lose control of the car. The problem originated at the Lotus assembly line, where the Roadster glider was built. Lotus also recalled some Elise and Exige vehicles for the same reason.
On October 1, 2010, Tesla issued a second product safety recall in the US affecting 439 Roadsters. The recall involved the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable from a redundant back-up system. The recall followed an incident where the low voltage auxiliary cable in a vehicle chafed against the edge of a carbon fiber panel, causing a short, smoke, and a possible fire behind the right front headlamp. This issue was limited to the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable and did not involve the main battery pack or main power system.
Crashes and fires
On October 1, 2013 a Model S caught fire after the vehicle hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington. A Tesla spokeswoman confirmed the fire began in the battery pack and was caused by the "direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 modules within the Model S battery pack." The company spokeswoman said that, "Because each module within the battery pack is, by design, isolated by fire barriers to limit any potential damage, the fire in the battery pack was contained to a small section in the front of the vehicle." The car owner was able to exit the highway, stop and leave the vehicle without injury, as instructed by the onboard alert system. Tesla's share price lost about 12% within two days and decreased the company's market capitalization by about US$3 billion. However, the share price increased about 4.5% three days after the crash.
Tesla said that a curved section fell off a semi-trailer and impaled the vehicle with a peak force on the order of 25 tons, creating a three-inch hole through the quarter-inch armor plate under the vehicle. A fire began in the front battery module, one of 16 such modules, but was contained within the front section by internal firewalls. Battery pack vents directed the flames down toward the road and away from the vehicle, and the passenger compartment was undamaged.
The company also said that conventional gasoline-powered cars were much more vulnerable to such a situation, because they have less underbody protection. It also noted that the battery pack holds only about 10% of the energy contained in a gasoline tank and is spread across 16 firewalled modules, meaning that the combustion potential is only about 1% as much. Elon Musk posted on his blog that, based on U.S. automobile miles-per-fire statistics from the National Fire Protection Association, a driver is "5 times more likely to experience a fire in a conventional gasoline car than a Tesla."
On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle. Tesla stated that it would conduct its own investigation, and as a result of these incidents, announced its decision to extend its current vehicle warranty to cover fire damage.
On November 18, 2013, Tesla released a software update to the air suspension system to increase the ground clearance at highway speeds and requested that the NHTSA conduct an investigation into the fire incidents. On November 19, 2013, NHTSA opened a preliminary evaluation to determine "the potential risks associated with undercarriage strikes on model year 2013 Tesla Model S vehicles." An estimated population of 13,108 Model S cars were part of this initial investigation. Another fire incident took place in Toronto, Canada, in early February 2014. The Model S was parked in a garage and it was not plugged in or charging when the fire started. As of February 14, 2014[update], the origin of the fire was still unknown. According to Tesla
"In this particular case, we don't yet know the precise cause, but have definitively determined that it did not originate in the battery, the charging system, the adapter or the electrical receptacle, as these components were untouched by the fire."
On March 28, 2014, the NHTSA announced that it had closed the investigation into whether the Model S design was making the electric car prone to catch fire, after the automaker said it would provide more protection to its lithium-ion batteries. All Model S cars manufactured after March 6 have the .25-inch (6.4 mm) aluminum shield over the battery pack replaced with a new three-layer shield designed to protect the battery and charging circuitry from being punctured even in very high speed impacts. The new shielding features a hollow aluminum tube to deflect impacting objects, a titanium shield to protect sensitive components from puncture damage, and an aluminum extrusion to absorb impact energy. The new shields, which decrease vehicle range by 0.1%, will be installed free-of-charge in existing Model S vehicles by request or during the next scheduled maintenance. According to the NHTSA, the titanium underbody shield and aluminum deflector plates, along with increased ground clearance, "should reduce both the frequency of underbody strikes and the resultant fire risk."
Tesla has been criticized for overpromising and underdelivering in a number of areas. Delivery dates for new vehicles and new vehicle features have slipped on the Roadster, the Model S and the Model X. Advanced technologies like the prospect of a large network of solar-powered supercharger stations (2012; only two are solar powered as of late 2014) and of a growing number of battery-swapping stations (2013; none operational by 17 December 2014) are substantially behind and auto-industry media sources have written about it.
On August 6, 2015, it was reported that two researchers claimed to be able to take control of a Tesla Model S by hacking into the car's entertainment system. The hack required the researchers to first physically access the car. Tesla has issued a security update for the Model S after security researchers discovered six flaws that allowed them to control its entertainment software and hijack the vehicle.
Board of directors
- Elon Musk—Chairman of the board of directors, CEO and Product Architect of Tesla; former President of PayPal, founder, CEO and CTO of SpaceX; Chairman of the board, SolarCity
- Brad Buss—CFO of Cypress Semiconductor Corp
- Ira Ehrenpreis—General Partner, Technology Partners
- Antonio J. Gracias—CEO and Chairman of the Investment Committee at Valor Equity Partners
- Steve Jurvetson—managing director, Draper Fisher Jurvetson.
- Harald Kroeger—Mercedes-Benz Vice President, responsible for electrics and electronics
- Kimbal Musk—CEO of Medium, Inc., Co-founder Zip2
- Robyn Denholm—chief financial officer and Executive Vice President, Juniper Networks
- Tesla Motors (2015-02-12). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2014 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
- Jaisinghani, Sagarika; Banerjee, Arunima (13 August 2015). "Musk to invest $20 million in Tesla's $500 million share sale". Yahoo! Finance. Reuters.
- "Elon Musk and JB Straubel share their vision on energy". eei.org. 2015-06-11. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
- "2012 Form 10-K, Tesla Motors, Inc.". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2013-03-07. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- Hirsch, Jerry (2015-03-19). "Elon Musk: Model S not a car but a 'sophisticated computer on wheels'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
- "Tesla delivers Model X electric SUV to take on luxury carmakers". Reuters. 2015-09-30.
