Names and titles of God in the New Testament
The tetragrammaton (YHWH) or trigrammaton (YHW) do not occur in any extant Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. Extant Greek New Testament manuscripts contain the Greek word Kyrios (Lord) in Old Testament quotes where the Hebrew manuscripts contain the tetragrammaton. Some translations insert the tetragrammaton or another name of God into the New Testament where Kyrios appears in the available manuscripts.
None of the extant Greek manuscripts of the New Testament contain the tetragrammaton, The oldest extant fragments of New Testament manuscripts—52, 90, 98 and 104—do not include any verses that quote Old Testament verses that contained the tetragrammaton. Fragments that do contain quotations of Old Testament verses containing the tetragrammaton are from the 3rd century CE onward (46, 66, 75), almost two centuries after the originals. The manuscripts of the Septuagint and other recensions that are pre-Christian or contemporary to the Apostolic Age present the tetragrammaton in Hebrew within the Greek text. Even the Septuagint manuscript P Oxy 1007 dated to 3rd century CE, that is post-New Testament manuscript, contains a double yohd to represent the name of God.
Extant New Testament manuscripts are from the late Ante-Nicene Period rather than the Apostolic Age. Scholar George Howard has suggested that the tetragrammaton appeared in the original New Testament autographs, and that "the removal of the Tetragrammaton from the New Testament and its replacement with the surrogates κυριος and θεος blurred the original distinction between the Lord God and the Lord Christ." In the Anchor Bible Dictionary, Howard states: "There is some evidence that the Tetragrammaton, the Divine Name, Yahweh, appeared in some or all of the OT quotations in the NT when the NT documents were first penned.":392
Along with Howard, David Trobisch and Rolf Furuli both have suggested that the tetragrammaton may have been removed from the Greek manuscripts.:66–67:179–191 In the book Archaeology and the New Testament, John McRay wrote that the New Testament autographs "may have preserved the Jewish custom and retained the divine name in Aramaic script in quotations from the Old Testament." Robert Baker Girdlestone stated in 1871 that if the Septuagint had used "one Greek word for Jehovah and another for Adonai, such usage would doubtless have been retained in the discourses and arguments of the N.T. Thus our Lord in quoting the 110th Psalm, ... might have said 'Jehovah said unto Adoni.'" Since Girdlestone's time it has been shown that the Septuagint contained the tetragrammaton, but that it was removed in later editions. For example, the 8HevXII gr manuscript dated to the 1st century CE contains the tetragrammaton in Hebrew or paleo-Hebrew script. An original tetragram "had been maintained as far back as Origen", who wrote:
In the more accurate exemplars [of the LXX] the (divine) name is written in Hebrew characters; not, however, in the current script, but in the most ancient.
Wolfgang Feneberg comments in the Jesuit magazine Entschluss/Offen (April 1985): "He [Jesus] did not withhold his father's name YHWH from us, but he entrusted us with it. It is otherwise inexplicable why the first petition of the Lord's Prayer should read: 'May your name be sanctified!'" Feneberg further notes that "in pre-Christian manuscripts for Greek-speaking Jews, God's name was not paraphrased with kýrios [Lord], but was written in the tetragram form in Hebrew or archaic Hebrew characters. ... We find recollections of the name in the writings of the Church Fathers".
Professor Christopher R. Matthews states:
"In pre-Christian Greek [manuscripts] of the OT, the divine name was not rendered by 'kyrios' as has often been thought. Usually the Tetragram was written out in Aramaic or in paleo-Hebrew letters... At a later time, surrogates such as 'theos' [God] and 'kyrios' replaced the Tetragram... There is good reason to believe that a similar pattern evolved in the NT, i.e. the divine name was originally written in the NT quotations of and allusions to the OT, but in the course of time it was replaced by surrogates".
