Texas's 1st congressional district

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Texas's 1st congressional district
Texas US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
U.S. RepresentativeLouie Gohmert (RTyler)
Distribution
  • 56.8[1]% urban
  • 43.4% rural
Population (2016)717,735[2]
Median income$45,313
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+25[3]

Texas's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District contained 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areasLufkin-Nacogdoches, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.

The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.

For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana, but in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.

The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st is, Gohmert has been reelected five times with no less than 68 percent of the vote (and faced only token opposition in 2010 and 2012).

The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of any Texan in Congress. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.

2012 redistricting[edit]

The 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, and most of Upshur County were removed from the district. To compensate, the eastern half of Wood County was added.[4]

Recent election results[edit]

Election results from recent races:

U.S. Representative[edit]

2004 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 157,068 61.5 Increase17.9
Democratic Max Sandlin 96,281 37.7 Decrease18.7
Libertarian Dean Tucker 2,158 0.8
Majority 60,787 23.8
Turnout 255,507
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
2006 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 104,099 68 Increase6.5
Democratic Roger L. Owen 46,303 30.2 Decrease7.5
Libertarian Donald Perkison 2,668 1.7 Decrease0.9
Majority 57,796 37.8
Turnout 153,070 Decrease40.1
Republican hold Swing
2008 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 189,012 87.6 Increase19.6
Independent Roger L. Owen 26,814 12.4
Majority 162,198 75.2
Turnout 215,826 Increase41.0
Republican hold Swing
2010 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 129,398 89.7 Increase2.1
Libertarian Charles F. Parkes, III 14,811 10.3
Majority 114,587 79.6
Turnout 144,209 Decrease33.2
Republican hold Swing
2012 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 178,322 71.4 Decrease18.3
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 67,222 26.9
Libertarian Clark Patterson 4,114 1.6 Decrease8.7
Majority 111,100 44.5
Turnout 249,658 Increase73.1
Republican hold Swing
2014 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 115,084 77.5 Increase6.1
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 33,476 22.5 Decrease4.4
Majority 81,608 55
Turnout 148,560 Decrease40.5
Republican hold Swing
2016 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 192,434 73.9 Decrease3.6
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 62,847 24.1 Increase1.6
Libertarian Phil Gray 5,062 1.9
Majority 129,587 49,8
Turnout 260,343 Increase75.2
Republican hold Swing
2018 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 168,165 72.26 Decrease1.6
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 61,263 26.32 Increase2.2
Libertarian Jeff Callaway 3,292 0.5
Republican hold Swing

President[edit]

Year Winner % Margin (%)
2000 George W. Bush 68 32
2004 George W. Bush 69 30
2008 John McCain 69 30
2012 Mitt Romney 72 44
2016 Donald Trump 72 47

Demographics[edit]

  • Population: 651,619 (2000 Census)
  • Under 18: 26.2%
  • Over 65: 14.1%
  • Married 58.7%
  • Non-Hispanic White: 71%
  • Black: 18%
  • Hispanic: 9%
  • Asian: 1%
  • Foreign born: 5.3%
  • Language other than English: 9.8%
  • Median household income: $33,461
  • Owner occupied housing: 71.9%
  • Income above $200K: 1.4%

List of members representing the district[edit]