- "Tesla Motors - Premium Electric Vehicles". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Sager, Rebekah (2013-07-01). "Tesla's Stocks Soar". First to Know. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- Tesla Motors (2013-05-08). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – First Quarter 2013 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "The World's Only Electric Sports Car: 2010 Tesla Roadster". Sportscarmonitor.com. 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Model S - Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-12-15). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-12). "Tesla Model S Was World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car in 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- "Tesla and Toyota's RAV4 EV And Now A Tesla-Daimler Partnership – AltTransport: Your Guide to Smarter Ways of Getting Around". Alttransport.com. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Howell, Donna. "Tesla Motors Shows Electric Model X SUV; What Next?". investors.com. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
- "Detroit Auto Show 2014: $40,000 'Model E' From Tesla Motors (TSLA) Will Have A 'Practical' Range, Says Company's Head of Global Sales". International Business Times. 2014-01-14. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Stephen Edelstein. "Tesla Model E To Debut at 2015 Detroit Auto Show?". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Hirsch, Jerry; Fleming, Charles (2015-01-13). "Ramping up production of affordable Tesla may take years, Elon Musk says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- Damon Lavrinc (2015-01-13). "Elon Musk Says Tesla Model 3 Will Cost $35,000 Before Incentives". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- "Why the Name "Tesla"?". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- "Here's Why Tesla Motors Is Named for a Famous Serbian Inventor". businessinsider.in.
- Michaels, Daniel (2010-01-14). "Long-Dead Inventor Nikola Tesla Is Electrifying Hip Techies". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla Motors Moving Quickly to Commercialization of an Electric Car". GreenCar Magazine. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- David Shepardson (2012-05-09). "Tesla to deliver first Model S electric by June". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
- Chris Woodyard (2011-08-03). "Tesla boasts about electric car deliveries, plans for sedan". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- Garthwaite, Josie (2011-05-06). "Tesla Prepares for a Gap as Roadster Winds Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- Dillow, Clay (2011-06-23). "Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months". Popsci.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "Tesla Showroom". Tesla Motors. 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Working for Tesla Motors – Engineering TV". Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Tesla Motors (2014-01-15). "Tesla Motors Investor Presentation" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- Burns, Matt (2014-10-08). "A Brief History of Tesla". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
Tesla was founded not by Elon Musk, but rather by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in July 2003. The two bootstrapped the fledgling auto company until Elon Musk led the company's US$7.5 million Series A financing round in February 2004.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2009-06-11). "Tesla Founder Eberhard Files Lawsuit Against Tesla's Elon Musk". gigaom.com. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- Nordqvist, Joseph (2014-02-12). "Tesla Motors Inc.—Company Information—Market Business News". marketbusinessnews.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-12. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Musk, Elon (2006-08-02). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) No. 124". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 2010-08-02. Retrieved 2010-10-03.[self-published source]
- Musk, Elon. "CEO Elon Musk". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- Eberhard, Martin (2006-07-25). "Lotus Position | Blog". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-20.[self-published source]
- "Elon Musk Envisions Tesla Electric Car as Low as $20K: Cleantech News "". Gigaom.com. 2008-09-17. Archived from the original on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Martin Eberhard (2007-08-07). "Martin Eberhard of Tesla Motors speaks to the Motor Press Guild" (Flash video). Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- Lienert, Anita (2008-01-11). ""Stealth Bloodbath" Roils Tesla Motors". Edmund's Inside Line. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- Ohnsman, Alan (2009-01-19). "Detroit Auto No-Shows Put Startups Fisker, Tesla in Spotlight". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Reed, John (2009-07-24). "A New Start: FT:Elon Musk’s ground-breaking electric car". Xinkaishi.typepad.com. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- Vance, Ashley (2015-05-14). "Elon Musk's Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- "Crunchbase Tesla Motors". Crunchbase.com. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
- Arrington, Michael (2009-05-19). "Tesla Worth More Than Half A Billion Dollars After Daimler Investment". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Abu Dhabi takes part of Daimler's Tesla stake". MarketWatch. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "Tesla gets long-awaited government loan". The Business Journals (Pacific Business news). 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla Motors Bags Federal Cash". Driving Today. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- Cole, Jay (2013-05-22). "Tesla Repays Entire DoE Loan, Taxpayers MAKE $12 Million on the Deal". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Garthwaite, Josie (2009-08-07). "Tesla Motors Claims $1M July Profit (a First!), Thanks to Roadster 2". Gigaom. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
- Rao, Leena (2009-09-15). "Tesla Puts Another 82.5 Million in the Tank". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Supply agreement for products and services based on Lotus Elise technology". OneCLE. 2005-07-11. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- Bennett; Ahuja (2010-03-22). "Contract Amendment Number 2". EDGAR Online. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Tesla Extends Production Contract with Lotus". Automobile Magazine. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
- "Tesla sells ZEV credits to Honda". Automotive World. 2010-06-04. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- Ramsey, Mike (2014-10-21). "Daimler sells Tesla stake for $780 Million". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- Assis, Claudia (2014-10-24). "Tesla opens higher; Toyota sells Tesla stock". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- Hicks, Maurice (2014-12-15). "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance (Public Version)" (PDF). NHTSA/CAFE. p. 9. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "Form S-1, Registration Statement under The Securities Act of 1933: Tesla Motors, Inc.". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- "Toyota investing in Tesla Motors". BBC News. 2010-05-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2010-06-28.[dead link]
- "Form S-1 Amendment, Registration Statement under The Securities Act of 1933: Tesla Motors, Inc.". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Previous post Next post (2010-07-16). "Toyota, Tesla Resurrect the Electric RAV4 | Autopia". Wired. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Tesla Announces Pricing of Initial Public Offering".
- Scholer, Kristen; Spears, Lee (2010-06-29). "Tesla Posts Second-Biggest Rally for 2010 U.S. IPO". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
- Andrejczak, Matt (2010-06-28). "Tesla Motors revs up $244 million IPO". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Lane, Charles (2014-03-12). "Tesla takes on car dealerships in a fight to the death". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
- "Tesla Model S battery fire fix". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- "Tesla Model S catches fire at supercharger in Norway". Chicago Tribune. 2016-01-04. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Park, JeeYeon (2013-11-12). "Tesla's Musk: Stock's high price was a distraction, seems a better deal now". CNBC. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
- Fangfang, Li; Xiaoying, Du (2013-11-05). "Tesla opens doors in Beijing". China Daily USA. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "2014 Form 10-Q, Tesla Motors, Inc." (PDF). US: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- Jake Spring (2015-10-23). "CORRECTED-(OFFICIAL)-UPDATE 2-Tesla CEO says negotiating with China on local production". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-10-24.