The Jewish custom of writing the tetragrammaton in Hebrew characters within the Greek text continued in the first centuries CE. No Jewish manuscript of the Septuagint has been found with Κύριος representing the tetragrammaton, and it has been argued, but not widely accepted, that the use of Κύριος shows that later copies of the Septuagint were of Christian character, and even that the composition of the New Testament preceded the change to Κύριος in the Septuagint. The consistent use of Κύριος to represent the tetragrammaton has been called "a distinguishing mark for any Christian LXX manuscript", Alan Mugridge states regarding Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1007 and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656:
"It has been suggested that two OT papyri, listed here as Christian, are actually Jewish. In 3 [ie, P. Oxy. VII 1007] (2nd half III AD) two yodhs (...) appear for the Divine Name. A second hand wrote the Divine Name as κυριος with a different ‘pen’ from the rest of the text in 9 [ie, P. Oxy. IV 656] (II/III AD), perhaps a second writer assigned to insert the Divine Name. This is not sufficient reason, however, to conclude that these two papyri are Jewish, since Jewish strands within early Christianity existed throughout the period under review, as we noted earlier. Hence, this practice may just reflect current practice in Jewish-Christian groups, which did not fade away as early or as completely as is often thought. (...) If 3 [ie, P. Oxy. VII 1007] is a Christian papyrus – and the use of the nomen sacrum θς would seem to support this – it is the only example of an attempt to write something resembling Hebrew characters in a Christian manuscript."
Mugridge concludes that early Gentile Christians could write the tetragrammaton in their homemade copies, but that later Christians "replaced the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more." According to Edmon Gallagher, a faculty member of Heritage Christian University, some Christian scribes "would have produced a paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton", concluding that "if the scribe copied poorly the paleo-Hebrew script... as πιπι, which can be a corruption only of the Tetragrammaton in square script." Jerome wrote that by 384CE, some ignorant readers of the LXX assumed the tetragrammaton to be a Greek word, πιπι (pipi), suggesting its pronunciation had been forgotten, but affirming its existence at the end of the 4th century. Professor Robert J. Wilkinson suggests that Jews in mixed communities would not tolerate articulations of the tetragrammaton, and that Gentiles would have trouble pronouncing it if it were not ΙΑΩ or Κύριος. Some Jews may have continued to pronounce YHWH in one form or another, (e.g., ιαω in Greek) until the late of Second Temple Period. According to Pavlos Vasileiadis, a Doctor of Theology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "The indications denote that it was 'still being pronounced by some Hellenistic Jews' and also by non-Jews as late as the third century C.E."
Sidney Jellicoe concluded, "Kahle is right in holding that LXX [Septuagint] texts, written by Jews for Jews, retained the divine name in Hebrew Letters (paleo-Hebrew or Aramaic) or in the Greek-letters imitative form ΠΙΠΙ, and that its replacement by Κύριος was a Christian innovation". Jellicoe cites various scholars (B. J. Roberts, Baudissin, Kahle and C. H. Roberts) and various segments of the Septuagint, concluding that the absence of Adonai from the text suggests that the insertion of the term Κύριος was a later practice; that the Septuagint Κύριος is used to substitute YHWH; and that the tetragrammaton appeared in the original text, but Christian copyists removed it.
Tatian's Diatessaron shows some variance in applying Κύριος to YHWH, but this may be because of dependence on the Peshitta. Robert Shedinger wrote that in the Greek New Testament copies after originals it could have been changed יהוה by θεος, and later by Κύριος, and Diatessaron may provide additional confirmation of Howard's hypothesis:
It is at least possible that the regular use of "God" in the Diatessaron is further confirmation of Howard's thesis. However, it must be stressed that Howard's thesis is somewhat speculative, and the textual evidence he cites from the New Testament in support of it is far from overwhelming. But if Howard is wrong, and Κύριος was the original reading of the New Testament, some other plausible explanation must be found for the use of "God" in both the Diatessaron and the other textual and patristic witnesses cited above that for the most part have no connection to the Diatessaron tradition. If nothing else, this phenomenon of the regular use of "God" in place of "Lord" in the Diatessaron is further evidence of Tatian's independence of the OTP.
