Tewkesbury (UK Parliament constituency)

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Tewkesbury
County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire.
Outline map
Location of Gloucestershire within England.
County Gloucestershire
Electorate 77,206 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1997
Member of parliament Laurence Robertson (Conservative)
Number of members One
Created from Cirencester & Tewkesbury, Cheltenham and West Gloucestershire
1610–1918
Number of members 1610–1868: Two
1868–1918: One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Stroud, Forest of Dean, and Cirencester & Tewkesbury
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency South West England

Tewkesbury is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since its 1997 recreation by Laurence Robertson, a Conservative.[n 2]

History[edit]

1610 to 1918[edit]

Tewkesbury existed in this period, first in the parliamentary borough form. It returned two MPs until this was reduced to one in 1868, then saw itself become instead a larger county division under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, and it was abolished in 1918.

Prominent politicians

1997 to date[edit]

The fourth periodic review of Westminster constituencies in 1997 saw the seat's recreation, from the similar, but slightly larger county division Tewkesbury and Cirencester, compared to the present seat.

Boundaries[edit]

1885-1918: The Municipal Boroughs of Gloucester and Tewkesbury, the Sessional Divisions of Berkeley, Cheltenham, Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and Winchcombe, part of the Sessional Division of Whitminster, and the parish of Slimbridge.

1997-2010: The Borough of Tewkesbury wards of Ashchurch, Bishop's Cleeve East, Bishop's Cleeve North, Bishop's Cleeve South, Brockworth Glebe, Brockworth Moorfield, Brockworth Westfield, Churchdown Brookfield, Churchdown Parton, Churchdown Pirton, Cleeve Hill, Coombe Hill, Crickley, De Winton, Dumbleton, Gotherington, Horsbere, Innsworth, Shurdington, Tewkesbury Mitton, Tewkesbury Newtown, Tewkesbury Prior's Park, Tewkesbury Town, Twyning, and Winchcombe, and the Borough of Cheltenham wards of Leckhampton with Up Hatherley, Prestbury, and Swindon.

2010-present: The Borough of Tewkesbury wards of Ashchurch with Walton Cardiff, Badgeworth, Brockworth, Churchdown Brookfield, Churchdown St John’s, Cleeve Grange, Cleeve Hill, Cleeve St Michael’s, Cleeve West, Coombe Hill, Hucclecote, Innsworth with Down Hatherley, Isbourne, Northway, Oxenton Hill, Shurdington, Tewkesbury Newtown, Tewkesbury Prior's Park, Tewkesbury Town with Mitton, Twyning, and Winchcombe, the Borough of Cheltenham wards of Prestbury and Swindon Village, and the City of Gloucester ward of Longlevens.

The constituency was created in 1997 from parts of the seats of Cirencester and Tewkesbury, Cheltenham and West Gloucestershire.

As its name suggests, the main town in the constituency is Tewkesbury, but other settlements include Twyning, Ashchurch, Bishop's Cleeve, Winchcombe, Prestbury, Brockworth, Churchdown, Innsworth and Longlevens.[2]

Constituency profile[edit]

The town has a raised centre with the second largest parish church in the country that is the church of a former Benedictine monastery, named Tewkesbury Abbey, the town also has its own mustard and July medieval battle festival. Workless claimants, registered jobseekers, were in November 2012 significantly lower than the national average of 3.8%, at 2.2% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian.[3]

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1610–1629[edit]

  • Constituency created (1610)

The constituency was enfranchised on 23 March 1610 - the first record of its members sworn is 16 April 1610.[4]

Parliament First member Second member
Parliament of 1604-1611 (1610) Sir Dudley Digges Edward Ferrers
Addled Parliament (1614) Sir John Ratcliffe
Parliament of 1621-1622 Giles Brydges
Happy Parliament (1624-1625) Sir Baptist Hicks
Useless Parliament (1625)
Parliament of 1625-1626
Parliament of 1628-1629 Sir Thomas Colepeper
May 1628 Sir William Hicks

MPs 1640–1868[edit]