- Eric Loveday (2015-10-26). "Elon Musk Tweets: Model 3 To Launch In ~2 Years – China & Europe Could Get Factories To Support Demand". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Tesla Motors (2015-11-03). "Tesla Motors – Third Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF) (Press release). Palo Alto, California: Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-11-03. Tesla global electric car sales totaled 11,603 units during the third quarter of 2015, including six Tesla Model X units.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-11-03). "Tesla Q3 Earnings Induce After Hours Stock Market Spike". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- Robert Scardino (2009-07-17). "MSNBC Calls EV Drivers 'Lunatic Fringe'". AllCarsElectric.com. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) - Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Welch, David (2007-07-30). "Tesla: A Carmaker With Silicon Valley Spark". BloombergBusinessweek. Archived from the original on 2014-09-14. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "12 interesting things we learned from Tesla's Elon Musk this week". The Guardian. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- "Abu Dhabi Joins Feds as Tesla Backer". NBC Bay Area. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "Soap Opera". Tesla Motors. 2009-06-22. Archived from the original on 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
"Tesla Motors, Inc." consisted of Eberhard, Tarpenning and Wright, plus an unfunded business plan, and they were looking for an initial round of funding to create a more advanced prototype than the AC Propulsion Tzero. While there was a basic corporation in place, Tesla hadn't even registered or obtained the trademark to its name and had no formal offices or assets. To save legal fees, we just copied the SpaceX articles of incorporation and bylaws for Tesla and I invested $6.35M (98%) of the initial closing of $6.5M in Series A funding. Eberhard invested $75k (approximately 1%).
- Matt Hardigree. "Tesla Increases Prices on Already-Ordered Roadsters". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla Current: Maxim Ostapenko Envisions an All Electric S-Class Competitor". 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-06-04. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Garthwaite, Josie (2009-01-13). "Tesla Has at Least One Smart Deal: Daimler". Earth2tech.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Dynamic list of all Tesla Motors patents and patent applications". Ip.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Rogowsky, Mark (2013-08-24). "Numbers Don't Lie: Tesla Is Beginning To Put The Hurt On The Competition". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
- "Tesla's Rise Forces Other Automakers to Up Their Electric Car Game". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Borroz, Tony (2010-02-19). "Tesla CEO Honored for 'Enlightened Vision'". Wired. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Masters, Blake; Cauble, Matt (2014-10-07). "Peter Thiel – Lecture 5: Business Strategy and Monopoly Theory". genius.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
- Hull, Dana (2012-01-17). "Tesla gears up to hire manufacturing workers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- Hull, Dana (2014-07-03). "2014: Tesla Motors on a mission to hire American veterans". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- Hull, Dana (2015-12-08). "Tesla Hopes Hiring 1,656 People Will Make It Profitable". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- "CBS Evening News". CBS. 2015-09-01. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- "Tesla Accused of Operating Illegal Showrooms in 4 States". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Harry Stevens (2013-01-15). "Court Affirms Tesla's Right to Operate Company-Owned Stores". Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Rogowsky, Mark (2013-12-04). "Ohio To Tesla: We're Ignoring Our Whiny Car Dealers For Now, Come Sell Here". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
- Borchers, Callum (2013-11-20). "Tesla battles auto dealers on direct sales to consumers - Business - The Boston Globe". Boston Globe.
- John Voelcker. "Tesla Loses Legal Battles To Texas, North Carolina Dealers". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Model S Design Studio - Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Richard Read. "Terrified of Tesla, NADA Launches Campaign To Tout Benefits of Franchise Dealerships". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Dan Gearino. "Auto dealers in Ohio seek to stop Tesla's way of direct selling". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- O'Toole, James (2013-07-02). "Tesla direct-sales petition hits 100,000 signatures". CNN. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Bradsher, Keith (October 13, 1999). "Fight Is Promised Over G.M. Plan to Buy Dealerships". The New York Times.
- Christina Rogers (2013-10-07). "GM Opens the Door to Online New-Car Sales - WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Richard Read. "GM Follows Tesla's Lead, Plans To Sell Directly To Online Shoppers". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Bengt Halvorson. "Scion Lets You (Almost) Buy A Car at Home, Take Delivery at Dealership". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Voelcker, John (2012-10-25). "Auto Dealers' Fight Against Tesla Stores: Elon Musk Weighs In". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- David Noland. "How Texas's Absurd Anti-Tesla Laws Turn Car Buying into A Joke". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Chapman, Steve (2013-06-20). "Car buyers get hijacked". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- DeMorro, Christopher (2013-07-01). "Tesla Wins Big in North Carolina And New Hampshire". Gas 2. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- "Direct-to-consumer auto sales: It’s not just about Tesla". Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Richard Read. "Can The FTC Persuade Michigan & Other States To Open Their Doors To Tesla?". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- "Economic Effects of State Bans on Direct Manufacturer Sales to Car Buyers" Economic Analysis Group Competition Advocacy, May 2009.
- Keller, Maryann; Elias, Kenneth (2014-05-27). "Consumer Benefits of the Dealer Franchise System". National Automobile Dealers Association. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
- Hull, Dana (2015-08-21). "Thanks for Buying a $100,000 Tesla. Want a Tote Bag With That?". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- "Tesla Poised for Lobbying Blitz in 2015". Texas Lobby Group, Conservative Lobbyists. 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- White, Ronald D. (2013-04-10). "Tesla CEO takes dealer fight to Texas, says he can sell more cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Lutz, Hannah (2015-01-20). "Tesla could open up to 12 Texas stores if legislation passes". Automotive News. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Heisler, Yoni (2015-05-20). "Tesla Sales Texas: Direct sales of Tesla Model S not coming to Texas". BGR. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Walker, Hunter (2014-03-11). "Tesla Goes To War Against Chris Christie". Business Insider. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Walker, Hunter (2014-03-11). "New Jersey bans direct auto sales". Business Insider. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Rogosky, Mark (2014-03-11). "In New Jersey, Tesla Crashes into The Hypocrisy of Chris Christie". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Young, Angelo (2015-03-16). "Tesla Motors Inc Direct Sales in New Jersey: Legislature Passes Measure To Allow Model S Sales Outside Of Dealer Franchise System; Will Gov. Christie Block The Bill?". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Symons, Michael (2015-03-18). "Christie signs law allowing Tesla sales in New Jersey". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Gautz, Chris (2014-10-21). "Tesla's sales limits in Michigan tightened by one word of law". Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Martinez, Michael; Wayland, Michael (2014-10-16). "New Jersey bans direct auto sales". The Detroit News. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- White, Joseph B.; Bennett, Jeff (2014-10-21). "Michigan Governor Signs Anti-Tesla Bill: Law Bars Auto Makers From Directly Selling to Consumers". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Shepardson, David (2015-05-12). "FTC urges Michigan to drop Tesla sales ban". Detroit News. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Read, Richard (2015-03-27). "Tesla Wins in Georgia, Loses in West Virginia". TheCarConnection.com. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- Boroyan, Nate (2014-09-15). "A Unanimous Ruling by the State's Highest Court Means Good News for Tesla". BostInno.