Representative Party Years Electoral history[5] Counties represented[6]
District created December 29, 1845   Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Fannin, Nacogdoches, Rusk, Harrison, Shelby, Houston, San Augustine, Liberty, Jasper, Jefferson, Fannin[7]
Vacant December 29, 1845 –
March 30, 1846
David S. Kaufman Democratic March 30, 1846 –
January 31, 1851
Elected in 1846.
Re-elected November 2, 1846.
Re-elected late August 6, 1849.[5]
Died.
Vacant January 31, 1851 –
March 4, 1851
Richardson A. Scurry Democratic March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
Re-elected late August 4, 1851.[5]
Retired because of amputated foot complications.
Cooke, Fannin, Grayson, Fannin, Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Denton, Collin, Hunt, Hopkins, Titus, Cass, Dallas, Kaufman, Van Zandt, Wood, Upshur, Harrison, Henderson, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Jefferson[8]
George W. Smyth Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
Elected late August 1, 1853.[5]
Retired.
Lemuel D. Evans Know Nothing March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
Re-elected late August 6, 1855.[5]
[Data unknown/missing.]
JHRegan.jpg
John H. Reagan
Democratic March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
Elected late August 3, 1857.[5]
Re-elected late August 1, 1859.[5]
Left Congress for state's secession.
Vacant March 3, 1861 –
March 30, 1870
American Civil War / Reconstruction [9]
George Washington Whitmore (Texas Congressman).jpg
George W. Whitmore
Republican March 30, 1870 –
March 3, 1871
Elected to finish vacant term.
Lost re-election.
Wood, Harrison, Van Zandt, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Hardin, Orange, Chambers, Jefferson[10]
William S. Herndon (Texas Congressman).jpg
William S. Herndon
Democratic March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1875
Elected late October 6, 1871.[5]
Re-elected in 1872.[5]
[Data unknown/missing.]
Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Hardin, Orange, Chambers, Jefferson[10]
JHRegan.jpg
John H. Reagan
Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Re-elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
Wood, Harrison, Van Zandt, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper[11][12]
CharlesStewartTX.jpg
Charles Stewart
Democratic March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1893
Elected in 1882.
Re-elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Re-elected in 1888.
Re-elected in 1890.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Angelina, Trinity, Madison, Brazos, Grimes, Waller, Montgomery, Harris, Polk, San Jacinto, Liberty, Chambers, Jefferson, Orange, Tyler, Jasper, Newton[13]
Joseph Chappell Hutcheson, Sr. (Texas Congressman).jpg
Joseph C. Hutcheson
Democratic March 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1897
Elected in 1892.
Re-elected in 1894.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Freestone, Leon, Trinity, Madison, Walker, Grimes, Montgomery, Waller, Harris, Chambers[14]
Thomas H. Ball (Texas Congressman).jpg
Thomas H. Ball
Democratic March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
Elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Freestone, Leon, Trinity, Madison, Walker, Grimes, Montgomery, Waller, Harris, Chambers[15]
Sheppard morris.jpg
Morris Sheppard
Democratic March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1913
Elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Redistricted from the 4th district.
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[16][17]
HoraceWorthVaughan.jpg
Horace W. Vaughan
Democratic March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1915
Elected in 1912.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[17]
Eugene Black.jpeg
Eugene Black
Democratic March 4, 1915 –
March 3, 1929
Elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Re-elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[17][18]
John William Wright Patman.jpg
Wright Patman
Democratic March 4, 1929 –
January 3, 1959
Elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Died.
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison[18][19]
January 3, 1959 –
January 3, 1967
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison[20]
January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1969
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Shelby
January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1973
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby[21]
January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1975
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine[22]
January 3, 1975 –
March 7, 1976
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine, southeastern Hunt, eastern Rains[23]
Vacant March 7, 1976 –
June 19, 1976
Sam B. Hall, Jr.jpg
Sam B. Hall
Democratic June 19, 1976 –
January 3, 1983
Elected to finish Patman's term.
Re-elected in 1978.
Resigned to become U.S. District Judge.
[Data unknown/missing.][24]
January 3, 1983 –
May 27, 1985
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Henderson, San Augustine, northern Hunt[25]
Vacant May 27, 1985 –
August 3, 1985
Jim Chapman.jpg
Jim Chapman
Democratic August 3, 1985 –
January 3, 1993
Elected to finish Hall's term.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Retired to run for U.S. Senate
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, eastern Hunt, southeastern Gregg, parts of Nacogdoches[26]
Max Sandlin.jpg
Max Sandlin
Democratic January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2003
Elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
[Data unknown/missing.][27]
January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2005
Re-elected in 2002.
Lost re-election.
2003 –
2005
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, most of Hunt, northern Nacogdoches[28]
Louie Gohmert official congressional photo.jpg
Louie Gohmert
Republican January 3, 2005 –
January 3, 2013
Elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
2007 –
2013
Upshur, Marion, Harrison, Gregg, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Nacogdoches, Shelby, San Augustine, Sabine, Angelina, southeastern Cass[29]
January 3, 2013 –
Present
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
See "2012 redistricting," above

