Texas State Highway 1

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For other highways in Texas numbered 1, see NASA Road 1, Texas Loop Highway 1, Texas Spur Route 1, Farm to Market Road 1, Ranch Road 1, and Texas Park Road 1.

State Highway 1 marker

State Highway 1
Texarkana, Dallas, Fort Worth, and El Paso Highway
Route information
Maintained by TxDOT
Length: 837.421 mi[2] (1,347.698 km)
Existed: c. 1917[1] – 1952[3]
History: Replaced by US 80 and several other highways in 1939
Designated to short spur route located in Dallas in 1939
Cancelled and redesignated to State Loop 260 in 1952
Major junctions
West end: New Mexico state line, near El Paso
  US 70 in El Paso
US 62 in El Paso
US 90 in Van Horn
US 290
US 385 in Big Spring
US 83 / US 277 in Abilene
US 283 in Cisco
US 377 in Fort Worth
US 81 in Fort Worth
US 67 in Dallas
US 77 in Dallas
US 80 in Dallas
US 271 in Mount Pleasant
US 77
East end: Arkansas state line, in Texarkana
Highway system
SH OSR Loop 1

State Highway 1 (SH 1) was a Texas state highway that traveled across the U.S. state of Texas. The highway traveled from Texarkana on the eastern border to El Paso on the western border, via Dallas and Fort Worth, Abilene, and MidlandOdessa. SH 1 was approximately 842 miles (1,355 km) long, and was one of the original 26 Texas state highways, which were designated in 1917.[4] In 1920, the entire length of the highway was designated as part of the Bankhead Highway, a transcontinental Auto trail. In the Texas Department of Transportation's 1939 state highway renumbering, most of SH 1 was redesignated as U.S. Route 80, as well as U.S. Route 287, Texas State Highway 16, and others. Most of these highways were replaced by Interstate 10, Interstate 20, and Interstate 30. The only portion of SH 1 that existed after 1939 was a short spur located in Dallas. Texas State Highway 1 was officially cancelled on September 19, 1952. Due to the highway's historic value, a highway can not be designated as Texas State Highway 1 unless by the order of TxDOT Executive Director or by the Transportation Commission.[3]

Texas State Highway 1 had several long spur routes. Most of these were simply numbered as State Highway 1, and were renumbered within a few years. Two of these spurs were separately numbered. They were Texas State Highway 1A, which was a long alternate route of SH 1 that traveled from Abilene to just west of Palo Pinto, and Texas State Highway 1B, which was a short spur located in Dallas that was redesignated as SH 1 in 1939.

Route description[edit]

In terms of today's Interstate Highways, the routing of SH 1 is followed by Interstate 10 (I-10) from New Mexico to east of Van Horn, I-20 to west of Fort Worth, and I-30 to Texarkana. The only major difference was between east of Ranger and Weatherford, where SH 1 used what is now designated SH 16 and U.S. Highway 180.

U.S. Route 80 in Dallas in 1965. This was formerly SH 1

History[edit]

SH 1 was assigned in 1917 as one of the original 26 state highways. Known as the Texarkana, Dallas, Fort Worth and El Paso Highway, it crossed from Arkansas at Texarkana and ran west through Dallas, Fort Worth, Albany, Abilene, Big Spring and Van Horn to end in El Paso.[5] By 1919, it had been extended northwest from El Paso to the New Mexico border.[6] In February 1920,[7] the whole of SH 1 was included in the transcontinental Bankhead Highway, a marked auto trail.[8][9]

In late 1926, the United States Numbered Highways were assigned. State Highway 1 kept its number, but was also assigned U.S. Highway 80 from New Mexico to Dallas and U.S. Highway 67 from Dallas to Texarkana.[10]

By 1936, US 80 had been moved off SH 1 west of downtown Dallas.[11] While SH 1 angled northeast on Fort Worth Avenue from Cockrell Hill, crossing the Trinity River on the Commerce Street Bridge, US 80 continued east on Davis Street, turning north on Zang Boulevard and over the Houston Street Viaduct. In downtown, US 80 turned east on Commerce Street (State Highway 15), and US 67, which had joined US 80 along Davis Street, turned east on Elm Street (SH 1).[12] (Commerce Street and Elm Street later became a one-way pair.)[13]