- Young, Angelo (2014-09-29). "How Georgia Became The State with the Highest Electric Car Adoption Rate". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- HB0235, General Assembly of Maryland
- Angelo Young. "Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Wins Approval For Direct Car Sales In Maryland, Starting October 1"
- Richard Read. "Tesla Triumphs in Maryland As New Bill Allows Sales at Four Sites: Which State Is Next?". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Nelson, Gabe (2014-10-06). "Tesla's trump card? Used cars". Automotive News. Retrieved 2015-07-07.(subscription required)
- Joseph, Noah (2015-05-04). "Tesla starts selling used Model S EVs online". autoblog.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- Caldwell, Jessica (2015-07-28). "Who Is the Used Tesla Model S Buyer?". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors Canada". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Österreich" (in German). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Model S d'occasion ; Tesla Motors Belgique" (in French). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Brugt Model S ; Tesla Motors Danmark" (in Danish). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Model S d'occasion ; Tesla Motors France" (in French). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Deutschland" (in German). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Pre-Owned Model S ; Tesla Motors UK". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Tweedehands Model S ; Tesla Motors Nederland" (in Dutch). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Brukt Model S ; Tesla Motors Norge" (in Norwegian). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Begagnade Model S ; Tesla Motors Sverige" (in Swedish). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- "Gebrauchtes Model S ; Tesla Motors Schweiz" (in German). teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
- Fisher, Thomas (2013-06-11). "What Goes into A Tesla Model S Battery--And What It May Cost". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Ohnsman, Alan (2010-12-30). "Tesla Says Electric Car Battery Plan Means Profit at Low Volume". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Noland, David (2013-11-13). "How Tesla May Beef Up Its Model S Battery Protection System". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Isidore, Chris (2013-06-21). "Tesla unveils 90-second battery-pack swap". CNN. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Cunningham, Wayne (2014-12-19). "Tesla tentatively tests battery swap plan". CNET.
- "Mythbusters Part 3: Recycling our Non-Toxic Battery Packs - Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- Katie Spence (9 February 2014). "Will Battery Recycling Help Tesla Motors' Massive Shortcoming?". fool.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
- "The Electric Vehicle Battery 'Can And Should Be Recycled'". CleanTechnica.
- Maria Gallucci (2014-06-13). "Tesla Motors Opens Patents: Elon Musk's Electric Cars Now Part Of 'Open Source Movement'". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- Musk, Elon (2014-06-12), "All Our Patent Are Belong To You", Tesla Motors, retrieved 2014-06-13
- Eric Blattberg (2014-06-14). "Here's what Tesla's 'good faith' patent stance actually means". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Jeff John Roberts (2014-06-14). "What Elon Musk did – and did not – do when he "opened" Tesla's patents". GigaOm. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Bob Lutz: The Man Who Revived the Electric Car | Newsweek Next 2008". Newsweek. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Friend, Tad (2009-01-07). "Elon Musk and electric cars". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Tesla Motors Moving Quickly to Commercialization of an Electric Car". GreenCar Magazine. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "TIME Best Inventions 2006". Time. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Tesla Roadster 'Signature One Hundred' Series Sells Out". Megawatt Motorworks. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "We have begun regular production of the Tesla Roadster". Tesla Motors. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- "Premium Electric Vehicles". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "A fast food morning with the Tesla Roadster Sport". Boing Boing. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Tesla Unveils Roadster 2.5 at Newest Stores in Europe and North America" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Tesla will build right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK". Wired.co.uk. 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- Dillow, Clay (2011-06-23). "Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months". Popular Science. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- Valdes, Peter (2011-06-22). "Tesla Roadster reaches the end of the line". Autos. Yahoo!. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- King, Danny (2012-01-11). "Tesla continues Roadster sales with tweaks in Europe, Asia and Australia". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (2012-01-12). "Tesla Updates Roadster For 2012. There's Just One Catch...". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2015-07-22). "New Tesla Roadster Due in 2019: Official". Autocar (US). Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Todd Woody (2012-07-25). "Tesla Hits Accelerator Despite Q2 Revenue Miss". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-07-25. More than 2,350 units sold through June 2012.
- Tesla Motors (2012-11-05). "Tesla Q3 report: $50M revenues, $111M GAAP net loss, 253 Model S delivered in Q3". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-11-06.Sales during the 3Q 2012: 68 Roadsters and 253 Model S.
- Tesla Motors (2013-02-20). "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2012 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-02-13. Most of the remaining Tesla Roadsters were sold during the 4Q 2012, and quarter Roadsters and about 2,650 Model S vehicles during 2012.
