The Powerwall and Powerpack are rechargeable lithium-ion battery stationary energy storage products manufactured by Tesla, Inc. The Powerwall is intended to be used for home energy storage and stores electricity for solar self-consumption, time of use load shifting, backup power, and off-the-grid use. The larger Powerpack is intended for commercial or electric utility grid use and can be used for peak shaving, load shifting, backup power, demand response, microgrids, renewable power integration, frequency regulation, and voltage control.
Announced in 2015, with a pilot demonstration of 500 units built and installed during 2015, production of the product was initially at the Tesla Fremont factory before being moved to the under-construction Gigafactory 1 in Nevada. The second generation of both products was announced in October 2016.
- 1 History
- 2 Powerwall specifications
- 3 Powerpack specifications
- 4 Versions
- 5 Technology
- 6 Market
- 7 Return on investment calculations
- 8 Competition
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Tesla started development in 2012, installing prototypes at selected industrial customers. In some cases, PowerPacks have reduced the electrical bill by 20%. Tesla originally announced the Powerwall at the April 30, 2015 product launch with power output of 2 kW steady and 3.3 kW peak, but Elon Musk said at the June 2015 Tesla shareholders meeting that this would be more than doubled to 5 kW steady with 7 kW peak, with no increase in price. He also announced that Powerwall deliveries would be prioritized to partners who minimize the cost to the end user, with a Powerwall installation price of US$500.
When originally announced in 2015, two models of Powerwall were planned: 10 kWh capacity for backup applications and 7 kWh capacity for daily cycle applications. By March 2016, however, Tesla had "quietly removed all references to its 10-kilowatt-hour residential battery from the Powerwall website, as well as the company's press kit. The company's smaller battery designed for daily cycling is all that remains." The 10 kWh battery as originally announced has a nickel-cobalt-aluminum cathode, like the Tesla Model S, which was projected to function as a backup/uninterruptible power supply, and had a projected cycle life of 1000–1500 cycles.
In October 2016, Tesla announced that nearly 300 MWh of Tesla batteries had been deployed in 18 countries. The Powerwall 2 was unveiled in October 2016 at Universal Studios' Colonial Street, Los Angeles, backlot street set and is designed to work with the solar panel roof tiles to be produced by SolarCity.
|Model||Technology||Price (US$)[a]||Capacity (kWh)||Wh per US$||US$ per kWh||Power||Operating temp.||Weight||Dimensions, H × W × D||Cycles (during warranty)||US$ per warranted kWh|
|Powerwall 1||Lithium-ion||US$3,000||6.4||2.13||469||2 kW continuous||−4 to 110 °F (−20 to 43 °C)||214 lb (97 kg)||51.3 in × 34 in × 7.2 in (130 cm × 86 cm × 18 cm)||5,000|
|Powerwall 2||Lithium-ion||US$5,500,[b] later US$5,900||13.5||2.46[b]||437[b]||7 kW peak; 5 kW continuous||−4 to 122 °F (−20 to 50 °C)||264.4 lb (119.9 kg)||44 in × 29 in × 5.5 in (112 cm × 74 cm × 14 cm)||Unlimited (Solar self consumption/backup only)
37.8 MWh of aggregate throughput (other application(s))
- Installation cost not included
- Includes inverter.
|Model||Technology||Capacity (kWh)||Wh per US$||US$ per kWh||Operating temp.||Weight||Dimensions, H × W × D|
|Powerpack 1||Lithium-ion||100||2.13||470||-||-||218.5 cm × 82.2 cm × 130.8 cm (86.0 in × 32.4 in × 51.5 in)|
|Powerpack 2||Lithium-ion||200||2.51||398||−22 to 122 °F (−30 to 50 °C)||3,575 lb (1,622 kg)||218.5 cm × 82.2 cm × 130.8 cm (86.0 in × 32.4 in × 51.5 in)|
Example of Powerpack installation
Tesla installed a grid storage facility for Southern California Edison with a capacity of 80 MWh at a power of 20 MW between September 2016 and December 2016. As of January 2017[update] the storage unit was one of the largest accumulator batteries on the market. Tesla installed 400 Powerpack-2 modules at the Mira Loma transformer station in California. The battery storage serves to store energy at a low network load and then to feed this energy back into the grid at peak load. The principal way of adding peak generation capacity prior to this was the use of gas-fired power stations.