In the 1939 general redescription, SH 1 was truncated to only this short piece west from downtown Dallas. It split from US 80 (Davis Street) and ran northeast on Fort Worth Avenue and Commerce Street. Upon entering downtown Dallas, it split into the one-way pair of Commerce and Elm Streets, ending at US 80 (Houston Street).[3][14] In 1952, the route was renumbered to Loop 260 and signed as U.S. Route 80 Business. Loop 260 was removed from the State Highway System and turned over to the City of Dallas in 1991.[15]

Branches[edit]

In the original 1917 definition, SH 1 had a split between Abilene and Palo Pinto (west of Mineral Wells). Another split was present between Sulphur Springs and Texarkana, and a branch ran from the northern route at Naples east to State Highway 8 at Douglassville.[5] By 1919, the southern route between Sulphur Springs and Texarkana had become State Highway 1A, and a new State Highway 1C ran southeast from SH 1A at Atlanta to the Louisiana state line. A road from Sulphur Springs northwest to State Highway 34 at Commerce was also a section of SH 1 in 1919, and a branch was added from Texarkana north to the Red River (the Arkansas border). The old route of SH 1 from Sulphur Springs to Greenville became part of State Highway 11. By 1929, SH 1 was rerouted back on the direct route between Sulphur Springs and Greenville. By 1922 the spur to Douglassville was State Highway 1B, and the piece north from Texarkana was an extension of SH 1A.[6][16]

The southern route between Abilene and Palo Pinto was improved first.[16] Thus it was designated as part of US 80 in 1926. The north route was designated US 80N (later U.S. Highway 80 Alternate) in 1932,[17][18][19] and by 1926 it was State Highway 1A.[20] By 1933, SH 1 was rerouted back on the direct route between Sulphur Springs and Greenville. The old route from Sulphur Springs and Commerce[21] became part of SH 11. At the beginning of 1939, US 80 and SH 1 were rerouted onto the direct route between Ranger and Weatherford (formerly State Highway 89[22]), and US 80 Alternate and SH 1A were extended east to Weatherford. The SH 1A designation was removed in the 1939 general redescription, and US 80A was replaced in 1943 by State Highway 351 and U.S. Highway 180.[23][24]

The other branches, located east of Dallas, were all renumbered by 1926:[20]

  • The section of SH 1A from Commerce east to Daingerfield became part of State Highway 11. This road still carries SH 11. The section of SH 1A from Daingerfield to Hughes Springs became part of State Highway 49 and the section of SH 1A from Hughes Springs east to Atlanta became State Highway 48.
  • SH 1B became part of State Highway 77.
  • SH 1C and the section of SH 1A from Atlanta north through Texarkana to the Red River became State Highway 47. By 1930, the section of SH 47 that replaced SH 1C became an extension of SH 77. In the 1939 redescription, SH 11 (which had gone north from Daingerfield) was extended east from Daingerfield along former SH 1A to the Red River, eliminating SH 47. (The short piece of SH 49 became a concurrency.) SH 11 was truncated to Linden in 1947, when the rest became part of U.S. Highway 59.[25]

Major junctions[edit]