- "Tesla's Tests Confirm Roadster's 245-Mile Range". Electronic design. 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- tsport100 (2011-01-05). "New World Record: Tesla Roadster Goes 347.2 Miles On One Charge". Electric Vehicle News. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- O'Dell, John. "Tesla Roadster Logs New Record of 313 Miles on Single Charge in Oz Green Rally". Edmunds. Green Car Advisor. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Tesla Roadster Sport Specs". Motor Trend. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Michael Graham Richard (2008-06-30). "Tesla's Next Electric Car to be Called "Model S", New Factory to Open in North California". TreeHugger.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- Monticello, Mike (2008-10-23). "Tesla Builds a 4-Door – New and Future Cars". Road & Track. Hachette Filipacchi Media, U.S., Inc. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- am Abuelsamid (2008-06-12). "Super-secret photo of Tesla Whitestar leaks out of San Carlos". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- Boudreau, John (2012-06-22). "In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- Ingram, Antony (2013-08-07). "First 2013 Tesla Model S Delivered Outside North America--In Oslo". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- Makinen, Julie (2014-04-22). "Tesla delivers its first electric cars in China; delays upset some". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
- Trop, Jaclyn (2014-02-19). "Loss Tapers at Tesla as Its Sales Still Climb". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- "Tesla Model S Blows Away the Competition and Wins AUTOMOBILE Magazine's "Automobile of the Year"". Tesla Motors. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "EPA rating for 85 kWh Tesla Model S: 89 MPGe, 265-mile range". Green Car Congress. 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- John Voelcker (2012-12-07). "Tesla Model S 60-kWh Version: EPA Range Rated At 208 Miles". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Jerry Hirsch (2014-02-19). "Tesla Motors ends year with higher sales but still a big loss". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-02-19. A total of 22,477 Model S sedans were sold worldwide in 2013.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-02-11). "2014's Top-10 Global Best-Selling Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-11. Global cumulative sales since June 2012 totaled 56,782 units by the end of 2014.
- Tesla Motors (2015-05-06). "Tesla Motors – First Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-05-21. A total of 10,045 units were delivered globaly during the first quarter of 2015.
- Tesla Motors (2015-08-05). "Tesla Motors – Second Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-08-05. A total of 11,532 units were delivered globaly during the second quarter of 2015. Model X remains on track for start of deliveries in late Q3 2015. The first units will be delivered in September 2015
- Jeff Cobb (2015-07-06). "Tesla Model S Crosses 50,000 U.S. Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-07-06. A total of 49,720 Model S sedans had been sold in the U.S. through June 2015, of which, about 11,900 were sold during the first half of 2015. The 50,000 unit milestone was passed in early Junly 2015.
- Angelo Young (2014-08-14). "Tesla in Norway: 436 Model S Sedans Are Being Delivered Monthly In Tesla’s Largest Overseas Market". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-09-15.
- OFV (January 2014). "Bilsalget i desember og hele 2013" [Car sales in December and during 2013] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2014" [Car sales in 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (July 2015). "Bilsalget i juni" [Car sales in June] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-07-06. A total of 2,674 new Model S cars were registered in Norway during the first half of 2015.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-07-02). "Tesla Model S Is Top-Selling Plug-in Car For First Half of 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-07-02. An estimated 11,900 Model S sedans were sold in the U.S. during the first half of 2015, and as of June 2015[update], global cumulative Model S sales totaled 78,334 units sold through June 2015, with a preliminary figure of 11,507 units delivered during 2Q 2015.
- Grønn bil (2013-10-01). "Norges mest solgte bil i september er en elbil" [Norway's best selling car in September is an electric vehicle]. Grønn bil (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-10-02). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- John Voelcker (2013-10-01). "Tesla Model S Was Best-Selling Car in Norway For September". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Mark Kane (2014-01-04). "Tesla Model S Again No. 1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- "Ellevill Tesla-rekord". Retrieved 2014-04-01.
- David Shepardson (2014-01-03). "2013 electric vehicle sales jump 84%". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-01-06). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-07-08.
- Mark Rogowsky (2014-01-16). "Tesla Sales Blow Past Competitors, But With Success Comes Scrutiny". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-17. Almost 18,000 units were sold in the U.S. in 2013.
- Jeff Cobb (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-01-08.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-10-06). "Tesla Model S is America's Best-Selling Plug-in Car This Year". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- Lindsay Riddell (2010-05-20). "Tesla to buy NUMMI plant, build cars with Toyota". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- Ricketts, Camille (2010-05-27). "Tesla paid $42M for NUMMI but doesn't have deal to build cars with Toyota". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Tesla Wants NUMMI Operational By 2012". KVTU.com. 2010-05-21. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Tesla unveils world's first mass-produced highway-capable EV" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-03-26. Archived from the original on 2011-04-03. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Michiel Willebrands (2013-08-22). "Tesla opent assemblagecentrum in Tilburg" [Tesla opens assembly center in Tilburg]. Auto Week Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- "Model S Motor Trend Car of the Year Award 2013". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
- "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car". International Business Times. PR Newswire. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- Zenlea, David (2012-11-01). "2013 Automobile of the Year: Tesla Model S". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2012-11-01.
- "Best Inventions of the Year 2012—$22,000–$750,000—The Tesla Model S". Time. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Staff (2015-06-23). "Tesla Model S one billion miles". Western Morning News. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-06-23). "Happy 3rd Birthday Tesla Model S: Fleet Is First To Travel One Billion Miles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Alspach, Kyle (2014-10-10). "New Tesla Is Way More Robotic and Also One of the Fastest Sedans on the Planet". BostInno. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Davies, Alex (2014-10-10). "The Model D Is Tesla's Most Powerful Car Ever, Plus Autopilot". Wired. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
- Boren, Zachary (2014-10-10). "Tesla Model D: Elon Musk's new electric car is company's most powerful yet". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2014-10-15.
- Straubel, JB. "Driving Range for the Model S Family". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-12-30.
- Edelstein, Stephen (2014-11-26). "Tesla's Factory Is Fully Updated And Ready To Rock". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
- "Introducing the All-Wheel Drive Model S 70D" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Ballaban, Michael (2015-07-17). "The Tesla Model S Just Got Upgraded to LUDICROUS SPEED". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
- Neil Winton, Forbes. "Tesla Zooms Past BMW, Audi Limos in Europe, Closes In On Mercedes." October 19, 2015. October 19, 2015.
- "Riding shotgun in Tesla's fastest car ever". Engadget. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "Tesla D is, as expected, an AWD Model S but new autopilot features surprise". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Howell, Donna (2015-08-17). "Tesla, Mobileye Rev Up on Future of Self-Driving Car". Investors.com. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
- Hall, Gina (2015-12-16). "Tesla to limit self-driving functions". Silicon Valley Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
- Garrett, Jerry (2012-02-09). "Tesla Unveils Model X at Its Southern California Design Studios". The New York Times. Wheels blog. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- "Tesla Signature series Model X to begin delivery September 29". CNBC. Reuters. 2015-09-03. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- "Tesla Officially Unveils New Model X, Crossover EV". KeyNoodle. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
- White, Ronald D. (2013-03-08). "Tesla plans to repay loans early, delays Model X". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
- Cole, Jay Cole (2013-03-09). "Tesla Delays Model X Production To "Late" 2014". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
- "Model X". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2013-08-07). "Record sales, upbeat Q2 earnings for electric car maker Tesla". Gigaom. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
expect to deliver small numbers [of the Model X] at end of 2014, with volume production in 2015.