Year First member[5] First party Second member[5] Second party
April 1640 Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper Sir Edward Alford
November 1640 Double return — election declared void[6]
August 1641 Sir Robert Cooke Parliamentarian Sir Edward Alford[7] Royalist
1641 Edward Stephens Parliamentarian
August 1643 Cooke died — seat left vacant
1645 John Stephens
December 1648 Edward Stephens excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653 Tewkesbury was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper - chosen for Wiltshire - replaced by Francis St John Tewkesbury had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656 Francis White
January 1659 Edward Cooke Robert Long[n 3]
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 (Sir) Henry Capell Richard Dowdeswell
1673 Sir Francis Russell
1685 Richard Dowdeswell
1690 Sir Henry Capell
1692 Sir Francis Winnington
1698 Charles Hancock
1701 Edmund Bray
1708 Henry Ireton
1710 William Bromley
1712 William Dowdeswell
1713 Charles Dowdeswell
1714 Anthony Lechmere
1717 Nicholas Lechmere
1721 The Viscount Gage[n 4]
1722 Brigadier George Reade
1734 Robert Tracy
1741 John Martin
1747 William Dowdeswell Whig
1754 Nicolson Calvert John Martin, junior
1761 Whig[8] Sir William Codrington Tory[8]
1774 Joseph Martin Whig[8]
1776 James Martin Whig[8]
1792 Lieutenant-Colonel William Dowdeswell Tory[8]
1797 Christopher Bethell-Codrington Tory[8]
1807 Charles Hanbury-Tracy Whig[9][10][8]
1812 John Edmund Dowdeswell Tory[8] John Martin Whig[8]
January 1832 Charles Hanbury-Tracy Whig[9][10][8]
December 1832 John Martin Whig[11][8][12][13][14]
1835 William Dowdeswell Conservative[8]
1837 John Martin Whig[11][8][12][13][14]
1847 Humphrey Brown Whig[12][14]
1857 Hon. Frederick Lygon Conservative
1859 James Martin Liberal
1864 John Yorke Conservative
1865 William Edward Dowdeswell Conservative
1866 Sir Edmund Lechmere, Bt Conservative
1868 Representation reduced to one Member

MPs 1868–1918[edit]

Election Member[5] Party
1868 William Edwin Price Liberal
1880 Richard Martin Liberal
1885 John Yorke Conservative
1886 Sir John Dorington Conservative
1906 Hon. Michael Hicks Beach Conservative
1916 William Frederick Hicks-Beach Unionist
1918 Constituency abolished

MPs since 1997[edit]

Election Member[5] Party
1997 Laurence Robertson Conservative

Elections 1997-2017[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2017: Tewkesbury[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 35,448 60.0 +5.5
Labour Manjinder Singh Kang 12,874 21.8 +7.0
Liberal Democrat Cait Clucas 7,981 13.5 −0.3
Green Cate Cody 1,576 2.7 −1.3
UKIP Simon Collins 1,205 2.0 −10.8
Majority 22,574 38.2 −1.5
Turnout 59,084 72.5 +2.4
Registered electors 81,440
Conservative hold Swing −0.7
General Election 2015: Tewkesbury[16][17][18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 30,176 54.5 +7.3
Labour Ed Buxton 8,204 14.8 +3.2
Liberal Democrat Alistair Cameron 7,629 13.8 −21.7
UKIP Stuart Adair[18] 7,128 12.9 +8.7
Green Jemma Clarke[19] 2,207 4.0 +3.0
Majority 21,972 39.7 +28.0
Turnout 55,344 70.1 −0.3
Registered electors 78,910
Conservative hold
General Election 2010: Tewkesbury[20] [21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 25,472 47.2 −1.0
Liberal Democrat Alistair Cameron 19,162 35.5 +7.1
Labour Stuart Emmerson 6,253 11.6 −8.7
UKIP Brian Jones 2,230 4.1 N/A
Green Matthew Sidford 525 1.0 −2.2
Monster Raving Loony George Ridgeon 319 0.6 N/A
Majority 6,310 11.7 −8.1
Turnout 53,961 70.4 +8.2
Registered electors 76,655
Conservative hold Swing −4.0

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Tewkesbury[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 22,339 49.1 +3.1
Liberal Democrat Alistair Cameron 12,447 27.4 +1.1
Labour Charles Mannan 9,179 20.2 −6.7
Green Robert Rendell 1,488 3.3 N/A
Majority 9,892 21.8 +2.6
Turnout 45,453 63.2 −1.1
Registered electors 71,945
Conservative hold Swing +1.0
General Election 2001: Tewkesbury[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 20,830 46.1 +0.3
Labour Keir Dhillon 12,167 26.9 +0.7
Liberal Democrat Steve Martin 11,863 26.2 -1.8
Independent Charles Vernall 335 0.7 N/A
Majority 8,663 19.2 +1.5
Turnout 45,195 64.3 -12.1
Registered electors 70,276
Conservative hold Swing +1.1

