Two prototype Tesla Semis in Rocklin, California
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Class 8 heavy-duty truck|
|Body style||Tractor unit for semi-trailer trucks|
|Electric range||300 or 500 miles|
|Curb weight||not disclosed|
The Tesla Semi is an all-electric battery-powered Class 8 semi-trailer truck prototype which was unveiled on November 16, 2017 and planned for production in 2019 by Tesla, Inc. The company initially announced that the truck would have a 500 miles (805 km) range on a full charge and with its new batteries it would be able to run for 400 miles (640 km) after an 80% charge in 30 minutes using a solar-powered "Tesla Megacharger" charging station. Tesla CEO Elon Musk said that the Semi would come standard with Tesla Autopilot that allows semi-autonomous driving on highways.
The Semi was first mentioned in the Tesla 2016 Master Plan. Tesla said at the time that they have a working prototype that uses 'a bunch' of Tesla Model 3 electric motors. As of April 2017[update], Tesla's Vice President of Vehicle Programs, Jerome Guillen was leading the Tesla Semi program. Guillen was once in charge of Freightliner's Cascadia Diesel-engine Class 8 semi, before configuring the Model S production line.
The Semi was unveiled at a press conference on November 16, 2017, where Musk provided additional specifics. He did not provide a planned price but claimed that the electric Semi would cost 20 cents less per mile to operate than a diesel truck. That prediction depends on the cost of electricity in the location where a Semi will be charged; the high cost in California, for example, may eliminate the operating cost benefit.
On November 24, 2017, Musk said that the expected price of regular production versions for the 300 miles (480 km) and 500 miles (805 km) range versions would be US$150,000 and $180,000 respectively. The company also planned to offer a Founder's Series Semi at $200,000.
On March 7, 2018, Musk announced that the Semi was being tested with real cargo, hauling battery packs from Nevada to California.
The first pre-orders came in the day of the press conference and by mid-January around 450 Semis had been pre-ordered. The original deposit required with an order was $5,000, which was increased to $20,000 after the event in November. In the Q1 2018 Tesla earnings call, Musk said that there were about 2,000 total pre-orders of the Semi.
|DHL Supply Chain||10|
|United Parcel Service||125|
November 2017 prototype and plans
In November 2017, Musk said that the Semi would be powered by four electric motors of the type used in the Tesla Model 3. Two battery configurations of 300 miles (480 km) and 500 miles (805 km) range (fully loaded) were planned with the battery packs located under the floor of the cab, between the back and front wheels. Running empty, the long-range Tesla Semi would have a range of 620 miles (997 km). Tesla said the Semi would have 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time of 5 seconds unloaded and in 20 seconds fully loaded. The Semi would be able to maintain a speed of 65 mph (105 km/h) on a 5% grade, and that the company would offer a warranty for a million miles (1.6 million km) and that maintenance would be more simple than for a diesel truck.
In the prototype shown in November the driver's seat was located in the center of the cab. There was a removable jump seat for an extra passenger and there was no sleeping area. There were touchscreen displays on either side of the steering wheel, and no other instrument panels. Musk said that the windshield would be explosion-proof.
Tesla said that the Semi would be equipped with enhanced autopilot as standard equipment that would provide semi-autonomous capability. Using more radar devices than Tesla cars, and cameras, the system would enable the truck to stay in its own lane and a safe distance away from other vehicles on a highway, would have emergency braking, and would warn the driver of any potential hazards near the vehicle. Tesla also said that new technology with active safety controls would detect and prevent jackknifing. Musk said that the system would eventually allow several units to operate in an autopilot-based convoy, led by a truck with a driver, that would be a cheaper alternative to rail transport. At the time, platooning was legal in only eight states and all required a human driver in each truck so changes in legislation would be necessary to achieve Musk's vision. Media reports noted the lack of specification for vehicle weight, as payload is restricted by government rules for the weight of the combined tractor-trailer.
At the November 2017 press conference Musk also said that the company would be involved in installing a global network of "megachargers" that would be solar-powered and would be able to recharge a truck's batteries in 30 minutes to a capacity to travel 400 miles (640 km) . To accomplish this, it will likely have an output level over one megawatt.
Third party analysis
An analyst with Jefferies Group expressed skepticism over some of Tesla's claims because the company had not determined battery longevity; specifics about that aspect, and the replacement cost of the battery, are essential in order to calculate the long-term cost of ownership.
Some industry experts view heavy-duty freight as impractical for battery trucks due to cost and weight. A senior VP at Daseke Inc., a large trucking company, said that the limited range affected their likelihood of operating the Semi until the necessary infrastructure was in place.
A Bloomberg L.P. report showed that given the battery technology available in November 2017, Tesla's estimates for charging times, range per charge, and costs were not realistic, some suggesting that Tesla may be betting on increased battery density advances in the next couple of years to meet its stated goals.
In response to Musk's description of Tesla's work on a "a heavy duty, long-range semi truck" at a talk in April 2017, researchers from the Carnegie Mellon College of Engineering estimated the loads and ranges for an electric truck, given battery technologies known at that time, and published their work in June 2017. They determined that an electric semi might be feasible for short- or medium-range hauling, but not for long-range hauling, as the weight of the batteries required would take up too much of the weight allowed by law. One estimate for the battery weight, at 11,800 kg, is estimated to account for one third of the payload, and would increase the cost of the truck to about double that of an equivalent diesel.
As of November 2017, companies already developing their own electric trucks include Volkswagen Group, Einride, Thor Trucks, Cummins, Daimler AG, Nikola Motor Company, Toyota, BYD, Kenworth, Proterra, Inc., and Uber.
- Toyota Project Portal - Class 8 fuel cell truck
- Cummins Aeos - Class 7 electric and range extender truck
- Freightliner eCascadia - Class 8 battery-electric tractor variant of conventional truck
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Il a une autonomie de 997 km à vide et de 804 km à charge maximum : 40 tonnes de marchandises.
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He provided no pricing information or specifics as to horsepower or torque figures.
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