tetraethyl orthosilicate; ethyl silicate; silicic acid tetraethyl ester; silicon ethoxide; TEOS; tetraethyl silicate
|Molar mass||208.33 g mol−1|
|Density||0.933 g/mL at 20 °C|
|Melting point||−77 °C (−107 °F; 196 K)|
|Boiling point||168 to 169 °C (334 to 336 °F; 441 to 442 K)|
|reacts with water, soluble in ethanol, and 2-propanol|
|Vapor pressure||1 mmHg|
|Main hazards||Flammable, Harmful by inhalation|
|Flash point||45 °C (113 °F; 318 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|6270 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
LCLo (Lowest published)
|1000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
700 ppm (guinea pig, 6 hr)
1740 ppm (guinea pig, 15 min)
1170 ppm (guinea pig, 2 hr)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 100 ppm (850 mg/m3)|
|TWA 10 ppm (85 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Tetraethyl orthosilicate is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4. Often abbreviated TEOS, it is a colorless liquid that degrades in water. TEOS is the ethyl ester of orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4. It is a prototypical alkoxide.
- SiCl4 + 4 EtOH → Si(OEt)4 + 4 HCl
where Et = C2H5
TEOS is mainly used as a crosslinking agent in silicone polymers and as a precursor to silicon dioxide in the semiconductor industry. TEOS is also used as the silica source for synthesis of zeolites. Other applications include coatings for carpets and other objects. TEOS is used in the production of aerogel. These applications exploit the reactivity of the Si-OR bonds.
TEOS has the remarkable property of easily converting into silicon dioxide. This reaction occurs upon the addition of water:
- Si(OC2H5)4 + 2 H2O → SiO2 + 4 C2H5OH
This hydrolysis reaction is an example of a sol-gel process. The side product is ethanol. The reaction proceeds via a series of condensation reactions that convert the TEOS molecule into a mineral-like solid via the formation of Si-O-Si linkages. Rates of this conversion are sensitive to the presence of acids and bases, both of which serve as catalysts. The Stöber process allows the formation of monodisperse silica particles.
At elevated temperatures (>600 °C), TEOS converts to silicon dioxide:
- Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2 (C2H5)2O
The volatile coproduct is diethyl ether.
Although nontoxic to ingestion, TEOS vapor is highly damaging to eyes since it deposits silica.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0282". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Ethyl silicate". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Bulla, D.A.P; Morimoto, N.I (1998). "Deposition of thick TEOS PECVD silicon oxide layers for integrated optical waveguide applications". Thin Solid Films 334: 60. doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01117-1.
- Kulprathipanja, Santi (2010) Zeolites in Industrial Separation and Catalysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, ISBN 3527629572.
- Rösch, Lutz; John, Peter and Reitmeier, Rudolf (2002) "Silicon Compounds, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_021.