Kyrios appears over 700 times in the New Testament, and in a few instances some Greek manuscripts also use the term in place of Theos. The consistency in rendering YHWH as Κύριος in all New Testament references would be difficult to explain if there were not already either an established tradition to read Κύριος where YHWH appears in a Greek manuscript, or an established body of texts with Κύριος already in the Greek. Κύριος is not an exact synonym of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton.:39
|Variance between Κύριος and θεος|
|Acts 8:22||Gr.||Vg, Syp|
|Acts 8:24||א, A, B||D, Vg, Sy|
|Acts 8:25||א, B, C, D,||P74, A, Sy|
|Acts 10:33||P45, א, A, B, C||P74, D, Sy|
|Acts 12:24||B||P74, א, A, D, Sy|
|Acts 13:44||P74, א, A, B||B, C, Sy|
|Acts 14:48||P45, P74, א, A, C||B, D,|
Shabbat 13:5— A. The books of the Evangelists and the books of the minim they do not save from a fire [on the Sabbath]. They are allowed to burn up where they are, they and [even] the references to the Divine Name that are in them.
Shabbat 13:5— The Gilyon[im] (i.e., gospel books) and the books of the minim (i.e., Jewish heretics) are not saved [on the Sabbath] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the names of God [ Tetragrammaton ] written upon them....
This same source quotes Jose the Galilean (who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE): "one cuts out the references to the Divine Name which are in them [the Christian writings] and stores them away, and the rest burns".
Shabbat 13:5— We don't save the [ Gilyohnim ] Gospels or the books of Minim from the fire. They are burnt where they are, together with their tetragrammatons. Rabbi Yose Ha-Gelili says: "During the week one should take the tetragrammatons from them, hide them and burn the rest". Rabbi Tarfon said: 'May I bury my children! If I would have them in my hands, I would burn them with all their tetragrammatons...'
Shabbat 13:5— The 'Gilyon[im]' and the [Biblical] books of the Judæo-Christians [ Minim ] are not saved [on the Sabbath] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God written upon them." R. Jose the Galilean says: "On week-days the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God are cut out and hidden while the rest is burned." R. Tarphon says: "I swear by the life of my children that if they fall into my hands I shall burn them together with the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God upon them." R. Ishmael says: "If God has said, 'My name that has been written in holiness [i.e., in the "jealousy roll" mentioned in Num. v. 21 et seq.] shall be wiped out by water, in order to make peace between husband and wife,' then all the more should the books of the Judæo-Christians, that cause enmity, jealousy, and contention between Israel and its heavenly Father. [...] As they are not saved from fire, so they are not saved when they are in danger of decaying, or when they have fallen into water, or when any other mishap has befallen them.
The Hebrew word guilyonim comes from the Greek euaggelion "Gospel". Lawrence Schiffman views this as a discussion of whether to rescue section of the sifre minim (Hebrew language texts of Jewish Christians) containing the tetragrammata from a house fire. Daniel Boyarin includes "even their books of Torah" in this quote.
Presence in Old Testament quotes
The New Testament contains statements attributed to individuals quoting the Old Testament. George Howard concludes, because extant copies of the Septuagint from as late as the 3rd century CE contain the tetragrammaton or related forms (e.g. 4Q120 (1st century BCE), P Oxy. 3522 (1st century CE), P Oxy 5101 (50 and 150 CE), P Oxy 1007 (3rd century CE), Q (6th century CE)), that New Testament writers would also reasonably use the tetragrammaton.
Though Albert Pietersma, along with most scholars, does not accept Howard's theory, Pietersma has stated about other revisions of the Septuagint: "It might possibly still be debated whether perhaps the Palestinian copies with which the NT authors were familiar read some form of the tetragram."
