Tesla station

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Supercharger network station in Gilroy, California charging a Tesla Model S.

A Tesla station is a planned second version of the Tesla supercharger station[1] that as of June 2013 was planned to be provided by Tesla Motors to support owners of Tesla automobiles with proprietary charging station services, and was projected to be able to support both battery pack swaps as well as fast recharging of the Tesla Model S and Model X electric vehicle battery packs.[2][3] As of 17 December 2014, 18 months after the announcement, no battery swapping stations had yet opened to the public.[4]

The existing first-generation Tesla supercharger stations allow Tesla cars to be fast-charged – in less than an hour – at the network, for no payment. As of 22 July 2016, Tesla currently operates 4,157 superchargers in 681 stations worldwide.[5] In October 2014 there were 119 standard Tesla supercharger stations operating in the United States, 76 in Europe, and 26 in Asia.[6] On 31 March 2016, Tesla CEO Elon Musk announced that the number of Supercharger stations would be doubled (from 613 stations with 3,628 chargers) by 2017.[7] As of June 2015, Hong Kong has the highest density of Tesla superchargers in the world, with eight stations comprising a total of 36 supercharger stalls.[8]

In December 2014 the company announced a revision to their much-delayed[4][9] plans. A single battery-swap station is to open in California in late-December, where only invited Model S owners may do battery swaps by appointment, as part of a pilot program to assess technical and economic aspects of the service. Demand for the priced service—which is now expected to take three minutes (instead of the 90-second time previously demonstrated)—will be used to determine whether the company will commercialize battery swapping stations more generally.[10] The originally announced plan in the June 2013 announcement explicitly indicated that the company would eventually upgrade all existing Tesla supercharger stations to become Tesla stations, which would offer the battery-pack swap for the Model S in addition to the fast recharge capability that each facility initially opened with.[3]

History[edit]

In June 2013, Tesla announced the goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its existing supercharging stations, now to be renamed Tesla stations.[1] At an event at Tesla's design studio in Los Angeles, CEO Elon Musk demonstrated a battery swap operation with the Model S, which took just over 90 seconds each for the two cars participating in the demo. The swapping operation took less than half the time needed to refill a gasoline-powered car used for comparison purposes during the event.[11][12] The Tesla model S was designed from the beginning to support fast battery swapping,[1][13] with Tesla publicly discussing the capability as early as March 2009.[14]

There were eight initial supercharger stations[15] around the United States, located at strategic points on the Boston-to-Washington and Los Angeles-to-San Francisco highway corridors. By mid-July 2013, 15 were open across the United States,[16] with the number expected to nearly double by the end of the summer.[15] Superchanging stations have been available along the Highway 401 corridor between Toronto and Montreal in Canada since 2014.[17]

The number of supercharger stations grew dramatically between 2012 and 2015 — to 580 by the end of 2015 — but the 2012 promise of net-energy-positive solar-powered supercharger stations, and the 2013 promise of battery-swapping stations, have both not been met. Only two of the supercharger stations are solar powered, and no battery swapping stations have yet opened to the public.[4]

On 19 December 2014, Tesla announced revised plans. They will now build only a single battery-swapping station, and they will institute a "Battery Swap Pilot Program" at that selected station in Harris Ranch, California in order to "assess demand." Only invited Model S owners will be able to participate in the pilot battery swaps. "Tesla will evaluate relative demand from customers ... to assess whether it merits the engineering resources and investment necessary" for the upgrade of additional first-generation supercharger stations.[10]

In June 2015, Tesla announced that of 200 invitations sent out to try the pilot pack swap station, only approximately five tried it. And each of those did a swap only once. Tesla is now inviting all California Model S owners to try it out, but is expecting a low usage rate.[18] A survey showed that most users were not interested.[19]

Deployment[edit]

Tesla Supercharger station is also available at highway rest areas. This is a rest area of Merritt Parkway in Greenwich, Connecticut

The first Tesla Station with battery-swapping capability was planned to be piloted in California late in 2013,[20] but this was subsequently delayed. Elon Musk said at an event in February 2014 that a few battery swap stations will open in the next few months along the route between Los Angeles and San Francisco, and that the initial stations will be studied before deciding to build any more.[21] In mid-2013 each swapping station was projected to cost US$500,000 and have approximately 50 batteries available without requiring reservations.[11]