- Young, Angelo (2013-11-06). "Tesla Model X Release Date: Superficial Production Next Year; Deliveries To Customers In Full Effect Later". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- Cobb, Jeff (2014-02-19). "Tesla Posts Strong Q4 Earnings; Projects More Growth This Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- Sebastian Blanco (2014-11-05). "Tesla Model X delayed, again, but Musk says Model S demand remains high". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2014-11-05.
- "Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Model X Pre-Orders Cross 30,000 Units". businessfinancenews.com.
The table formed by TMC reveals that the electric vehicle (EV) company has received 30,027 Model X reservations worldwide. -- The sedan was able to receive only 12,000 pre-orders ahead of its launch.
- Musk, Elon (2014-08-15). "Elon Musk Tweets name confirmation". Tweet.
- Tesla Motors (2014-07-16). "Confirmed: Our Gen III car, due out after Model X, will be named Model 3.". Twitter. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- Welch, Chris (2015-05-06). "Tesla plans to unveil its $35,000 Model 3 in March 2016". The Verge. Retrieved 2015-05-09.
- Edelstein, Stephen (2015-03-30). "Tesla pushes investors for a gigafactory in Japan". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-06-07.
- "Detroit 2013: Tesla's Family Will Grow". automobilemag.com. 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- LaMonica, Martin (2008-09-24). "Tesla's 'Bluestar' to be all-electric family car". CNET. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Elon Musk: I Want The Model 3 To Be Different, Not Just A Smaller Model S". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- McGlaun, Shane (2012-07-13). "Quick Note: Tesla BMW 3-Series Competitor Coming in 2015". Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- O'Kane, Tony (2015-09-04). "Tesla Model 3 Will Go on Sale in 2017 As Most Affordable Tesla". The Motor Report. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Is Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Mobility A Future Prospect Or Morgan Stanley's Fantasy?". businessfinancenews.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25.
Mr. Musk has said that the company wouldn't be profitable unless its sells 500,000 vehicles annually by 2020. 500,000 vehicle deliveries is the 2020 goal that is purely dependent on Tesla's much affordable, compact EV, the Model 3, which is slated for 2017-end and reliant on the under-construction battery producing factory.
- Morris, Charles (2015-10-22). "Tesla shifts focus to Model 3 as engineers prepare to start work at the Gigafactory". Charged EVs. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
- Video on YouTube
- Heisler, Yoni (2016-01-07). "Tesla confirms: Model 3 will be unveiled in March". BGR. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- Young, Angelo (2014-09-18). "Elon Musk Joins Self-Driving Car Chorus". Investing.com. Retrieved 2014-10-12.
- DeMorro, Christopher (2014-05-09). "Tesla Abandons Model E Trademark". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- "With $350M Infusion, Tesla Adds Minivans, Crossovers, and Fleet Vans to Line of EVs". Fast Company. 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Diarmuid O'Connell (2009-09-28). "Tesla: Clearing the Air on our DOE Loan". Teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (2010-06-21). "Breaking: Tesla shows future products, liquid cooled motor and electronics in IPO road show — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Tesla CEO Elon Musk Talks Future Plans amid COTY Award". automotive.com. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- Warren, Tamara (2015-10-06). "Elon Musk just teased the Model Y in a tweet (which he immediately deleted)". The Verge. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- DeMorro, Chris (2013-09-19). "New Tesla Patent: 400-Mile Battery Pack Using Metal-Air & Lithium-Ion Batteries". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- Berzon, Alexandra; Sweet, Cassandra (2015-05-01). "Tesla CEO Elon Musk Unveils Line of Home and Industrial Battery Packs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-05-02.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (2015-05-01). "Tesla's New Home Battery Could Be The iPad of Energy Storage". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-05-05.
- Castelvecchi, Davide (2015-05-04). "Will Tesla's Battery for Homes Change the Energy Market?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2015-05-05.
- Shahan, Zachary (2015-02-15). "Tesla Gigafactory Now on Schedule For 2016, Not 2017". Solar Love. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Stewart, James B. (2013-08-23). "Wondering if Tesla Can Get There From Here". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Dudley, Brier (2009-05-21). "Business & Technology: Tesla announces showroom in Seattle". The Seattle Times (NW source). Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Tesla stores to borrow from Apple's magic". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2010-10-20.[dead link]
- "George Blankenship leaving Tesla". Tesla Motors Blog. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
- Blanco, Sebastian. "Official announcement on Tesla's Michigan Technical Center". Autoblog. Retrieved 2015-06-21.
- Szczensy, Joseph (2009-01-15). "Tesla will keep Michigan office open". Oakland Press. Retrieved 2015-06-21.
- "Tesla Store Los Angeles - Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com.
- "press releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- "Tesla welcomes the public to its display showroom in Manhattan" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
- "Tesla moving headquarters and powertrain operations to Palo Alto ". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- Video on YouTube
- Hull, Dana (2014-11-11). "Veterans tour Tesla's Fremont factory". SiliconBeat. Retrieved 2014-12-07.
- "Gigafactory battery plant planned by Tesla in tie-up with Panasonic". San Diego News.Net. 2014-07-31. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- "Nevada Selected as Official Site for Tesla Battery Gigafactory". Tesla Motors. 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2014-09-06.
- "Nevada governor orders extra session for $1.3B deal to land Tesla electric car battery plant"
- "Nevada lawmakers approve $1.3 billion in tax breaks for electric car maker Tesla". Reuters. 2014-09-12. Retrieved 2014-09-12.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- Yoney, Domenick (2009-04-27). "Tesla Motors buying Long Beach Boeing building?". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Opens Tesla Factory – Home of the Model S" (press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Avalos, George (2015-06-11). "Tesla lease in Fremont helps city's economy rebound". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
- "Tesla Motors". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-07-09.