Election in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Tewkesbury[24] [25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Laurence Robertson 23,859 45.8 -8.1
Liberal Democrat John Sewell 14,625 28.0 -7.1
Labour Kelvin Tustin 13,665 26.2 +16.1
Majority 9,234 17.7 -0.9
Turnout 52,147 76.5 -5.5
Registered electors 68,208
Conservative win (new seat)

Election results 1868-1918[edit]

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

Tewkesbury by-election, 1916 [26][27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist William Hicks-Beach 7,127 83.2 +31.2
Independent William J Boosey 1,438 16.8 N/A
Majority 5,689 66.4 +62.5
Turnout 8,565 62.0 −21.4
Registered electors 13,818
Unionist hold
Mathias

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

General Election December 1910: Tewkesbury [26][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Michael Hicks Beach 5,699 52.0 −1.2
Liberal Robert Ashton Lister 5,267 48.0 +3.3
Majority 432 3.9 −4.5
Turnout 10,966 83.4 −3.1
Registered electors 13,155
Conservative hold Swing −2.3
Robert Ashton Lister.jpg
General Election January 1910: Tewkesbury [26][30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Michael Hicks Beach 6,050 53.2 +2.6
Liberal Robert Ashton Lister 5,088 44.7 −4.7
Labour Charles Fox 238 2.1 -
Majority 962 8.5 +7.2
Turnout 962 86.5 +7.0
Registered electors 13,155
Conservative hold Swing +3.6

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Hicks Beach
General Election 1906: Tewkesbury [26][31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Michael Hicks Beach 5,321 50.6 N/A
Liberal Robert Ashton Lister 5,194 49.4 N/A
Majority 127 1.2 N/A
Turnout 10,515 79.5 N/A
Registered electors 13,226
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1900: Tewkesbury [26][31][32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Dorington Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1895: Tewkesbury [26][31][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Dorington Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1892: Tewkesbury [26][31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Dorington 5,028 54.9 N/A
Liberal Godfrey Samuelson 4,125 45.1 N/A
Majority 903 9.9 N/A
Turnout 9,153 79.5 N/A
Registered electors 11,519
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

Dorington
General Election 1886: Tewkesbury [26][31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Dorington Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1885: Tewkesbury [26][31][34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Yorke 4,666 51.0 +1.7
Liberal Godfrey Samuelson 4,484 49.0 −1.7
Majority 182 2.0 N/A
Turnout 9,150 78.4 −15.9
Registered electors 11,665
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.7
By-election, 12 Jul 1880: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Richard Martin 380 56.0 +5.3
Conservative John Arthur Fowler[36] 298 44.0 −5.3
Majority 82 12.0 +10.7
Turnout 678 92.5 −1.8
Registered electors 733
Liberal hold Swing +5.4
General Election 1880: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Edwin Price 350 50.7 −1.4
Conservative John Arthur Fowler[36] 341 49.3 +1.4
Majority 9 1.3 −2.7
Turnout 691 94.3 +2.1
Registered electors 733
Liberal hold Swing −1.4

Election in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Edwin Price 350 52.0 −4.0
Conservative Edmund Lechmere 323 48.0 +4.0
Majority 27 4.0 −8.0
Turnout 673 92.2 +7.1
Registered electors 730
Liberal hold Swing −4.0

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Edwin Price 355 56.0 +27.5
Conservative Edmund Lechmere 279 44.0 −27.5
Majority 76 12.0 N/A
Turnout 634 85.1 +4.0
Registered electors 745
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +27.5
  • Seat reduced to one member.

Election results 1832–1868[edit]