The first generation Powerwall has a 6.4 kWh capacity for daily cycle applications. Users with larger energy needs can connect multiple Powerwalls to expand the capacity even higher. In March 2016 Tesla quietly discontinued a previously announced 10 kWh capacity model designed to produce backup power  as the 6.4 kWh version can also be configured to act as backup power.
The Powerpack is a bigger unit with 100 kWh (first generation) and 210 kWh (2nd generation) of storage for commercial and utility grid use. To meet the variety of energy needs in industry, "Powerpack is infinitely scalable", said Elon Musk. Tesla's objective is to "fundamentally change the way the world uses energy" by "fostering a clean energy ecosystem and helping wean the world off fossil fuels" using backup energy storage for renewable energy. The Powerpack 2 has 200 kWh of storage, probably using the 2170 cell by the end of 2016.
The Powerwall is optimized for daily cycling, such as for load shifting. Tesla uses proprietary technology for packaging and cooling the cells in packs with liquid coolant. Elon Musk, the chairman, CEO and product architect of the Tesla company, promised not to start patent infringement lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, used Tesla's technology for Powerwalls as he had promised with Tesla cars.
The daily cycle 7 kWh PW1 battery uses nickel-manganese-cobalt chemistry and can be cycled 5,000 times before warranty expiration. The Tesla Powerwall has a 92.5% round-trip efficiency when charged or discharged by a 400–450 V system at 2 kW with a temperature of 77 °F (25 °C) when the product is brand new. Age of the product, temperatures above or below 77 °F (25 °C), and charge rates or discharge rates above 2 kW would lower this efficiency number, decreasing the system performance.
First-generation Powerwalls include a DC-to-DC converter to sit between a home's existing solar panels and the home's existing DC to AC inverter. If the existing inverter is not storage-ready, one must be purchased. The second generation Powerwall incorporates a DC-to-AC inverter of Tesla's own design. Production of the 2170 cell for the PW2 and PP2 began at Gigafactory in January 2017.
The Powerwall was unveiled on April 30, 2015, with a 7 kWh Powerwall model that would retail for US$3,000 and a 10 kWh model at US$3,500. Shipments of 500 pilot units were planned to begin in the late summer of 2015. Musk indicated that he believed the low Tesla price would cause other storage producers to follow. Before the April 30, 2015, unveiling, some existing solar-panel users[clarification needed] participated in a demonstration program and paid up to US$13,000 for a 10 or 15 kWh Tesla battery.
As of May 2015[update], Powerwalls were sold to companies including SolarCity and OUXO Energy for installation. SolarCity was running a pilot project in 500 California houses, using 10 kWh battery packs.[when?] In 2016 in Vermont, Peck Electric Company partnered with Green Mountain Power to install hundreds of Powerwalls in Vermont homes as part of a distributed storage pilot program. A market overview calculates Powerwall 2 at 0.23 Australian dollars per warranted cumulative kWh discharged.
As of May 2015, Tesla Powerwall had already sold out through to the middle of 2016. Reservations within the first few weeks were over 50,000 units for the Powerwall (US$179 million), and 25,000 units for the Powerpack (US$625 million), therefore combined orders of US$800 million.
During the first quarter of 2016, Tesla delivered over 25 MWh of energy storage to customers on four continents. Over 2,500 Powerwalls and nearly 100 Powerpacks were delivered in North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa. The first Powerwall in Portugal has been sold by OUXO Energy. As of October 2016[update], nearly 300 MWh of Tesla batteries had been deployed worldwide.