- "Superchargers". supercharge.info. 2015-05-09. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
- Zen Soo (2015-07-02). "Hong Kong now has highest density of Tesla superchargers in the world". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Tesla Press Release (2012-09-25). "Tesla launches first six Supercharger locations; 100 kW charging, with 120 kW in future". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Cobb, Jeff (2012-10-12). "First Tesla Superchargers Open October 19". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Motavalli, Jim (2012-12-21). "Tesla Begins East Coast Fast-Charging Corridor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- "Supercharger | Tesla Motors". www.teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- Motavalli, Jim (2012-11-13). "At Tesla's Party, Superchargers and Delivery Dates". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Lavrinc, Damon (2014-12-17). "What Will Tesla And Elon Musk Over Promise Next?". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2014-12-18.
- Godske, Bjørn (2014-10-12). "Tesla gør Køge til knudepunkt for hurtigopladning" [Tesla makes Køge center for supercharging] (in Danish). Danish Society of Engineers. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- Sebastian Blanco (2009-09-27). "REPORT: Tesla Model S was designed with battery swaps in mind". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- Mark Rogowsky (2013-06-21). "Tesla 90-Second Battery Swap Tech Coming This Year". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "Tesla Motors demonstrates battery swap in the Model S". Green Car Congress. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "Battery Swap". teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Edelstein, Stephen (2014-10-16). "Tesla Says One Battery-Swapping Site Will Go Live in December". High Gear Media. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Tesla Motors Team (2014-12-19). "Battery Swap Pilot Program". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
- "Tesla Motors opens first Canadian store" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- "Tesla Motors Find Us". Tesla Motors. 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- Leeds, Samson (2009-06-28). "Tesla opens Flagship Euro Store in London". Top Car Zone. Sablog zone. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Green Autoblog". green.autoblog.com. September 10, 2009. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". London Evening Standard. October 24, 2013. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Contact". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Sibley, Lisa (2011-06-17). "Lotus to supply more Tesla Roadster bodies". San Jose Business Journal (Silicon Valley). Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Klayman, Ben (2014-06-12). "Tesla CEO says electric carmaker plans European plant: report". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- Liptáková, Jana (2014-09-29). "Slovakia in talks with Tesla Motors". The Slovak Spectator (sme.sk). Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- Chester Dawson & Yoshio Takahashi (2010-11-15). "Tesla Plans Japan Push". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Schmitt, Bertel (2013-06-12). "Unhindered, Tesla Opens Second Showroom in Japan". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Opens Tokyo Aoyoma Showroom". Tesla Motors. 2010-11-16. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Bethros, Chris (2011-03-31). "Socket to 'Em". Metropolis Japan. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Motors Opens Showroom and Service Center in Netherlands (TSLA)". The Stock Market Watch. 2011-09-28. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Oliver, Ben. "The Future Is Here – the Tesla Roadster, Page 3". Hong Kong Golfer. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "TESLA MOTORS MODEL S MAKES ITS ASIAN DEBUT IN HONG KONG". Tesla Motors. 2013-01-08. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Motors to Open Service Center in Hong Kong". Energy Trend. 2011-09-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Hooi, Joyce (2011-02-17). "Tesla pulls the plug on Singapore". Asia One Motoring. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Radu (2011-02-16). "Tesla Motors Is Leaving Singapore". Auto Evolution first=Mihnea. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Shu, Catherine (2013-12-16). "Tesla Launches Chinese Site As It Prepares To Sell Its Electric Cars in China". TechCrunch. Aol Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- Terry Martin (2010-03-18). "Tesla set to launch Roadster EV in Australia this year". Go Auto. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- "Tesla Roadster Approved for Australian Roads". Business Wire. 2011-01-11. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Razagui, Haitham (2011-05-09). "Tesla EV charges from Melbourne to Port Douglas". Go Auto. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- Collet, Trevor (2014-12-27). "Tesla Motors Australia Opens First Melbourne Store". The Motor Report. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Peterson, Mat (2015-04-03). "Sydney to Melbourne - Day 2". tumblr. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Maric, Paul (2015-04-30). "Tesla to open new showroom and service centre in Richmond". Car Advice. Retrieved 2015-07-06.
- "Tesla Motors to Provide Batteries for Freightliner Custom Chassis Electric Van". Motor Trend. WOT. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Godske, Bjørn (2010-05-21). "Toyota buys $50mio stake in Tesla". Ing.dk. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-05-19. Archived from the original on 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Atkins, Thomas (2009-07-13). "UAE'S Aabar buys 40 pct of Daimler's Tesla stake". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Aabar Daimler Press Release, 2009" (PDF). aabar.com.[dead link]
- Mike Ramsey. "Daimler sells Tesla stake for $780 Million". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Jeffrey N. Ross (2012-10-04). "Mercedes B-Class headed to America... but only as an EV?". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2014-11-05.
- "Mercedes-Benz Electric Car by Tesla Test Drive –Video Tesla Mercedes-Benz A Class". The Daily Green. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Mercedes-Benz Introduces the Battery-Powered A-Class E-CELL; Production Run of 500". Green Car Congress. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Masson, Laurent J (2011-03-29). "Quick Drive: Electric Mercedes A-Class E-Cell". Plugin Cars. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (2009-01-13). "Tesla Motors Joins Daimler on a Smart EV | Autopia". Wired. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Tierney, Christine (2010-05-20). "Toyota invests in Tesla to help reopen Calif. plant". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Batcho-Lino, Stefanie (2011-08-05). "Toyota, Tesla to Build Rav4 Electric Vehicle at Ontario Plant". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (2010-07-16). "Breaking: Tesla and Toyota to develop RAV4 EV, hope to launch in 2012 — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- "Toyota unveils RAV4 EV demonstration vehicle; targeting fully-engineered version in 2012 for market". Green Car Congress. 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- Tellem, Tori (2010-11-17). "2012 Toyota RAV4-EV: Take Two". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- "Toyota RAV4 EV key for meeting California ZEV requirements; Tesla powertrain uses Model S components". Green Car Congress. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Garrett, Jerry (2012-08-03). "Toyota and Tesla Trot Out the RAV4 EV". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Gupta, Poornima (2010-01-07). "Tesla, Panasonic partner on electric car batteries". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla & Panasonic Make It Official, Buddy Up for Batteries: Cleantech News". Gigaom.com. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Panasonic Presents First Electric Vehicle Battery to Tesla" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Panasonic invests $30m in Tesla". Added latest investment in tesla. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- "Panasonic, Tesla agree to partnership for US car battery plant". Nikkei Inc. 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (2015-08-24). "Tesla Wants To Take Stress Out of Vacationing with an Electric Car". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
- Korzeniewski, Jeremy (2008-04-15). "Tesla files suit against Fisker Automotive". Autoblog. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Migliore, Greg (2008-04-16). "Tesla sues Fisker, alleges theft of trade secrets". AutoWeek: News & Views. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- LaMonica, Martin (2008-11-04). "Tesla Motors loses trade secrets case against Fisker". CNET News. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
- Eberhard v. Musk, Case No.: CIV-484400 (Superior Court of the State of California County of San Mateo 2009-07-29) (“From defendand's filing: "During a conversation with Musk in 2003, JB Straubel ("Straubel"), who later became Tesla's Chief Technology Officer, learned of Musk's interest in the development of an all-electric automobile. Following this conversation, he introduced Musk to Tom Gage and Al Ciccone at AC Propulsion, a company that had built an all-electric concept sports car call the Tzero. Musk was enthusiastic and encouraged Gage and Ciccone to put the Tzero concept into production. Though Musk was unable to persuade AC Propulsion to mass produce the Tzero, Gage offered to give Musk's contact information to two groups who did have such an interest, one of which included Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning ("Tarpenning"), and Ian Write ("Wright").”).