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

By-election, 20 March 1866: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edmund Lechmere 151 50.7 −20.8
Liberal James Martin 147 49.3 +20.8
Majority 4 1.3 −4.8
Turnout 298 91.7 +10.6
Registered electors 325
Conservative hold Swing −20.8
General Election 1865: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Edward Dowdeswell 195 37.0 N/A
Conservative John Yorke 182 34.5 N/A
Liberal James Martin 150 28.5 N/A
Majority 32 6.1 N/A
Turnout 264 (est) 81.1 (est) N/A
Registered electors 325
Conservative hold
Conservative gain from Liberal
By-election, 9 February 1864: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Yorke Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1859: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frederick Lygon Unopposed
Liberal James Martin Unopposed
Registered electors 341
Conservative hold
Liberal hold
By-election, 8 March 1859: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frederick Lygon 171 100.0 +56.8
Whig Humphrey Brown 0 0.0 −56.8
Majority 171 100.0 +94.0
Turnout 171 50.1 −20.1
Registered electors 341
Conservative hold Swing +56.8
General Election 1857: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Frederick Lygon 200 38.4 +24.8
Whig John Martin 169 32.4 −2.5
Whig Humphrey Brown 127 24.4 −13.5
Conservative Edward William Cox 25 4.8 −8.8
Turnout 261 (est) 70.2 (est) −3.0
Registered electors 371
Majority 31 6.0 N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +16.4
Majority 42 8.1 +0.3
Whig hold Swing −5.3
General Election 1852: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Humphrey Brown 205 37.9
Whig John Martin 189 34.9
Conservative Edward William Cox[37] 147 27.2
Majority 42 7.8
Turnout 271 (est) 73.2 (est)
Registered electors 370
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1847: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Humphrey Brown 43
Whig John Martin 43
Conservative Viscount Lascelles 0
Registered electors 409
Whig gain from Conservative
Whig hold
General Election 1841: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Dowdeswell 193
Whig John Martin 189
Whig J. Easthope 181
Registered electors 507
Conservative hold
Whig hold

Elections in the 1830s[edit]

General Election 1837: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Dowdeswell 219
Whig John Martin 192
Whig J. Easthope 169
Registered electors 404
Conservative hold
Whig hold
General Election 1835: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Dowdeswell 195
Whig Charles Hanbury-Tracy 195
Whig John Martin 192
Registered electors 396
Conservative gain from Whig
Whig hold
General Election 1832: Tewkesbury[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Hanbury-Tracy 210
Whig John Martin 195
Conservative William Dowdeswell 184
Registered electors 386
Whig win (new seat)
Whig win (new seat)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. ^ Cannot have been Sir Robert Long Bt as stated by Williams as he was a Royalist
  4. ^ of Castle Island, Ireland
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ 2010 post-revision map non-metropolitan areas and unitary authorities of England
  3. ^ Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
  4. ^ W R Williams Parliamentary History of the County of Gloucester
  5. ^ a b c d Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "T" (part 1)
  6. ^ At the election of November 1640 a double return was made: Sir Robert Cooke, Sir Edward Alford, John Craven and Edward Stephens were all returned. The election was declared void on 6 August 1641.
  7. ^ Alford's election was declared void and his opponent, Stephens, was declared duly elected. However, Alford had also been elected for Arundel, and continued to sit for that borough
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S., ed. The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 119–121. ISBN 0-900178-13-2. 
  9. ^ a b "Liverpool Mail". 13 July 1837. p. 2. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ a b "Election Intelligence". Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette. 8 January 1835. p. 3. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ a b Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 155. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via Google Books. 
  12. ^ a b c "Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard". 10 August 1847. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ a b "Aris's Birmingham Gazette". 26 July 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  14. ^ a b c "Worcester Journal". 15 July 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ "Known candidates for Tewkesbury in the 2017 General Election". Democracy Club. 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  16. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  17. ^ "Statement of Results". Tewkesbury Borough Council. 8 May 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  18. ^ a b "Tewkesbury". UK Polling Report 2015. YouGov. 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  19. ^ "Full Green Slate for Gloucestershire". South West Green Party. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  20. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  21. ^ Percentage change and swing for 2010 is calculated relative to the PA (Rallings and Thrasher) 2005 notional result, not actual 2005 result "Press Association Elections". Press Association. Retrieved 17 July 2017. 
  22. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  23. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  24. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  25. ^ Percentage change and swing for 1997 is calculated relative to the Rallings and Thrasher 1992 notional constituency result, not actual 1992 result. See C. Rallings & M. Thrasher, The Media Guide to the New Parliamentary Constituencies (Plymouth: LGC Elections Centre, 1995)
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 286. ISBN 9781349022984. 
  27. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  28. ^ Gloucester Journal 16 May 1914
  29. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  30. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  31. ^ a b c d e f The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  32. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  33. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  34. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3. 
  36. ^ a b "Tewkesbury Election". Durham County Advertiser. 9 July 1880. p. 5. Retrieved 12 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  37. ^ "Cheltenham Journal and Gloucestershire Fashionable Weekly Gazette". 12 July 1852. p. 1. Retrieved 15 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 

Sources[edit]

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig — Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "T" (part 1)