Tetrapod (structure)

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Tetrapods on Graciosa Island, Azores
Tetrapods in Latvia
Tetrapods protecting a marina on Crete, Greece.

A tetrapod is a form of wave-dissipating concrete block used to prevent erosion caused by weather and longshore drift, primarily to enforce coastal structures such as seawalls and breakwaters. Tetrapods are made of concrete, and use a tetrahedral shape to dissipate the force of incoming waves by allowing water to flow around rather than against them, and to reduce displacement by interlocking.[1][2]


Tetrapods were originally developed in 1950 by Pierre Danel and Paul Anglès d'Auriac of Laboratoire Dauphinois d'Hydraulique (now Artelia) in Grenoble, France, who received a patent for the design.[3] The French invention was named tétrapode, derived from Greek tetra- 'four' and -pode 'foot', a reference to the tetrahedral shape. Tetrapods were first used at the thermal power station in Roches Noires in Casablanca, Morocco, to protect the sea water intake.[4][5]


Tetrapods have become popular across the world, particularly in Japan; it is estimated that nearly 50 percent of Japan's 35,000 kilometers (22,000 mi) coastline has been covered or somehow altered by tetrapods and other forms of concrete. Their proliferation on the island of Okinawa, a popular vacation destination in Japan, has made it difficult for tourists to find unaltered beaches and shoreline, especially in the southern half of the island.[6]

Similar designs[edit]

A wave-dissipating concrete block is a naturally or manually interlocking concrete structure designed and employed to minimize the effects of wave action upon shores and shoreline structures, such as quays and jettys.

One of the earliest designs is the Tetrapod, invented in 1950. Other proprietary designs include the Modified Cube (United States, 1959), the Stabit (United Kingdom, 1961), the Akmon (The Netherlands, 1962), the Dolos (South Africa, 1963), the Stabilopod [ro] (Romania, 1969),[7] the Seabee (Australia, 1978), the Accropode (France, 1981), the Hollow Cube (Germany, 1991), the A-jack (United States, 1998), the Xbloc (The Netherlands, 2001) and KOLOS (India, 2010) among others.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What are Tetrapods? (Tetrapods Resist Wave Impact and Prevent Beach Erosion)". Brighthub Engineering. Retrieved 2017-08-02.
  2. ^ Park, Sang Kil; et al. (2014). "Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions" (PDF). Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  3. ^ Pierre Danel and Paul Anglès d'Auriac (1963) Improvements in or relating to artificial blocks for building structures exposed to the action of moving water [1]
  4. ^ Danel, Pierre (1953). "TETRAPODS". Coastal Engineering Proceedings. 1 (4): 28. doi:10.9753/icce.v4.28. ISSN 2156-1028.
  5. ^ Danel, Pierre (1967). "The Tetrapod". Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  6. ^ Hesse, Stephen (2007-07-22). "TETRAPODS". The Japan Times Online. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 2017-08-02.
  7. ^ Spătaru, A (1990). "Breakwaters for the Protection of Romanian Beaches". Coastal Engineering. Elsevier Science Publishers. 14 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1016/0378-3839(90)90014-N.

Further reading[edit]