From the third century CE onward, kyrios appears (e.g. P.Oxy656, P.Oxy1075) in Septuagint manuscripts. Extant New Testament manuscripts from the same period use the Greek form kyrios in place of the Tetragrammaton, even when quoting the Old Testament. For example, at Luke 4:17 Jesus reads the Isaiah scroll (Isaiah 61:1) at the synagogue in Nazareth. Some translators inserted the name of God in quotations where the Old Testament has YHWH.
|Surrogates of YHWH in New Testament quotations of Old Testament verses|
|New Testament verse||Surrogate in NT verse||Quote in Old Testament||Name and titles of God in OT|
|Matthew 4:4||θεοῦ||Deuteronomy 8:3||יהוה|
|Matthew 4:7||Κύριον τὸν θεόν||Deuteronomy 6:16||יהוה אלהיכם|
|Matthew 4:10||Κύριον τὸν θεόν||Deuteronomy 5:9||יהוה אלהיך|
|Matthew 5:33||τῷ κυρίῳ||Deuteronomy 23:21||יהוה|
|Matthew 21:9||Κυρίου||Psalms 118:26||יהוה|
|Matthew 22:37||Κύριον τὸν θεόν||Deuteronomy 6:5||יהוה|
|Matthew 22:44||Κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ||Psalms 110:1||יהוה לאדני|
|Mark 12:29||Κύριος ὁ θεὸς, Κύριος||Deuteronomy 6:4||יהוה: Nash Papyrus|
|Luke 4:17||Κυρίου||Isaiah 61:1||יהוה|
|Luke 10:27||Κύριον τὸν θεόν: P45||Deuteronomy 6:5||יהוה: Nash Papyrus|
|Luke 13:35||Κυρίου: P45||Psalms 118:26||יהוה|
|John 6:45||θεοῦ: P66||Isaiah 54:13||יהוה|
|John 12:13||Κυρίου: P66||Psalms 118:26||יהוה|
|Acts 2:20,21||Κυρίου||Joel 3:31,32, Zechariah 1:14||יהוה: LXXVTS 10a|
|Acts 3:22||Κύριος ὁ θεὸς||Deuteronomy 18:15||יהוה: Papyrus Fouad 266|
|Acts 8:22||τοῦ θεοῦὁ: Greek; Dominus: Vg; Alaha: Sy||Isaiah 55:7||יהוה|
|James 5:11||Κυρίου, κύριος||Job 42:12||יהוה: P.Oxy.L 3522|
|Revelation 4:11||κύριος καὶ ὁ θεὸς||Psalms 29:1,2, 96:8||יהוה: Ambrosiano O 39 sup., AqTaylor|
|Revelation 15:3||κύριε ὁ θεός||Psalms 97:1||יהוה: AqTaylor|
|Revelation 19:5||Κύριος ὁ θεὸς||Psalms 92:5||יהוה: AqTaylor|
The early Christians in the 1st century CE believed Yahweh to be the only true God, the god of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Jewish scriptures. In pre-Nicene times "the Christian understanding of God carries the fundamental notion that He is the one and same in both the H[ebrew] O[ld] T[estament] and the NT texts." George Howard states that κυριος and θεος were the initial nomina sacra when later Gentiles Christians did not copy the tetragrammaton once they "found no traditional reasons to preserve the tetragrammaton." Larry Hurtado claims the innovation of nomina sacra favored the introduction of the doctrine of the Holy trinity in Christianity. In Greek New Testament Manuscripts nomina sacra occurs around the third century CE onwards. Vasileiadis states that "the subsequent use of the contracted forms of the original nomina sacra κ[ύριο]ς [(κς)] and θ[εό]ς [(θς)] within Christian manuscripts probably reflects the Jewish practice of replacing the Tetragrammaton by י[הו]ה.", transliterated in koine Greek as ιά.
Hallelujah (Tiberian halləlûyāh, literally praise Jah or praise Yah), appears four times at Revelation 19:1-6. It is represented in Greek as Ἁλληλουιά wherein ιά (Hebrew יה) is an abbreviated form of the tetragrammaton.