At the announcement, a larger battery called Powerpack—storing 100 kWh of electrical energy—was projected to be available for industrial consumers,[when?] reaching a price point of $250/kWh.[clarification needed] The Powerpack was projected to comprise the majority of stationary storage production at Gigafactory 1 while Powerwall would play a smaller part, giving Tesla a profit margin of 20 percent.
In September 2016, Tesla priced the Powerpack at $445/kWh, and a system with 200 kWh of energy and 100 kW of peak power was the cheapest available priced at $145,100. A bi-directional 250 kW inverter costs $52,500. By October 2016, a limited system of Powerpack 2 cost $398/kWh.
Musk predicted in 2016 that the utility power will need to increase to supply more electric vehicles, eventually reaching an equilibrium with about 1/3 of power coming from distributed energy and 2/3 from utilities. Battery storage is one of the ways to mitigate the increasing duck curve, particularly in California.
Return on investment calculations
A May 2015 article in Forbes magazine calculated that using a Tesla Powerwall 1 model combined with solar panels in a home would cost 30 cents/kWh for electricity if a home remains connected to the grid (the article acknowledges that the Tesla battery could make economic sense in applications that are entirely off-grid). US consumers got electricity from the power grid for 12.5 cents/kWh on average. The article concluded the "...Tesla's Powerwall Is Just Another Toy For Rich Green People." Bloomberg and Catalytic Engineering also agreed that the Tesla system was most useful in places where electricity prices are high.
There are however a number of such locations, including Hawaii and other remote islands that generate electricity with shipped-in or flown-in fuels. Residential California PG&E customers pay as much as 40 cents/kWh if they reach Tier 3 in electrical usage. Arctic and sub-Arctic locations with high energy prices cannot generate sufficient solar energy in the winter due to little or no sunlight.
As of April 2019, the Tesla Powerwall 2 fully installed cost is between $11,000 and $13,000  in Australia according to Solar Choice or US$1,600 in the US. As of February 2017, the cost to install one Powerwall 1 is US$3,000 (sized for residential use), while the cost to install one Powerwall 2 jumped to US$5,500 (larger capacity but still residential-size, will run many homes for 2 or 3 days without outside power if fully charged).
Energy technology company Enphase Energy, based in California, has announced it will release its lithium iron phosphate battery as part of a complete alternating current Enphase Home Energy Solution starting in winter 2016 in Australia and New Zealand with Genesis Energy conducting trials. The system, which includes monitoring and control of solar generation, home energy consumption, and battery storage, will be sold at wholesale through solar distributors, who sell to solar installers. Enphase's modular 'building block' batteries are more efficient than the Tesla Powerwall (96% compared to Tesla's 92% round-trip efficiency). The Enphase AC Battery also includes an inverter inside the casing and works with all existing solar systems or alternatively, in homes without solar. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are known to be the most stable and safe of the various lithium batteries.
BYD's energy storage system is another competitor of Tesla's Powerpack. UC San Diego installed this system, which has 5 megawatt-hour (MWh) capacity—enough to power 2,500 homes—in September 2014. BYD is a large supplier of rechargeable batteries, and is also known for its leading position in electric buses.
Sonnen and AutoGrid collaborated on combining house batteries into a large-scale utility-level grid storage system. Eos claimed a battery price of $160/kWh in 2017, before the cost of integration by Siemens.
- Debord, Matthew (May 1, 2015). "Elon Musk's big announcement: it's called 'Tesla Energy'". Business Insider. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- "Planned 2020 Gigafactory Production Exceeds 2013 Global Production" (PDF). February 26, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Terdiman, Daniel (June 25, 2015). "How Tesla's Commercial Batteries Have Changed The Future...For Winemakers?". Fast Company. US. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- Russell, Jon (April 30, 2015). "Tesla's $3,000 Powerwall Will Let Households Run Entirely On Solar Energy".