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cd_state.html
  2. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=48&cd=01
  3. ^ "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  4. ^ http://gis1.tlc.state.tx.us/
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Until 1872, Texas (like some other states) held its congressional elections after the March 4 beginning of the term but before the December date on which Congress began its formal business. Such elections are denoted here as "late."
  6. ^ "Historical Maps (1846–2012)". Texas Redistricting. Texas Legislative Council.
  7. ^ Acts 1846, 1st Leg., R.S., eff. Feb. 28, 1846.
  8. ^ Acts 1850, 3rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 134, app. Feb. 11, 1850.
  9. ^ Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 46, eff. Apr. 6, 1861;
    Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 53, eff. Apr. 8, 1861;
    Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 10, eff. Sep. 8, 1866;
    Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 31, eff. Oct. 8, 1866.
  10. ^ a b Constitution of the State of Texas (1869)
  11. ^ Acts 1874, 14th Leg., R.S., Ch. 161, eff. May 2, 1874.
  12. ^ Acts 1879, 16th Leg., R.S., Ch. 102, eff. Apr. 18, 1879.
  13. ^ Acts 1882, 17th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 30, eff. Aug. 3, 1882.
  14. ^ Acts 1892, 22nd Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 19, eff. Jul. 11, 1892.
  15. ^ United States v. Texas, 162 U.S. 1 (1896)
  16. ^ Acts 1901, 27th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 5, eff. Dec. 3, 1901
  17. ^ a b c Acts 1909, 31st Leg., R.S., Ch. 86, eff. Jun. 11, 1909.
  18. ^ a b Acts 1917, 35th Leg., R.S., Ch. 119, eff. Jun. 19, 1917.
  19. ^ Acts 1933, 43rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 135, eff. Aug. 30, 1933.
  20. ^ Acts 1957, 55th Leg., R.S., Ch. 286, eff. Aug. 21, 1957;
    Bush v. Martin, 224 F. Supp. 499 (S.D. Tex. 1963);
    aff'd per curiam, Martin v. Bush, 376 U.S. 222 (1964);
    Acts 1965, 59th Leg., R.S., Ch. 349, eff. Aug. 30, 1965.
  21. ^ Acts 1967, 60th Leg., R.S., Ch. 342, eff. Aug. 28, 1967;
    Bush v. Martin, 251 F. Supp. 484 (S.D. Tex. 1966).
  22. ^ Acts 1971, 62nd Leg. 1st C.S., Ch. 12, eff. Sep. 3, 1971.
  23. ^ White v. Weiser, --- F. Supp. --- (N.D. Tex. 1973) PLAN B
  24. ^ Acts 1975, 64th Leg., R.S., Ch. 538, eff. Sep. 1, 1975.
  25. ^ Acts 1981, 67th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Nov. 10, 1981;
    Seamon v. Upham, 536 F. Supp. 931, 958 (E.D. Tex. 1982);
    Acts 1983, 68th Leg., R.S., Ch. 531, eff. Jun. 19, 1983.
  26. ^ Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., 2nd C.S., Ch. 7, eff. Nov. 24, 1991;
    Vera v. Richards, 861 F. Supp. 1304 (S.D. Tex. 1994);
    Bush v. Vera, 517 U.S. 952 (1996);
    Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996) PLANC657
  27. ^ Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996);
    Vera v. Bush, 980 F. Supp. 254 (S.D. Tex. 1997) PLANC746
  28. ^ Balderas v. State of Texas, --- F. Supp. --- (E.D. Tex. 2001) PLAN01151C
  29. ^ Acts 2003, 78th Leg., 3rd C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Jan. 11, 2004 PLAN01374C;
    Lulac v. Perry, 457 F. Supp. 2d 716 (E.D. Tex. 2006) PLAN01440C.

Coordinates: 31°57′06″N 94°33′07″W / 31.95167°N 94.55194°W / 31.95167; -94.55194