Tetrazolium chloride

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Tetrazolium chloride
IUPAC name
2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride
Other names
298-96-4 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChemSpider 8926 N
ECHA InfoCard 100.005.520
Molar mass 334.8 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline powder
Solubility in water ~1 mg/ml
Solubility in PBS (pH 7.2) ~1 mg/ml
Solubility in ethanol ~1 mg/ml
Solubility in DMSO ~0.25 mg/ml
log P −2.4
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Danger
R-phrases R36 R37 R38
S-phrases S24 S25 S36 S37 S39
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
5.6 mg/kg
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, TTC, or simply tetrazolium chloride (with the formula 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride) is a redox indicator commonly used in biochemical experiments especially to indicate cellular respiration. It is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, ethanol and acetone but insoluble in ether.[1][2]

TTC assay[edit]

In the TTC assay (also known as TTC test or tetrazolium test), TTC is used to differentiate between metabolically active and inactive tissues. The white compound is enzymatically reduced to red TPF (1,3,5-triphenylformazan) in living tissues due to the activity of various dehydrogenases (enzymes important in oxidation of organic compounds and thus cellular metabolism), while it remains as white TTC in areas of necrosis since these enzymes have been either denatured or degraded.

For this reason, TTC has been employed in autopsy pathology to assist post-mortem identification of myocardial infarctions. Healthy viable heart muscle will stain deep red from the cardiac lactate dehydrogenase; while areas of potential infarctions will be more pale.

Note: TTC is somewhat heat and light unstable, so avoid these environments as much as possible. Ttc.PNG

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Witty M. (2012). Topographischer Nachweis der Keimfähigkeit der Getreidefrüchte durch Tetrazoliumsalze (Topographic Detection of Germination in Cereal Crops by Tetrazolium Salts) — A Translation of Lakon’s 1942 Paper on Tetrazolium Seed Testing. Seed Technology 34(2):275-282.
  2. ^ Witty M. (2012). The process for 2, 3, 5 - triphenyl – tetrazolium chloride synthesis, an intellectual property seized immediately after world war II. Bulletin for the History of Chemistry 37(2):91-95.

External links[edit]