Tetrastigma

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Tetrastigma
Starr 000530-1267 Tetrastigma pubinerve.jpg
Tetrastigma pubinerve
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Subfamily: Vitoideae
Genus: Tetrastigma
(Miq.) Planch.[1]

Tetrastigma is a genus of plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. The plants are lianas that climb with tendrils and have palmately compound leaves. The species are found in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Malaysia, and Australia, where they grow in primary rainforest, gallery forest and monsoon forest and moister woodland. Species of this genus are notable as being the sole hosts of parasitic plants in the family Rafflesiaceae, one of which, Rafflesia arnoldii, produces the largest single flower in the world.[2]

Within the Vitaceae, Tetrastigma is most closely related to Cayratia and Cyphostemma.[3]

Fossil record[edit]

A fossil seed fragment from the early Miocene of Tetrastigma sp., has been found in the Czech part of the Zittau Basin. [4] Tetrastigma macrofossils have been recovered from the late Zanclean stage of Pliocene sites in Pocapaglia, Italy.[5]

Selected species[edit]

List sources :[6][7]

Etymology[edit]

Tetrastigma is derived from Greek and means 'four stigmas', in reference to its four-lobed stigma.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^  GRIN (April 3, 2006). "Tetrastigma information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved June 18, 2011. 
  2. ^ Forest Department, Sarawak[dead link]
  3. ^ Soejima, A.; Wen, J. (2006). "Phylogenetic analysis of the grape family (Vitaceae) based on three chloroplast markers". American Journal of Botany. 93 (2): 278–87. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.2.278. PMID 21646189 
  4. ^ Acta Palaeobotanica - 43(1): 9-49, January 2003 - Early Miocene carpological material from the Czech part of the Zittau Basin - Vasilis Teodoridis
  5. ^ Messian to Zanclean vegetation and climate of Northern and Central Italy by Adele Bertini & Edoardo Martinetto, Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 47 (2), 2008, 105-121. Modena, 11 lugio 2008.
  6. ^ GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Tetrastigma". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved June 18, 2011. [permanent dead link]
  7. ^  "Name - Tetrastigma nitens (F.Muell.) Planch". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved June 18, 2011. 
  8. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 376