Testicular sperm extraction

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Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is the process of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle under local anesthesia and extracting the few viable sperm cells present in that tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).[1] The testicular sperm extraction process is recommended to men who cannot produce sperm by ejaculation due to azoospermia, such as that caused by primary testicular failure, congenital absence of the vas deferens or non-reconstructed vasectomy.[2]

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) have reduced the need for donor sperm.

Serum inhibin-B weakly indicates presence of sperm cells in the testes, raising chances for successfully achieving pregnancy through TESE, although the association is not very substantial, having a sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.74) and a specificity of 0.83 (CI: 0.64–0.93) for prediction the presence of sperm in the testes in non-obstructive azoospermia.[3]

Seminal plasma proteins TEX101 and ECM1 were recently proposed for the differential diagnosis of azoospermia forms and subtypes, and for prediction of TESE outcome.[4][5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ D.Graham, Sam; James Francis Glenn; Thomas E. Keane (2004). Glenn's urologic surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 472–482. ISBN 978-0-7817-4082-1.
  2. ^ Bernie, A. M.; Mata, D. A.; Ramasamy, R; Schlegel, P. N. (2015). "Comparison of microdissection testicular sperm extraction, conventional testicular sperm extraction, and testicular sperm aspiration for nonobstructive azoospermia: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Fertility and Sterility. 104 (5): 1099–1103.e3. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.07.1136. PMID 26263080.
  3. ^ Toulis, K. A.; Iliadou, P. K.; Venetis, C. A.; Tsametis, C.; Tarlatzis, B. C.; Papadimas, I.; Goulis, D. G. (2010). "Inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone as markers of persistent spermatogenesis in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies". Human Reproduction Update. 16 (6): 713–724. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmq024. PMID 20601364.
  4. ^ Drabovich, A. P.; Dimitromanolakis, A.; Saraon, P.; Soosaipillai, A.; Batruch, I.; Mullen, B.; Jarvi, K.; Diamandis, E.P. (2013). "Differential Diagnosis of Azoospermia with Proteomic Biomarkers ECM1 and TEX101 Quantified in Seminal Plasma". Science Translational Medicine. 5 (212): 212ra160. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006260. PMID 24259048.
  5. ^ Korbakis, D.; Schiza, C.; Brinc, D.; Soosaipillai, A.; Karakosta, T.D.; Légaré, C.; Sullivan, R.; Mullen, B.; Jarvi, K.; Diamandis, E.P.; Drabovich, A.P. (2017). "Preclinical evaluation of a TEX101 protein ELISA test for the differential diagnosis of male infertility". BMC Medicine. 15 (1): 60. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0817-5. PMC 5363040. PMID 28330469.