Testosterone enanthate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Testosterone enanthate
Testosterone enanthate.svg
Testosterone enanthate molecule ball.png
Clinical data
Trade namesDelatestryl, Xyosted, others
Other namesTE; Testosterone heptanoate; Testosterone 17β-heptanoate; NSC-17591
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection
Drug classAndrogen; Anabolic steroid; Androgen ester
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityOral: very low
Intramuscular: high
MetabolismLiver
Elimination half-lifeIntramuscular: 4–5 days[1]
ExcretionUrine
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.005.686 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC26H40O3
Molar mass400.603 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Testosterone enanthate, sold under the brand names Delatestryl and Xyosted among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.[2][3][4] It is also used in hormone therapy for transgender men.[5] It is given by injection into muscle or subcutaneously usually once every one to four weeks.[4][6][1]

Side effects of testosterone enanthate include symptoms of masculinization like acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire.[4] The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).[7][4] It has strong androgenic effects and moderate anabolic effects, which make it useful for producing masculinization and suitable for androgen replacement therapy.[4] Testosterone enanthate is a testosterone ester and a long-lasting prodrug of testosterone in the body.[6][2][3] Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of testosterone.[8]

Testosterone enanthate was introduced for medical use in 1954.[9][3] Along with testosterone cypionate, testosterone undecanoate, and testosterone propionate, it is one of the most widely used testosterone esters.[7][3][4] In addition to its medical use, testosterone enanthate is used to improve physique and performance.[4] The drug is a controlled substance in many countries and so non-medical use is generally illicit.[4]

Medical uses[edit]

Testosterone enanthate is used primarily in androgen replacement therapy.[3] It is the most widely used form of testosterone in androgen replacement therapy.[3] The medication is specifically approved, in the United States, for the treatment of hypogonadism in men, delayed puberty in boys, and breast cancer in women.[10] It is also used in masculinizing hormone therapy for transgender men.[5]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects of testosterone enanthate include virilization among others.[4] Approximately 10 percent of testosterone enanthate will be converted to dihydrotestosterone in normal men.[11] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can promote masculine characteristics in both males and females. These masculine characteristics include: clitoral hypertrophy, androgenic alopecia, growth of body hair and deepening of the vocal cords. Dihydrotestosterone also plays an important role in male sexual function and may also be a contributing factor of ischemic priapism in males as shown in a study conducted on the use of finasteride to treat ischemic priapism in males. Testosterone enanthate can also lead to an increase in igf-1 and igf-bp.[12][13] Testosterone enanthate can also be converted to estradiol by aromatase,[14] which may lead to gynecomastia in males. Aromatase inhibitors can help to prevent the estrogenic activity of testosterone enanthate in the body.[15]

Pharmacology[edit]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Androgenic vs. anabolic activity
of androgens/anabolic steroids
Medication Ratioa
Testosterone ~1:1
Androstanolone (DHT) ~1:1
Methyltestosterone ~1:1
Methandriol ~1:1
Fluoxymesterone 1:1–1:15
Metandienone 1:1–1:8
Drostanolone 1:3–1:4
Metenolone 1:2–1:30
Oxymetholone 1:2–1:9
Oxandrolone 1:3–1:13
Stanozolol 1:1–1:30
Nandrolone 1:3–1:16
Ethylestrenol 1:2–1:19
Norethandrolone 1:1–1:20
Notes: In rodents. Footnotes: a = Ratio of androgenic to anabolic activity. Sources: See template.

Testosterone enanthate is a prodrug of testosterone and is an androgen and anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS). That is, it is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR).

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Testosterone enanthate has an elimination half-life of 4.5 days and a mean residence time of 8.5 days when used as a depot intramuscular injection.[1] It requires frequent administration of approximately once per week, and large fluctuations in testosterone levels result with it, with levels initially being elevated and supraphysiological.[1]

Chemistry[edit]

Testosterone enanthate, or testosterone 17β-heptanoate, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a derivative of testosterone.[16][17] It is an androgen ester; specifically, it is the C17β enanthate (heptanoate) ester of testosterone.[16][17]

History[edit]

Testosterone enanthate was described as early as 1952[18] and was first introduced for medical use in the United States in 1954 under the brand name Delatestryl.[9][3]

Society and culture[edit]

Generic names[edit]

Testosterone enanthate is the generic name of the drug and its USAN and BAN.[16][17][19][20] It has also referred to as testosterone heptanoate.[16][17][19][20]

Brand names[edit]

Testosterone enanthate is marketed primarily under the brand name Delatestryl.[16][17][19][20]

It is or has been marketed under a variety of other brand names as well, including, among others:[16][17][19][20][21]