- Richard Chirgwin. "Elon Musk pours more Kool-Aid into Powerwall". the Register. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "Tesla Powerwall". Tesla Motors. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- Pyper, Julia (March 18, 2016). "Tesla Discontinues 10-Kilowatt-Hour Powerwall Home Battery". greentechmedia.com. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
- Shahan, Zachary (May 7, 2015). "38,000 Tesla Powerwall Reservations In Under A Week (Tesla / Elon Musk Transcript)". CleanTechnica. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (May 6, 2015). "Tesla Motors Posts Q1 2015 Losses, Due to Strong Dollar, High Capital Expenditures. Hits 1,000 Car/Week Model S Production". Transport Evolved. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (May 9, 2015). "Tesla Unveils Tesla Power: Modular 10-kWh Powerwall for Home, 100-kWh Powerpack for Utilities, at Live Event". Transport Evolved. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Mooney, Chris (May 1, 2015). "What backing up your home with Tesla's battery might be like". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Mooney, Chris (May 1, 2015). "Why Tesla's announcement is such a big deal: The coming revolution in energy storage". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- "Gaining Momentum with Tesla Powerpack" (Press release). Tesla Motors. October 27, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "Tesla shows off solar roof tiles". BBC. October 29, 2016.
- Etherington, Darrell; Kumparak, Greg (October 29, 2016). "These are Tesla's stunning new solar roof tiles for homes". TechCrunch. US. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (October 31, 2016). "Tesla Powerwall 2 has no competition – comparison with LG Resu and SonnenBatterie". Electrek. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Peacock, Finn (November 25, 2016). "Powerwall 2 Full Specs Reveal Cheap Storage And Limited Warranty". Solar Quotes Blog. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- "Tesla slashes price of the Powerpack system by another 10% with new generation". Electrek. November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Tesla nimmt Netzspeicher in Kalifornien in Betrieb In: golem.de. 25 January 2017, retrieved, 27 January 2017.
- Tesla quietly brings online its massive – biggest in the world – 80 MWh Powerpack station with Southern California Edison In: electrek.co. 23 January 2017, retrieved, 27 January 2017.
- Pyper, Julia (March 18, 2016). "Tesla Discontinues 10-Kilowatt-Hour Powerwall Home Battery". Greentech Media. US. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Elon Musk's Grand Plan to Power the World With Batteries". WIRED. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- Randall, Tom (May 21, 2015). "Your Home Doesn't Matter for Tesla's Dream of a Battery-Powered Planet". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- Lambert, Fred. "Tesla is doubling the energy capacity of the Powerpack with new battery cells from the Gigafactory". Electrek. US. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 6. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Bradsher, Keith (October 13, 1999). "Fight Is Promised Over G.M. Plan to Buy Dealerships". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 5. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Randall, Tom (January 4, 2017). "Tesla Flips the Switch on the Gigafactory". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Battery Cell Production Begins at the Gigafactory". Tesla. January 4, 2017. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
production begins on cells that will be used in Tesla’s Powerwall 2 and Powerpack 2 energy products.Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Lambert, Fred (December 19, 2016). "Tesla set fire to a Powerpack to test its safety features – the results are impressive". Electrek.co. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Williams, Rhiannon (May 1, 2015). "Tesla announces renewable energy batteries for the home".
- "Tesla launches Powerwall home battery with aim to revolutionize energy consumption". Associated Press. May 1, 2015.
- Claburn, Thomas (May 2, 2015). "Tesla Energy: Changing How Businesses, Homes Use Power". Information Week. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Benjamin Preston. "Tesla's $13,000 battery could keep your home online in a blackout". the Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Liedtke, Michael; Fahey, Jonathan (May 1, 2015). "Tesla charges into home battery market despite challenges". Associated Press.
- Bishop, Bryan; Dzieza, Josh (May 1, 2015). "Tesla Energy is Elon Musk's battery system that can power homes, businesses, and the world". The Verge.
- Dzieza, Josh (February 13, 2015). "Why Tesla's battery for your home should terrify utilities". The Verge.
