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Temporal range: Early Pliocene to recent
Tetrao urogallus Richard Bartz.jpg
Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Tetraoninae
Genus: Tetrao
Linnaeus, 1758

Tetrao mlokosiewiczi
Tetrao urogalloides
Tetrao tetrix
Tetrao urogallus

Tetrao is a genus of birds in the grouse subfamily. The genus name is derived from the Latin name of a gamebird, probably the black grouse.[1]


There are four extant species:

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Birkhahn.jpg Tetrao tetrix Black grouse Europe (Swiss-Italian-French Alps specially) from Great Britain (but not Ireland) through Scandinavia and Estonia into Russia
Tetrao mlokosiewiczi Caucasian grouse southeastern Europe
David Palmer Capercaillie.jpg Tetrao urogallus Western capercaillie Europe to western Russia
Tetrao urogalloides.jpg Tetrao urogalloides Black-billed capercaillie eastern Russia as well as parts of northern Mongolia and China

The fossil record of this genus is extensive:


  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 383. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.