  • Andro LA
  • Andropository
  • Cypionat
  • Cypoprime
  • Depandro
  • Durathate
  • Everone
  • Testocyp
  • Testostroval
  • Testrin
  • Testro LA
  • Xyosted

Availability[edit]

Testosterone enanthate is available in the United States and widely elsewhere throughout the world.[22][17][20] Testosterone enanthate (testosterone heptanoate) is often available in concentrations of 200mg per milliliter of fluid.[23]

Legal status[edit]

Testosterone enanthate, along with other AAS, is a schedule III controlled substance in the United States under the Controlled Substances Act and a schedule IV controlled substance in Canada under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.[24][25]

Research[edit]

As of October 2017, an auto-injection formulation of testosterone enanthate was in preregistration for the treatment of hypogonadism in the United States.[26]

Xyosted[edit]

On October 1, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval of Xyosted. Xyosted, a product of Antares Pharma, Inc., is a single-use disposable auto-injector that dispenses testosterone enanthate. Xyosted is the first FDA-approved subcutaneous testosterone enanthate product for testosterone replacement therapy in adult males.[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Luetjens CM, Wistuba J, Weinbauer G, Nieschlag E (2007). "The Leydig Cell as a Target for Male Contraception". The Leydig Cell in Health and Disease. Contemporary Endocrinology. pp. 415–442. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-453-7_29. ISBN 978-1-58829-754-9.
  2. ^ a b Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S (26 July 2012). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-1-107-01290-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S (13 January 2010). Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 442–. ISBN 978-3-540-78355-8.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Llewellyn W (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 208–211. ISBN 978-0-9828280-1-4.
  5. ^ a b Irwig MS (April 2017). "Testosterone therapy for transgender men". The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology. 5 (4): 301–311. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(16)00036-X. PMID 27084565.
  6. ^ a b Becker KL (2001). Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1185, 1187. ISBN 978-0-7817-1750-2.
  7. ^ a b Kicman AT (June 2008). "Pharmacology of anabolic steroids". British Journal of Pharmacology. 154 (3): 502–21. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.165. PMC 2439524. PMID 18500378.
  8. ^ Santoro N, Braunstein GD, Butts CL, Martin KA, McDermott M, Pinkerton JV (April 2016). "Compounded Bioidentical Hormones in Endocrinology Practice: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 101 (4): 1318–43. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-1271. PMID 27032319.
  9. ^ a b "Testosterone Enanthate". p. 35t. in William Andrew Publishing (2007). "T". Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia. pp. 1t–242t. doi:10.1016/B978-0-8155-1526-5.50024-6. ISBN 978-0-8155-1526-5.
  10. ^ "DELATESTRYL Package Insert" (PDF). Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  11. ^ "DHT (dihydrotestosterone): What is DHT's role in baldness?".
  12. ^ Ashton WS, Degnan BM, Daniel A, Francis GL (1995). "Testosterone increases insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 25 (5): 381–8. PMID 7486812.
  13. ^ Hoeh MP, Levine LA (March 2015). "Management of Recurrent Ischemic Priapism 2014: A Complex Condition with Devastating Consequences". Sexual Medicine Reviews. 3 (1): 24–35. doi:10.1002/smrj.37. PMID 27784569.
  14. ^ Ishikawa T, Glidewell-Kenney C, Jameson JL (February 2006). "Aromatase-independent testosterone conversion into estrogenic steroids is inhibited by a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 98 (2–3): 133–8. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.09.004. PMID 16386416. S2CID 25849126.
  15. ^ Ishikawa T, Glidewell-Kenney C, Jameson JL (February 2006). "Aromatase-independent testosterone conversion into estrogenic steroids is inhibited by a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 98 (2–3): 133–8. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.09.004. PMID 16386416. S2CID 25849126.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 641–642. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. pp. 1002–1004. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  18. ^ Junkmann K (1952). "Über protrahiert wirksame Androgene" [Over protracted effective androgens]. Festschrift zum 75. Geburtstag. pp. 85–92. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-49902-9_11. ISBN 978-3-642-49610-3.
  19. ^ a b c d Morton IK, Hall JM (6 December 2012). "Testosterone". Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 270. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Testosterone". Drugs.com. October 1, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  21. ^ "Testosterone cypionate profile and most popular brands in USA". Anabolic Steroids Ratings and Reviews - downsizefitness.com. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
  22. ^ "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  23. ^ "Testosterone enanthate".
  24. ^ Karch SB (21 December 2006). Drug Abuse Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-4200-0346-8.
  25. ^ Lilley LL, Snyder JS, Collins SR (5 August 2016). Pharmacology for Canadian Health Care Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-1-77172-066-3.
  26. ^ "Testosterone enanthate auto-injection - Antares Pharma". AdisInsight. February 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  27. ^ Antares Receives FDA Approval of Xyosted (Testosterone Enanthate) Injection for Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adult Males