- "Backup Power Supply – Home Battery Backup System – SolarCity". solarcity.com. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Tesla Powerwall: Not Just for Solar". JLC Online. May 19, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- "Installing a Tesla Powerwall". JLC Online. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Masterson, Kathleen. "Tesla Battery Project Seeks To Turn Vermonters' Homes Into Tiny Power Plants". www.vpr.org. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Peacock, Finn (November 29, 2016). "Graph of the Day - Tesla Powerwall 2 way ahead of competition on price". Renew Economy. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Lawler, Richard (May 6, 2015). "Tesla's Powerwall is already sold out through middle of 2016". Engadget. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
On Tesla's quarterly earnings call, CEO Elon Musk announced "crazy off the hook" demand for its just-announced Powerwall battery product.
- Welch, Chris (May 6, 2015). "Tesla announces 38,000 pre-orders for Powerwall home battery". The Verge. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
It really feels like, man, the stationary storage demand is just nutty. Like, worldwide, it's just crazy.
- Randall, Tom (May 8, 2015). "Tesla's Battery Grabbed $800 Million in Its First Week". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Weintraub, Seth (May 5, 2016). "Tesla Energy delivered over 2,500 Powerwalls and nearly 100 Powerpacks (25 MWh total) to 4 continents last quarter". Electrek. US. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- "Gaining Momentum with Tesla Powerpack" (Press release). Tesla Motors. October 27, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- "Tesla quietly reduced the price of the Powerpack by 5% and its commercial inverter by 19%". Electrek. September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Bade, Gavin (October 28, 2016). "Tesla unveils residential solar roof and new Powerwall battery". Utility Dive. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Lazar, Jim (2014). "Teaching the "Duck" to Fly" (PDF). RAP. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- Wirfs-Brock, Jordan (October 2, 2014). "IE Questions: Why Is California Trying To Behead The Duck?". Inside Energy. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Helman, Christopher (May 1, 2015). "Why Tesla's Powerwall Is Just Another Toy For Rich Green People". Forbes. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- Bruce, Lin; Klippenstein, Matthew (May 8, 2015). "Top Ten Facts about Tesla's $350/kWh (DC) PowerWall battery". Catalytic Engineering. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- Parkinson, Giles (May 19, 2015). "UBS: Tesla Powerwall can deliver 6-year payback in Australia". Renew Economy. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- "Solar storage batteries promise a bright future for home consumers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Enphase's Energy System Hits Australia: Tesla Rival For Home Electricity Storage". www.gizmodo.com.au. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "The Home Electricity Storage Revolution Coming To Australia". www.gizmodo.com.au. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- JamesPaton14, James Paton. "Enphase Sees Australia Leading `Global Charge' in Energy Storage". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Genesis to Trial Distributed Residential Energy Storage | Scoop News". www.scoop.co.nz. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Enphase plug-and-play solar energy storage system to begin pilot program". www.gizmag.com. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Solar Energy Management Systems | Enphase". enphase.com. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Product Info｜LG Chem ESS(Energy Storage System) Partner Portal | LG Chem ESS Battery Division". www.lgesspartner.com. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "ESS Application｜LG Chem ESS(Energy Storage System) Partner Portal | LG Chem ESS Battery Division". www.lgesspartner.com. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "https://www.solaredge.com/us/solutions/grid-backup#/". www.solaredge.com. Retrieved September 13, 2018. External link in
- "One of the Nation's Largest, Most Environmentally-Friendly Battery Energy Storage Systems to be Installed at UC San Diego | Business Wire". www.businesswire.com. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- "BYD Wins Huge Electric Bus Contract In Washington". CleanTechnica. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- "BYD Motors Wins America's Largest Electric Bus Order". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- News, Bloomberg. "BYD Projects More U.S. Electric-Bus Orders". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- "Sonnen and AutoGrid Marry Big Data With Battery-Backed Solar". Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Sonnen taps AutoGrid software to broaden uses for its battery systems". Utility Dive. October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- Spector, Julian (January 30, 2017). "Eos Finds a Partner in Siemens to Scale an Unusual Battery". GTM. Retrieved January 31, 2017.