County Location mi[2][22] km Destinations Notes
El Paso Vinton 0.000 0.000 New Mexico state line / US 80 Western terminus. Western end of US 80 concurrency
El Paso 21.763 35.024 US 70 / SH 33 Southern terminus of TX 33
23.695 38.133 US 62 / SH 130 Western terminus of US 62 and TX 130
Culberson Van Horn 141.593 227.872 US 90 / SH 3 / SH 54 Southern terminus of TX 54, northern terminus of both US 90 and TX 3
Reeves 189.241 304.554 US 290 / SH 27 Western terminus of TX 27 and US 290
Pecos 229.576 369.467 SH 17
Ward Pyote 254.372 409.372 SH 115 Southern terminus of TX 115
Monahans 263.922 424.741 SH 82
Ector Odessa 299.548 482.076 SH 137
Howard Big Spring 359.041 577.820 US 385 / SH 9
Mitchell Colorado 390.185 627.942 SH 101 Southern terminus of TX 101
Nolan Roscoe 417.966 672.651 SH 7 Southern terminus of TX 7
Sweetwater 189.241 304.554 SH 70
Taylor Abilene 466.898 751.399 US 83 / US 277 / SH 1A / SH 4 / SH 30 Southern terminus of TX 1A
Eastland Cisco 511.937 823.883 US 283 / SH 23
Eastland 521.188 838.771 SH 67
Palo Pinto 555.454 893.917 SH 1A Eastern terminus of TX 1A
Mineral Wells 576.022 927.018 SH 66 Southern terminus of TX 66
Tarrant Fort Worth 611.074 983.428 US 377 / SH 10 Western end of TX 10/US 377 concurrency
623.046 1,002.695 US 81 / US 377 / SH 2 / SH 10 Eastern end of TX 10/US 377 concurrency
624.697 1,005.352 SH 34 Northern terminus of TX 34
Dallas Dallas 652.680 1,050.387 US 67 / SH 68 Northern terminus of TX 68. West end of US 67 concurrency
653.824 1,052.228 SH 6
654.431 1,053.205 US 75 / US 77 / SH 40 Western end of TX 40 concurrency
656.620 1,056.727 US 175 / SH 40 Eastern end of TX 40 concurrency
659.372 1,061.156 US 80 / SH 15 Eastern end of US 80 concurrency
Garland 668.440 1,075.750 SH 114 / SH 78
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Texas State Highway Commission, Office of State Highway Engineer (July 1917). Map Showing Proposed System of State Highways (Map) (June 1917 ed.). 1:2,112,200. Austin: Texas State Highway Commission. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Statewide Planning Map (Map). Cartography by Transportation Planning and Programming Division. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "State Highway No. 1". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  4. ^ Staff (July 6, 1917). "'Highway Commission Adopts 25 Highways". Commerce Journal. 
  5. ^ a b Texas State Highway Commission, Office of State Highway Engineer (July 1917). Map Showing Proposed System of State Highways (Map) (June 1917 ed.). 1:2,112,200. Austin: Texas State Highway Commission. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Texas State Highway Commission (October 1, 1919). Highway Map, State of Texas (Map) (1919 ed.). 1:1,584,00. Austin: Texas State Highway Commission. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. (May 31, 2012). "Zero Milestone – Washington, D.C.". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  8. ^ Midget Map of the Transcontinental Trails of the United States (Map). Midget. 1923. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  9. ^ Staff. Bankhead Highway in Garland (Texas Historical Marker). Garland, TX: Texas Historical Commission. 
  10. ^ Bureau of Public Roads & American Association of State Highway Officials (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. Retrieved November 7, 2013 – via University of North Texas Libraries. 
  11. ^ Google (April 20, 2012). "Overview map of Former Texas State Highway 1" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  12. ^ General Highway Map: Dallas County, Rockwall County, Texas (Map). Texas State Highway Department. 1936. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  13. ^ General Highway Map: Dallas County, Rockwall County, Texas (Map). Texas State Highway Department. January 1, 1961. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  14. ^ TXDOT Map (Map). Texas Department of Transportation. 1954. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. 
  15. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "State Highway Loop No. 260". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Texas State Highway Commission (December 1, 1922). Highway Map of the State of Texas (Map) (1922 ed.). 1:1,267,200. Austin: Texas State Highway Commission. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  17. ^ U.S. Highways: Divided (Split) Routes
  18. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "U.S. Highway No. 80". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  19. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "U.S. Highway No. 80-br Alternate". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Official Highway Map of Texas (Map). State Highway Commission. 1926. Retrieved May 10, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Official Map of the highway system of Texas". https://www.tsl.texas.gov/arc/maps/images/map6188.jpg.  External link in |website= (help);
  22. ^ a b Map of Texas (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha. Conoco. 1938. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. 
  23. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "State Highway No. 351". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  24. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "U.S. Highway No. 180". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  25. ^ Transportation Planning and Programming Division (n.d.). "State Highway No. 11". Highway Designation Files. Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Texas State Highway 1 at Wikimedia Commons