Usage in New Testament translations
Most English Bibles, including those which contain Yahweh (such as the Jerusalem Bible) or a related form in the Old Testament, do not use the same form in the New Testament because it does not appear in the available Greek New Testament manuscripts. However, of over English translations of the Bible have been written, 23 use the forms Jehovah or Yahweh in the New Testament.
- Andrew Gabriel Roth (2008). The Aramaic English New Testament (Third ed.). Israel: Netzari Press.
- The Hebraic Roots Bible, (with study notes). Word of Truth Publications. 2012.
- The Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition (1981) renders the tetragrammaton as Yahweh in both the Old and New Testaments.
- The Holy Name Bible, (2012), revised by A. B. Traina, The Scripture Research Association, Inc., reprinted by Yahshua Promotions.
- John Eliot (1661). Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, ed. The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Cambridge.
- Edward Harwood (1768). A Liberal Translation of the New Testament. Vol. 11. London: T. Becket & P.A. de Hondt.
- The Family Expositor or, a Paraphrase and Version of the New Testament; with Critical Notes, and a Practical Improvement of Each Section, by Philip Doddridge, 1808.
- William Newcome, in what is sometimes known as "Archbishop Newcome's new translation" (1809), uses the name Jehovah a few times where the New Testament quotes from the Old Testament, such as Matthew 22:24.
- Abner Kneeland (1823). Kneeland, ed. The New Testament; Being the English Only of the Greek and English Testament. University of Harvard.
- Lancelot Shadwell (1861). The Gospels of Matthew, and of Mark, Newly Rendered Into English; With Notes on the Greek Text. University of Oxford.
- A Literal Translation of the New Testament ... From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, by Herman Heinfetter (1863)
- The Emphatic Diaglott (1864), by Benjamin Wilson. Jehovah appears 13x in the Four Gospels and the Acts in the New Testament.
- Hiram Bingham II, (1890), Te Baibara.
- George Barker Stevens (1898). C. Scribner, ed. The Epistles of Paul in Modern English. University of Harvard.
- Rutherford, William Gunion (1900). St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. London.
- Charles Scribner and Sons, ed. (1901). The Messages of Jesus According to the Synoptists, (The Discourses of Jesus in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Vol. 9, The messages of the Bible. University of Harvard.
- Pablo Besson, (1919), El Nuevo Testamento, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- Edward Grimes, (1923), The Apocalypse: A Revised Version in English of the Revelation with Notes, Historical and Explanatory.
- George N. LeFevre, (1928), The Christian’s Bible—New Testament, (Strasburg, PA).
- Wilfrid H. Isaacs, (1933), The Epistle to the Hebrews with some interpretative suggestions.
- Benjamin Wisner Bacon, (1933), The Gospel of the Hellenists, Carl Hermann Kraeling and H. Holt ed., University of Michigan.
- The New Testament Letters, by J.W.C. Wand, Bishop of London (1946). "Jehovah" appears just in three places - Rom 9:28; 12:19 and Heb 7:21.
- The rendering Jehovah appears 237 times in the New World Translation (NWT), of the New Testament published first in 1950 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society and used by Jehovah's Witnesses.
- The Indoniseian Batak (Toba) version (1989) uses Jahowa 110 times.
- Rotuman Bible (1999), which uses Jihova 51 times in 48 verses.
- The Original Aramaic Bible in Plain English (2008) by David Bauscher, a self-published English translation of the New Testament, from the Aramaic of The Peshitta New Testament with a translation of the ancient Aramaic Peshitta version of Psalms & Proverbs, uses JEHOVAH approximately 239 times in the New Testament, where the Peshitta itself does not. He justifies the insertion of the name Jehovah for the translation of the term MarYah, "which is The Aramaic for The Hebrew “Yahweh”, and always refers to The Deity".
- The Divine Name King James Bible, published in 2011, uses Jehovah and Jah in 7,023 places where the capitalized LORD and GOD appear in the Authorized King James Version. Jehovah appears in parentheses in the New Testament portion of this Bible where Old Testament quotes are cross-referenced.