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2009-06-14). "Tesla Lawsuit: The Incredible Importance of Being a Founder". Earth2tech. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Martin Eberhard lawsuit (PDF), San Mateo County, CA (146 pages)[dead link]
- "Superior Court of California". County of San Mateo. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Judge Strikes Claim on Who Can Be Declared a Founder of Tesla Motors". Business wire. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (2009-08-19). "Eberhard Says 'Uncle' in Tesla Lawsuit". Wired. Autopia. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNET. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "Tesla sues Top Gear for libel, New Stig unavailable for comment (update: BBC responds)". Engadget. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Wilman, Andy (2011-04-02). "Tesla vs Top Gear: Andy Wilman on our current legal action". Top Gear. Transmission. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "BBC denies rigging Top Gear Tesla Roadster car race". Newsbeat. BBC. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Vaughan, Adam (2011-03-30). "Tesla sues Top Gear over 'faked' electric car race". The Guardian. Environment (London). Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Tesla losing Top Gear court challenge". The Independent. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- Plunkett, John (2012-02-23). "Top Gear libel case over Tesla electric sports car struck out". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Philip, Sam (2015-05-11). "First drive: Tesla Model S P85D". BBC Top Gear. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
- Vaughan, Adam (2014-05-23). "Tesla Motors accused of bullying to grab key car charging sites in the UK". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- Green, Chris (2014-06-12). "Misdirected email sparks electric car war between Tesla and Ecotricity". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- Bennett, Peter (2015-06-17). "Tesla and Ecotricity reach out of court settlement over Electric Highways dispute". Next Energy News. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- "A Most Peculiar Test Drive – Tesla Blog". Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- Broder, John M. (2013-02-08). "Stalled Out on Tesla's Electric Highway – The New York Times". Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- Broder, John M. (2013-02-14). "That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn’t — The New York Times". Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- "Towing Company: The NYT Tesla Model S Was Dead When It Was On The Flatbed". Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- Sullivan, Margaret (2013-02-18). "Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- Smith, Dave (2015-04-25). "Tesla's website has been hacked". uk.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
- Plaugic, Lizzie (2015-04-25). "Hackers temporarily take control of Tesla's website, Elon Musk's Twitter account". The Verge. Retrieved 2015-04-26.
- Ashe, Suzanne (2009-05-28). "Tesla Motors recalls electric Roadster". CNET. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- "2009 Lotus Elise Recalls—2009 Lotus Elise Recall Reports – Motor Trend Magazine". Motortrend.com. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Tesla Initiates Voluntary Recall After Single Customer Incident" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- Christopher Jensen (2013-10-02). "Tesla Says Car Fire Started in Battery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- Steven Russolillo (2013-10-04). "Musk Explains Why Tesla Model S Caught on Fire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Jensen, Christopher (2013-10-02). "Forbes: The Tesla Fire Is A Textbook PR Problem — And They Should Fix It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "Tesla Motors Inc: NASDAQ:TSLA". Google Finance. 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Jaclyn Trop (2013-11-07). "Another Fire Raises Questions for Tesla". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- John Voelcker (2013-11-19). "Tesla Fires: NHTSA Will Probe, Warranty To Cover Fire Damage, Ride-Height Tweak". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Musk, Elon (2013-11-18). "The Mission of Tesla". Tesla Blog. Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Eric Loveday (2013-11-19). "NHTSA Opens Formal Investigation into 13,108 Model Year 2013 Tesla Model S Sedans Sold in US (Update)". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Bill Vlasic and Jaclyn Trop (2013-11-19). "After 3 Fires, Safety Agency Opens Inquiry into Tesla Model S". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Linette Lopez (2014-02-13). "Another Tesla Caught on Fire While Sitting in a Toronto Garage This Month". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
- Alan Ohnsman (2014-02-14). "Tesla Investigating Cause of Fire in Toronto With Model S". Boomberg. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
- Danielle Ivory (2014-03-28). "Federal Safety Agency Ends Its Investigation of Tesla Fires". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- George, Patrick (2014-03-28). "The Tesla Model S: Now With Road Debris-Crushing Titanium!". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Musk, Elon (2014-03-28). "Tesla Adds Titanium Underbody Shield and Aluminum Deflector Plates to Model S". Tesla Blog. Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Blanco, Sebastian (2014-03-28). "Tesla adds free titanium underbody shields to Model S to prevent fires". Autoblog Green. AOL Inc. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Masunaga, Samantha (2015-08-06). "Researchers hack a Tesla Model S, bring car to stop". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
- Mahaffey, Kevin (2015-08-06). "The new assembly line: 3 best practices for building (secure) connected cars". Lookout. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
- O'Connor, Fred (2015-08-07). "Tesla patches Model S after researchers hack car's software". Wired. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- "Board of Directors". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- Vance, Ashlee (2015). Elon Musk: How the Billionaire CEO of SpaceX and Tesla is Shaping our Future. Virgin Books. ISBN 9780753555620.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tesla Motors.|
- Official website
- Tesla Motors Official Vimeo page
- Tesla Motors / The Future of Electric Cars, National Geographic, January 2015