Elon Musk said the battery swapping service would be offered for the price of about 15 US gallons (57 l; 12 imp gal) of gasoline at the current local rate, around US$60 to US$80 at June 2013 prices. Owners may pick up their own battery pack fully charged on the return trip for no extra payment. Tesla will also offer the option to keep the pack received on the swap and pay the price difference if the battery received is newer; or to receive the original pack back from Tesla for a transport fee. The billing will be handled via customer credit card on file with Tesla. Pricing had not been determined as of June 2013.[11]

Supercharging[edit]

Tesla supercharging stations charge with up to 120 kW of power, or up to 16 times as fast as public charging stations; they take about 20 minutes to charge to 50%, 40 minutes to charge to 80%, and 75 minutes to 100%. The charging stations provide high-power direct-current (DC) charging power directly to the battery, bypassing the internal charging power supply.[22]

Some of the Tesla supercharging stations use solar panels to offset energy use and provide shade. In the next few years after 2014, Tesla Motors plans to cover more stations with solar canopies to charge the Tesla vehicle as long as the vehicle is equipped with a supercharging system. The cost for using the supercharger is covered with the purchase of the car with the purchase of 60 kilowatt-hours models or higher.[22]

Regulatory issues[edit]

The California Air Resources Board staff considered modifying the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulation to exclude battery swapping as a "fast refueling" technology; this change would deny Tesla some of the ZEV credits that the manufacturer might otherwise receive when the battery-swapping station is placed in service in California.[12] After criticism from several motoring manufacturers, this proposal was withdrawn.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Elon Musk (2013-06-21). Fast Pack Swap Event (video). Extreme Tech. Event occurs at 00:13–00:54. When you come to the Tesla Station—it shouldn't really be called a "Supercharging Station," it should just be called a "Tesla Station". ... The only decision you need to make, when you come to one of our Tesla Stations, is do you prefer faster or free? 
  2. ^ Siler, Steve (2013-06-21). "Tesla launches battery-swapping service for two-minute recharging". Yahoo Autos. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  3. ^ a b Green, Catherine (2013-06-21). "Tesla shows off its battery-swapping station: 90 seconds and less than $100". Silicon Valley Mercury News. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  4. ^ a b c Lavrinc, Damon (2014-12-17). "What Will Tesla And Elon Musk Over Promise Next?". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  5. ^ "Supercharger | Tesla Motors". www.teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  6. ^ "Tesla Motors Supercharger". teslamotors.com. Tesla Motors. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  7. ^ Pachal, Pete (1 April 2016). "Tesla plans massive expansion of supercharger network". Mashable.com. Mashable. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  8. ^ Zen Soo (2015-07-02). "Hong Kong now has highest density of Tesla superchargers in the world". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2015-11-28. 
  9. ^ http://www.engadget.com/2014/10/15/teslas-battery-swap-stations-december/
  10. ^ a b Tesla Motors Team (2014-12-19). "Battery Swap Pilot Program". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2014-12-20. 
  11. ^ a b c Mark Rogowsky (2013-06-21). "Tesla 90-Second Battery Swap Tech Coming This Year". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  12. ^ a b "Tesla Motors demonstrates battery swap in the Model S". Green Car Congress. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  13. ^ Sebastian Blanco (2009-09-27). "REPORT: Tesla Model S was designed with battery swaps in mind". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  14. ^ Tesla unveils world’s first mass-produced, highway-capable EV
  15. ^ a b "Tesla Superstation locations". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  16. ^ "Road Trips Made Easy". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  17. ^ Sorensen, Chris (24 July 2013). "A morning with Tesla’s Model S". Maclean's. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  18. ^ "Elon Musk Says Tesla May Be Giving Up on Battery Swapping Stations". Popular Mechanics. 2015-06-10. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
  19. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/teslas-battery-swapping-plan-isnt-working-out-2015-6?r=US&IR=T&IR=T
  20. ^ Fehrenbacher, Katie (2013-08-07). "Record sales, upbeat Q2 earnings for electric car maker Tesla". Gigaom. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  21. ^ Alan Ohnsman and Mark Chediak (2014-02-28). "Tesla Motors Inc’s Elon Musk says renewable energy shift to bring ‘strife’ for utilities". Financial Post. Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2014-03-19. 
  22. ^ a b "Tesla Motors". Fastest Charging Station on the planet. Tesla Motors. Retrieved October 23, 2014. 
  23. ^ ""ZEV 2013 Final Statement of Reasons"" (PDF). CEPA - Air Resources Board - ZEV 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 

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