Only in notes
Sacred Name Bibles
Sacred Name Bibles are editions of the Bible that "consistently use Hebraic forms of God's name... in New Testament".
- In 1993, the Institute for Scripture Research (ISR) published The Scriptures, the first English translation to incorporate the Hebrew letters of the tetragrammaton instead of a generic title (e.g., the LORD) or a conjectural transliteration (e.g., Yahweh or Jehovah). The Besorah and ISR's The Scriptures '98 also incorporate the tetragrammaton, using Paleo-Hebrew script rather than Hebrew square script.
- Assemblies of Yahweh
- Names of God in Christianity
- Names of God in Judaism
- Papyrus Fouad 266
- Papyrus Rylands 458
- George Howard The Tetragram and the New Testament Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 96, No. 1 (Mar., 1977), pp. 63–83, The Society of Biblical Literature.
- Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.; Kurt und Barbara Aland, Der Text des Neuen Testaments. Einführung in die wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1989, S. 109. ISBN 3-438-06011-6
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Philip Charleston (2009). Shattering the Christian Looking Glass. Trafford Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 1425183956.
- Michael R. Licona; Craig A. Evans (2016). Why Are There Differences in the Gospels?: What We Can Learn from Ancient Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0190264284.
- Norman L. Geisler; William C. Roach; J. I. Packer (2012). Defending Inerrancy: Affirming the Accuracy of Scripture for a New Generation. Baker Books. p. 95. ISBN 1441235914.
- Josh McDowell; Sean McDowell (2010). Evidence for the Resurrection: What It Means for Your Relationship with God. Baker Books. p. 24. ISBN 1441224165.
- Norman Geisler (2004). "Are Miracles Actual?". Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 131. ISBN 1592447325.
- H. Bietenhard, “Lord,” in the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, C. Brown (gen. ed.), Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 512, ISBN 0310256208
- Larry W Hurtado (2017). "Text collected and cannon". Texts and Artefacts: Selected Essays on Textual Criticism and Early Christian Manuscripts, The Library of New Testament Studies. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 0567677702.
- T. & J. Swords, ed. (1817). The Christian Register, and Moral and Theological Review. 1. University of Chicago.
- "The Tetragram and the New Testament", included in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume 6, Edited by David Noel Freedman Anchor Bible: New York. 1992 ISBN 978-0385261906
- David Trobisch, The First Edition of the New Testament (Oxford University Press: 2000) ISBN 9780195112405
- Rolf Furuli. The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation: With a Special Look at the New World Translation of Jehovah's Witnesses Elihu Books, 1999 ISBN 9780965981446
- McCray, John, Archaeology and the New Testament Baker Academic (1 February 2008) ISBN 978-0801036088
- R. Girdlestone (2000). "How Translators deal with Name Jehovah". Old Testament Synonyms. Sovereign Grace Publishers. p. 43. ISBN 1589600304.
- The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (1984, Volume 2, page 512) says: "Recent textual discoveries cast doubt on the idea that the compilers of the LXX [Septuagint] translated the tetragrammaton YHWH by kyrios. The oldest LXX MSS (fragments) now available to us have the tetragrammaton written in Heb[rew] characters in the G[ree]k text. This custom was retained by later Jewish translators of the O[ld] T[estament] in the first centuries A.D."
- Albert Pietersma, Claude E. Cox, John William Wevers (1984). "Kyrios or Tetragram: A Renewed Quest for the Original LXX". In Albert Pietersma; Claude E. Cox; John William Wevers. De Septuaginta: Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday (PDF). Mississauga: Benben Publications. ISBN 0920808107.
- Christopher R. Matthews (March 1977). "New Testaments Abstracts". Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts: Boston College School of Theology and Ministry. p. 306.[full citation needed]
- Mogens Müller (1996). The First Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint. Copenhagen international seminar, Journal for the study of the Old Testament: Supplement series. 1. A&C Black. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85075571-5.
- Sean M. McDonough (1999). "2: The Use of the Name YHWH". YHWH at Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting, Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. Mohr Siebeck. p. 60. ISBN 978-31-6147055-4.
