Teucrium

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Germanders
Teucrium fruticans detail.JPG
Tree Germander (Teucrium fruticans)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Ajugoideae[1]
Genus: Teucrium
L. (1753)
Type species
Teucrium fruticans
L.
Synonyms[2]
  • Chamaedrys Mill.
  • Polium Mill.
  • Scordium Mill.
  • Scorodonia Hill
  • Iva Fabr. 1759 not L. 1753
  • Melosmon Raf.
  • Monipsis Raf.
  • Scorbion Raf.
  • Trixago Raf.
  • Poliodendron Webb & Berthel.
  • Monochilon Dulac
  • Botrys Fourr.
  • Kinostemon Kudô

Teucrium is a genus of mostly perennial plants in the family Lamiaceae. Some of the New World species are annuals. [3] The name is believed to refer to King Teucer of Troy.[4] Members of the genus are commonly known as germanders.[5] There are hundreds of species, including herbs, shrubs or subshrubs. They are found all over the world but are most common in Mediterranean climates.[2][6][7][8]

An unusual feature of this genus compared with other members of Lamiaceae is that the flowers completely lack the upper lip of the corolla, although it is somewhat reduced also in other genera (Ajuga among them).

Several species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Coleophora case-bearers Coleophora auricella and Coleophora chamaedriella. The latter is only known from Wall Germander (T. chamaedrys).

Teucrium species are rich in essential oils. They are valued as ornamental plants and a pollen source, and some species have culinary and/or medical value.

Fossil record[edit]

Teucrium tatjanae seed fossils are known from the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of western Siberia, Miocene and Pliocene of central and southern Russia and Miocene of Lusatia. The fossil seeds are similar to seeds of the extant Teucrium orientale.[9]Teucrium pripiatense seed fossils have been described from the Pliocene Borsoni Formation in the Rhön Mountains, cental Germany.[10]

Selected species[edit]

Teucrium capitatum
Mountain germander

Formerly placed here[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Teucrium L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ http://calflora.org/cgi-bin/specieslist.cgi?countylist=any&namesoup=teucrium&plantcomm=any&format=photos&orderby=taxon
  4. ^ Grieve, Maude (1971). A Modern Herbal. Courier Dover Publications. p. 351. ISBN 978-0-486-22798-6. 
  5. ^ "Teucrium". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 56 香科科属 xiang ke ke shu Teucrium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 562. 1753.
  7. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Teucrium includes photos plus range maps for Europe + North America
  8. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  9. ^ The Pliocene flora of Kholmech, south-eastern Belarus and it's correlation with other Pliocene floras of Europe by Felix Yu. VELICHKEVICH and Ewa ZASTAWNIAK - Acta Palaeobot. 43(2): 137–259, 2003
  10. ^ The floral change in the tertiary of the Rhön mountains (Germany) by Dieter Hans Mai - Acta Paleobotanica 47(1): 135-143, 2007.
  11. ^ "Teucrium". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2012-02-06. 
  12. ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Teucrium". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-02-06. 

External links[edit]