- Eugen J. Pentiuc (2014). "Septuagint Manuscripts and Printed Editions". The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Oxford University Press USA. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19533123-3.
- Alan Mugridge (2016). Copying Early Christian Texts: A Study of Scribal Practice. Mohr Siebeck. p. 120. ISBN 9783161546884.
- Paul Kahle (1959). The Cairo Geniza, Schweich lectures (2nd ed.). Blackwell. p. 222.
- Gallagher, Edmon (2013). "The religious provenance of the Aquila manuscripts from the Cairo Genizah". Journal of Jewish Studies. 64:2: 283–305.
- Sylvester Joseph Hunter, Aeterna Press (1895). Outlines of Dogmatic Theology. Volume 1, Manuals of Catholic theology. Aeterna Press.
- Robert J. Wilkinson (2015). "The First Christians and the Tetragrammaton". Tetragrammaton: Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God: From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century, Studies in the History of Christian Traditions. Brill. p. 95. ISBN 9004288171.
- Shaw, Frank Edward (2002). The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω. Cincinnati: Peeters. ISBN 9042929782.
- Pavlos D. Vasileiadis (2014). "Aspects of rendering the sacred Tetragrammaton in Greek" (PDF). Open Theology. 1: 56–88.
- Sidney Jellicoe, Septuagint and Modern Study (Eisenbrauns, 1989, ISBN 0-931464-00-5) pp. 271, 272.
- Gerald Sigal (1981). The Jew and the Christian Missionary: A Jewish Response to Missionary Christianity. Ktav Publishing House. ISBN 0870688863.
- Robert F. Shedinger (2001). Tatian and the Jewish scriptures: a textual and philological. The University of Virginia. p. 137. ISBN 2877235890.
- Robert F. Shedinger (2001). "Old Testament citations differing from textual traditions". Per Visibilia ad Invisibilia. Corpus Scriptorum Christianoru, Corpus scriptoru / Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium / Subsidia Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium. 591. Peeters Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 9042910429.
- David B. Capes (1992). Old Testament Yahweh texts in Paul's christology. J.C.B. Mohr. ISBN 316145819 2.
- Shabbat 13:5 reads: "The Gilyon[im] (i.e., gospel books) and the books of the minim (i.e., Jewish heretics) are not saved [on the Sabbath] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the names of God written upon them." The Jewish Encyclopedia (1910) defines the word Gilyonim in the Talmud as referring to the Gospels in the time of Tarfon.see Ludwig Blau, 1910 "Gilyonim", Jewish Encyclopedia. Modern scholar Dan Jaffé reaches the same conclusion, see Le Talmud et les origines juives du christianisme, Cerf, 2008, p. 95 and Le judaïsme et l’avènement du christianisme - Orthodoxie et hétérodoxie dans la littérature talmudique Ier-IIe siècle, Cerf, 2005, pp. 237–312
- Neusner (2008). Persia and Rome in classical Judaism. p. 14.
- Jacob Neusner (2008). Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine: History, Messiah, Israel, and the Initial Confrontation. Chicago Studies in the History of Judaism. University of Chicago Press. p. 99. ISBN 0226576477.
- Lawrence H. Schiffman (1985). Who Was a Jew?: Rabbinic and Halakhic Perspectives on the Jewish Christian Schism. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 0881250546.
- Ludwig Blau (1906). "Gilyonim". Jewish Encyclopedia.
- Dan Jaffé (2005). Le judaïsme et l'avènement du christianisme: orthodoxie et hétérodoxie dans la littérature talmudique, Ier-IIe siècle. Cerf. pp. 232–312. ISBN 2204077593.
- Jeremy Cohen Essential papers on Judaism and Christianity in conflict
- Daniel Boyarin (2004). "Justin 5 Dialogue with the Jews The Beginnings of Orthodoxy". Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 57. ISBN 0812237641.
- Robert A. Kraft. "Some Observations on Early Papyri and MSS for LXX/OG Study".
- Sidney Jellicoe (1968). The Septuagint and Modern Study. Eisenbrauns. pp. 271–2. ISBN 0-931464-00-5.
- Pietersma views, along with Rösel's, have been thoroughly challenged by F. Shaw, The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω, Peeters, 2014, pp. 133–165; Shaw quotes from a number of prominent scholars disagreeing with Pietersma on the primacy of kyrios in the LXX, e.g. E. Tov, K. De Troyer, M. Hengel, J. Joosten, S. McDonough, etc.
- Joseph A. Fitzmyer (1997). "The use of explicit Old Testament quotations in Qumran literature and in the New Testament". Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 0802848451.
Joseph A. Fitzmyer records the episode of Christ's reading from the scroll of Isaiah in the synagogue of Nazareth, he quotes Is 61:1–2.
- G. Bromiley, ed. (1982). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "God". Fully Revised. Two: E-J. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 497–499. ISBN 0-8028-3782-4.
- Larry W Hurtado (2017). "The origin of the Nomina Sacra". Texts and Artefacts: Selected Essays on Textual Criticism and Early Christian Manuscripts, The Library of New Testament Studies. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 0567677702.
- Cilliers Breytenbach, Christiane Zimmermann (2018). Early Christianity in Lycaonia and Adjacent Areas: From Paul to Amphilochius of Iconium, Early Christianity in Asia Minor. BRILL. ISBN 9789004352520.
- Gertoux, Gerard (2002). The Name of God Y.eH.oW.aH which is pronounced as it is written I_Eh_oU_Ah: Its story. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN 0761822046.
- Crawford Howell Toy; Ludwig Blau (1906). "Tetragrammaton". Jewish Encyclopedia.
- Newcome, William (1796). An attempt toward revising our English translation of the Greek Scriptures. Oxford University. p. 116.
- A Literal Translation of the New Testament ... From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, by Herman Heinfetter (1863) Google scanned images missing several pages.
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- 'Jehovah' 6x (Romans 4:8; 9:28; 11:3; 12:34; 14:11; 15:11) - all as Jehovah in NWT - fewer than in NWT (19x).]
- The New Testament Letters, by J.W.C. Wand, Bishop of London (1946)
- "A Living Translation of God's Word". The Watchtower (Study Edition). Brooklyn: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. December 2015.
- Jason BeDuhn (2003). "The use of Jehovah in NW". Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament. University Press of America. p. 187. ISBN 0761825568.
- "The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures". New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (2013 revision). Brooklyn: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2013.
- Peter Unseth Sacred Name Bible translations in English: a fast-growing phenomenon. The Bible Translator 62.3: 185.
- The Scriptures, First Edition (1993) ISBN 0-620-17989-9
- The Besorah of Yahushua
- The divine name in the New Testament Le nom divin dans le Nouveau Testament
- Greek text – Complete Greek text of the Septuagint hyperlinked to Strong's concordance.
- Brenton's – The standard English translation of the Septuagint (hard copy has Greek in column)
- The New Testament and the Septuagint – Instances where the New Testament quotes the LXX against the Masoretic Hebrew
- The New Testament and the Hebrew OT – Instances where the New Testament agrees with the Masoretic Hebrew meaning
- Names in the Septuagint and Masoretic – A table of the older Greek names with the newer Masoretic renditions, in the Old Testament
- The Septuagint Online – Comprehensive site with scholarly discussion and extensive links to texts and translations
- Article for the thesis by Matteo Pierro in a Catholic Magazine: "Rivista Biblica", n. 2, April–June 1997, p. 183–186. Bologna, Italy
- Article against the thesis by Carmelo Savasta in a Catholic Magazine: "Rivista Biblica", n. 1, 1998, p. 89–92. Bologna, Italy
- The Tetragrammaton and the Christian Greek Scriptures, a downloadable book.
- George Howard (March 1977). "The Tetragram and the New Testament" (PDF). 96 (1). Journal of Biblical Literature: 63–83.